The Electronic Financial Form (15): Corruption and the Efforts to Curb the Phenomenon

The Electronic Financial Form (15): Corruption and the Efforts to Curb the Phenomenon


10-28-2015, 02:21 PM


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Post: #1
Title: The Electronic Financial Form (15): Corruption and the Efforts to Curb the Phenomenon
Author: Sudan Democracy First Group
Date: 10-28-2015, 02:21 PM

02:21 PM Oct, 28 2015
Sudanese Online
Sudan Democracy First Group-
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The introduction of the federal government system in Sudan in 2005 established three levels of government in the country: federal, state and local. The country’s financial revenues system was also divided in the same manner.

Despite the restructuring of the country’s financial system, one financial instrument has remained unchanged at all levels: Financial Revenues Form number 15, widely known as Form 15. As the only government-approved instrument for revenue collection (taxes and other fees), Form 15’s use is mandated by financial agencies across all levels of government.

Form 15: What is it and how it is used

The Government of Sudan (GoS) used to print Form 15 at the GoS Printing House and distribute it to all government agencies through the Ministry of Finance’s (MoF) Department of Storage and Logistics. The forms, printed in carbon copy booklets, are individually numbered and lettered, and contain basic fields including the name of government agency collecting the revenues (ministry, state or locality); the name of the payee; type of service extended to the payee; the amount of money paid in figures and letters; the name and signature of the collecting official; and the date of the transaction.

With the advancement of printing technology in Sudan, Form 15 underwent several changes, including the addition of security features to protect the form against forgery, as well as the elimination of the carbon sheets. In addition, the Sudan Currency Printing Press took over the form’s printing, while the MoF became the sole holder and distributor of the form after the liquidation of the Department of Storage and Logistics. However, Form 15 retained its original content and standing as a bank note, which requires that it be handled with the utmost security. This means that at every point of distribution, the receiving revenue collection agency—whether at the federal, state or local level—must officially acknowledge receipt of the Form 15 booklets.

The distribution of Form 15 follows specific steps. Officials at the MoF use Form 12S to deliver consignments of Form 15 booklets to Federal Ministries and State governments. Form 12S contains information fields such as: the form’s serial number, the receiving entity, the name of the receiving official and date. The receiving entity acknowledges its custody of the forms by completing Form 46 which contains similar fields as Form 12S. The receiving entities would then follow the exact same procedures by using the same exact forms (Form 12S and 67) to disburse the form to lower government entities and localities, which in turn use Form 12S to deliver Form 15 to the revenue collectors.

Once in receipt of the Form 15 booklets, the revenue collection agencies must record any dues received for services rendered, with a copy of the transaction given to the payee. All of the transactions must then additionally be recorded in Financial Deposit Form 67, and all dues collected must be deposited in the department’s bank account or safe. Form 15, Form 67 and deposits vouchers are reviewed and approved by an internal auditor, who is further supervised by the relevant department’s financial manager, who retains final sign-off of the submitted documents. Once signed off, the booklets are archived at the relevant government department for an annual audit at the end of the financial year.

Corrupting Situations and Form 15 Usages

The rules, regulations and procedures enacted to protect and safeguard Form 15 against tampering through the years have largely failed to reach this objective. Corrupt officials have been able to influence the process of revenue collection by deliberately undermining the rules and regulations that govern Form 15’s function.

This is best illustrated by the 1995 case of Suba Toll Station. The investigation of that case revealed that each time a truck passed through the toll from Khartoum to Port Sudan, the toll collector, in agreement with field team personnel and the financial manager of the toll company, inserts a cardboard or a piece of cartoon paper between sheets of form 15 to prevent the creation of a copy of the Form. Unaware, the truck driver would continue on, while the toll collector would then complete the carbon copy by tracing written information from another Form 15, usually that of a small car for which the driver paid a lesser toll fee. This scheme allowed the toll collector and others to pocket the difference between the toll actually paid by the truck driver and that which was fraudulently recorded.

These types of situations can be hard to uncover, especially when executed by the officials responsible for upholding the rules and regulations. The Suba case was only discovered by chance when a truck driver who had misplaced three original copies of Form 15 he had obtained at the station—needed as proof of toll payment for his company’s records—returned to find that no records of his truck’s passing could be found at the Soba Toll Office. The driver took the case to the Ministry of Roads and Bridges and presented an original copy of Form 15 for another truck, owned by the same company that crossed the toll station at the same time and day. When no records for either truck were found in the database of the Ministry’s accounting department, Ministry officials inquired further. Ministry accountants found the discrepancy when they crosschecked the information on the original copies of Form 15 with their corresponding entries in Form 67, which turned out to be entries for a small car travelling a short distance. Further investigation revealed that this scheme had carried on for years. The toll collector and his collaborators were eventually indicted in front of a judge and sentenced to prison.

Other types of schemes have involved the stealing and/or selling of Form 15 booklets by officials who maintain custody of these documents. These officials report these booklets as lost or stolen to the police, while actually using them to collect unlawful revenues for personal benefit. Such a scheme was uncovered at an unofficial tax station that was collecting fees on cereal products on the road between Kosti and El-Obeid. Investigations revealed that a number of Form 15 booklets that had been reported stolen from an office in nearby Aljabaleen locality were those being used to collect these unlawful revenues.

Another example is the case of a former revenue collection official from AlSobagh locality in the State of AlGadarif. The official and his accomplices posed as an official revenue collection team and collected animal taxes and fees from herders at AlSobagh area, issuing Form 15 to payees. The scheme was uncovered when official revenue collection teams arrived in the area and attempted to collect due and other fees from the herders. The herders furiously protested the double taxation and presented Form 15 receipts as proof of their payments. After thorough investigation, it was revealed that the Form booklets used by the phony team were stolen from the Education Department of Khashem AlGirba.In court, though, the perpetrators categorically denied the accusation.

Further schemes involve collusion between collectors and their immediate superiors to hold and delay the depositing of collected revenue. In keeping the funds, those involved can use them in trading and other forms of illicit transactions. This practice mainly flourishes in remote areas, where funds are kept for long periods of time before they are reported. In some areas, officials wait for booklets to be fully used before going to the relevant government department to deposit the funds they have collected and replenish their stock of booklets.

In such a case, a highway traffic police officer responsible for collecting traffic fines in Al Gazera deliberately delayed the reporting and depositing of funds collected. Instead the money was used for trading cars and real estate schemes, the profits of which were divided between the police officer and his conspirators. This scam was uncovered during a regular audit of the department, and those involved, who had suffered major losses through their gambling, were not able to return the stolen money in time. All were eventually found guilty, and sentenced to prison, with their assets auctioned off to recoup the stolen funds.

Finally, another type of scheme is the collection of taxes and fees by government officials without the use of Form 15. The funds collected through this scheme are concealed from the MoF, in direct violation of the rules and regulations that govern the collection of government revenues. This practice is widely known as Tajneeb. The overreaching objectives for this type of corruption are to provide off-the-books resources for government agencies to spend on items not included in approved budgets; to avoid restrictions on expenditures imposed by the MoF; and to justify requests for additional federal funding, based on what appears to be insufficient local revenue.

Tajneeb funds are often used in extravagant expenditures such as staff incentives, public festivities, including for the ruling National Congress Party, and unnecessary travel for officials and their families. As these funds are not reported as revenue in the national budget, they are not subject to financial regulations. The former Minister of Finance, Abdel Raheem Hamdi estimated that, in 2012, the Tajneeb amounted to 5 - 7 billion Sudanese Pounds, while the estimated amount of expenditure saved by lifting fuel subsidies in the same year was 1.3 billion Sudanese Pounds. It is worth noting that the lifting of fuel subsidies in 2013 sparked antigovernment riots that led to the deaths of hundreds of young men and women. Yet, had the MoF been able to address corruption such as the Tajneeb, there would have been no need for the lifting of fuel subsidies.

The Tajneeb received wide media coverage and was referenced in the Auditor General’s Annual Report as one of the major obstacles for securing and allocating appropriate resources for the purposes of developing the country. A high-level committee, chaired by the then First Vice President Ali Osman Taha, was even established to combat the Tajneeb. Unfortunately, Taha himself soon undermined the committee and its purpose when he stated that “Tajneeb funds do not go to government official’s pockets, rather they are used in running government activities which fall outside the budget”. This statement encouraged agencies practicing this corrupt activity, including the Ministry of Interior, to continue this practice as well as to defy the Auditor General’s requests to audit their accounts.

All of the schemes above have resulted in negative economic and developmental impacts on the country. As the Minister of Finance, Baderelden Mahmoud announced during a press conference to launch the electronic version of Form 15, the paper version of the form caused losses of 30% of the government’s revenues. Such losses are sure to have had a negative impact on the services provided by the country, such as in education, health, security, especially as Sudan depends largely on funds collected through customs and taxes. After years of such abuse, in a decision that was greatly welcome, the MoF finally decided to cancel the paper version of Form 15, introducing an electronic version on 1st July 2015.

Introducing Electronic Form 15

The new electronic version of Form 15, designed by the MoF, remains largely the same as its paper predecessor. The major difference is that in the electronic version, the form’s serial number, as well as the government agency which receives the funds, are automatically generated. Further, instead of signing the form, the revenue collector enters his/her name and password in the online system in order to be able to access and fill the form. Similarly, the process by which government revenues are collected with the electronic version of Form 15 does not differ much from the previous process. Another major difference is that in cases where the revenue collector makes a mistake when filling in the form and saves it, the system allows him/her to delete it, only after he/she correctly answers a question generated about the mistakes made in the form. The revenue collector must also document this cancellation in electronic Form 67. The same approval system remains, though with internal auditors and financial managers now reviewing transactions online, in portals only they can access.

Since the introduction of the electronic form, the MoF’s IT department has set up collection offices nationwide and appointed collection officials and internal auditors, who receive personalized password given to them in a secure envelope, similar to the process for obtaining the pin number of an ATM card. The MoF’s IT department is the only authority that can generate and cancel these passwords. The department is now evaluating the progress of the new form to date, especially in the movements of the revenue collectors and the auditors.

Economists have identified many positive characteristics of electronic Form 15. It saves time and provides efficiency in revenue collection procedures. Furthermore, it has reduced the Tajneeb practice. Similarly, the electronic form also facilitates the establishment of a single channel that allows the MoF to access, review and monitor all government revenue collected in the country. Further, the Minister of Finance has stated that the electronic version of Form 15 is insured against fraud even when a computer has been illegally accessed through a valid user name and password, as all forms carry an encrypted and unique serial number.

In anticipation of abuse from officials, the MoF has implemented additional financial and administrative regulations, including the daily deposit of collected funds. Government agencies can no longer collect revenue without the use of electronic Form 15, and they must adhere to strict security guidelines regarding the handling of the form. Further, the Internal Auditor and the General Auditor now conduct surprise checks on government agencies to monitor their work, especially in relation to Form 15.

Unsurprisingly, these regulations were met with fierce resistance, not only by corrupt revenue collectors, but also by government agencies. The Minister of Finance himself, at the press conference introducing the electronic version, said “the abusers and those who are personally benefiting from the paper version are fighting this transition and are trying to sabotage its implementation”. This fierce resistance was clearly displayed on 1 July 2015, the first day of the rollout. The internet network crashed and the electronic collection was halted. As a result, health institutions offered free medical services; traffic police failed to collect fines and highway companies allowed travelling vehicles to transit without paying toll fees. Observers believe that this was due to some circles pushing for the premature introduction of the electronic form, before the finalization of technical and logistical arrangements and the training of staff, thereby sabotaging the electronic rollout and forcing the re-introduction of the paper version.

Despite the many advantages of the new electronic form, concerns remain. First, it does not provide a solution for the delay in depositing collected funds, during which those funds can be used for personal gain. Second, bearing in mind that all electronic programs are vulnerable to hacking, it is not clear how well the new system is protected. Further, according to the economist Mohammed Elnayer, another problem in its implementation is the technical capacity of revenue collectors, who are not adequately trained. He added that “some of them [revenue collectors] are unable to answer security questions related to the protection of the operating system (e.g. how to detect if someone has accessed their portal)”.

Among the major shortcomings of the use of From 15 is the weakness of the internet network in Sudan. Not only does it take a long time to load and save the form online, sometimes the whole system crashes and the collection process is halted, or invalidated. During these times, staff members can get confused as customers become ever more frustrated.

Nevertheless, the use of electronic Form 15 for revenue collection provides a powerful antidote for resisting the corruption engendered by the use of the paper version. Time will tell whether this proves effective in the long-term but, for now, it signals a step in the right direction for a country that continues to be held back by rampant corruption.


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  • France denies Darfur rebel leader Nour the permanent residence in its territory: Sudan’s Foreign Mi
  • International agents behind Arab, African extremism
  • Sudan plans to disband camps in secure West Darfur
  • Sudan’s ruling party denies use of the State resources in its electoral programmes
  • Contaminated medical waste alert in Sudan’s capital
  • Land travels between Sudan and Ethiopia starts in April
  • Large quantity of drugs destroyed in eastern Sudan
  • Nine British medics enter Isis stronghold to work in hospitals
  • WFP Executive Director visits South Sudan
  • Bloody tribal clashes in Sudan’s Darfur left many dead and injured
  • South Sudan Factions Recruit Thousands of Child Soldiers
  • South Sudan warlord offers abducted boys sit exams - UN envoy
  • Population Under Pressure in South Sudan Opposition Territory
  • China supplies South Sudan with weapons to protect its oil fields
  • South Sudan rebels say civil war will go on
  • Ntaganda case: Trial Chamber VI recommends holding the opening of trial in DRC; decision to be made
  • Sudan: don't tie Darfur peacekeepers exit to tribal violence end
  • AFRICAN FUEL DEMAND KEEPS GROWING DESPITE ADVERSE CONDITIONS SAYS CITAC AFRICA REPORT
  • Sudan: ICRC appeals for funds to scale up humanitarian action
  • Al Bashir pardons five JEM-Sudan convicts
  • 500, 000 dollars from FAO to support agriculture in Sudan
  • Sudan hit by severe shortage of flour
  • Sudan’s army says that it killed 60 rebels in fighting in Southern Kordofan
  • Five dead, three injured in Darfur shootings
  • China describes its relationship with Sudan as a model must be followed
  • Sudanese popular and official delegations conduct dialogue with U.S. lobbies on sanctions
  • Trial of 19 Darfur rebels starts in Sudan’s capital
  • Indonesia invites Sudan’s president to attend Bandung Summit
  • One dead, two injured in new fire at Bindisi camp, Central Darfur
  • We show the world that the elections will be free and fair: Sudanese National Elections
  • Sudan opposition, govt. still at odds on election
  • Al-Bashir discusses with Mufti of Croatia position of Muslim minorities
  • Call for Sudan to stop recruiting minors in South Kordofan
  • Sudan’s Vice President calls for completing of the tribal reconciliations in Darfur
  • SPLM-N leadership: Sudan Deserves a New Peace
  • Specialist shortage sees cancer rise in Sudan
  • South Sudan’s government says it does not want ‘Troika’ countries to be included in the peace talks
  • Foreign aid goods for sale at Sudanese markets: displaced
  • ICC knows it doesn't scare Sudan at all: Information Minister says
  • $ 68 million from the Kuwaiti Fund for Sudanese water project
  • Sustainable fisheries project launched for Sudan’s Red Sea State
  • Sudanese army says it repels SPLM-N attack on Southern Kordofan
  • Kenyatta case: Trial Chamber V(B) terminates the proceedings
  • Sochoi jet-fighter attacked Tanase Village
  • Sudan’s president invites his Egyptian counterpart to sign a document on the Ethiopian dam
  • Sudan’s ruling party welcomes Berlin Declaration
  • ICC moves intended to disrupt the elections: Sudan’s parliament
  • Norway and UNIDO launch a € 4,8 million project for the sustainable management of marine fisheries
  • S. Sudan Braces for Sanctions as Economy Limps
  • ICC Trial Chamber I joins the cases concerning Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé
  • Six new judges sworn in today at the seat of the International Criminal Court
  • China calls on the warring parties in South Sudan to reach a settlement
  • World Bank is to address Sudan’s problems in the areas of development
  • International court: Sudan has failed to cooperate in al-Bashir case
  • Pre-Trial Chamber II informs the United Nations Security Council about Sudan’s non-cooperation in t
  • The Secretary-General Remarks at the opening session of the Commission on the Status of Women
  • On International Women’s Day, ICC reaffirms commitment to end sexual and gender-based crimes
  • US condemns lack of "political leadership" to resolve South Sudan's war
  • Sudan’s President participates in the Egypt Economic Development Conference
  • Ongwen case: Confirmation of charges hearing postponed to 21 January 2016
  • Six newly elected ICC judges to be sworn in on 10 March 2015
  • South Sudan:76 organizations call for publication of AU Inquiry Report as deadline for peace passe
  • Lubanga case: ICC Appeals Chamber amends the Trial Chamber’s order for reparations to victims
  • Statement attributable to the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General on the South Sudan Peace Proce
  • China sees no "logic" behind US-drafted resolution on South Sudan
  • Sudanese tribesmen request reconciliation mechanism
  • Sudan’s president stresses the opposition’s inability to block the elections
  • Fatou Bensouda, following the Appeals Chamber decision upholding the acquittal in the Ngudjolo Chui
  • Ngudjolo Chui case: ICC Appeals Chamber confirms the acquittal decision
  • Sudanese leader says being hounded by ICC, West
  • Fatou Bensouda, at a press conference in Uganda: justice will ultimately be dispensed for LRA crime
  • Freedoms severely curtailed in Sudan in 2014: Amnesty
  • I’m ready to “leave” if the people decided that through elections: Sudan’s president
  • Sudan's Bashir says will quit in 2020 if re-elected president
  • Liberation of Kuhliyat garrison 5 km west Kadugli city
  • Bashir: Iranian centers closed to protect Sudan
  • Statement of the ICC Prosecutor at a press conference in the Central African Republic
  • Sudan election is 'propaganda', says rebel leader
  • China announces that it will continue to support South Sudan peace process
  • Three die in militia attacks in South and North Darfur
  • Sudan and Kuwait negotiate help Zain repatriate $280 million worth of Sudanese pounds
  • Darfur displaced invite US Deputy Secretary of State to visit their camps
  • Sudan election campaign to start amid opposition boycott
  • Boko Haram on agenda of IGAD Inter -Parliamentary Union in Khartoum
  • Sudan activists to take action against Tabit mass rape
  • Darfur rebels kill soldiers in central Jebel Marra
  • Darfur authority stresses that improvement of U.S-Sudanese relations will bring peace
  • Central Darfur's displaced without shelter after fire
  • Sudan’s president addresses the Speakers of Parliaments of IGAD
  • The fighting in Darfur displaced more than 41,000 since late December: UN
  • Brig. Gen. John Mabieh vowed to take Malakal town by 9th March this year
  • South Sudan Rebel Spokesman Defects
  • U.S. Treasury Allows Personal Communication Exports to Sudan
  • Sudan security agents confiscate print runs of 14 newspapers
  • FAO teams up with the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rangelands and provides about USD 1 mill
  • South Sudan Warns Media Not to Publish Rebel Interviews
  • Video Report Sheds Light On Fierce Fighting In Sudan
  • Sudanese journalist disappears under mysterious circumstances
  • Political delegation in Tabit scares residents
  • IGAD's Inter-Parliamentary Union convenes its meeting in Khartoum
  • Sudan investigates rape of girl in Darfur by UNAMID officer: Source
  • Sudan’s opposition welcomes HRW’s confirmation of Darfur mass rape
  • Sudan refers the case of the two political detainees to the court
  • Statement of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, on the Internation
  • Seven Investment Programme Areas Under the Sudanese National Agricultural Investment Plan (NAIP) Id
  • Sudan: Mass Rape by Army in Darfur UN, AU Should Press for Protection, International Investigation
  • Firewood collectors assaulted in Kabkabiya, North Darfur
  • Sudan’s president supports the Arab Parliament efforts
  • Boy burns to death in attack on villages in North Darfur
  • Sudan and Arab League discuss providing assistance to Darfur
  • MP demands rule of law restored in North Darfur
  • Sudan’s Ministry of Culture orders the closure of the Sudanese Writer’s Union
  • Statement of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, ahead of the gener
  • Liberation and Justice Movement -LJM apology to people of Darfur
  • AU movements to withdraw Darfur file from (ICC): Sudanese Foreign Minister
  • AU calls on (ICC) to drop or suspend charges against Sudan’s president and Kenyan Deputy President
  • Sudan's Omar al-Bashir gets Chinese-built presidential palace
  • Sudan authorities working on arrest warrants against El Mahdi and Minawi
  • Sudanese popular initiative to mend relations between Khartoum and Washington
  • Sudan’s president participates in AU Summit in Addis Ababa
  • Al Bashir’s candidacy humiliation for all Sudanese: Darfur displaced
  • Al Bashir is uniting Sudan with his hate speeches: Umma Party leader
  • Sudan’s ruling party announces its electoral programme
  • Sudan and Kenya confirm that ICC targets Africa leaders
  • Ethiopia supports the collective leave of African States from (ICC): Sudan’s government says
  • Sudan demands apology for Jordan statement on ICC report
  • Khartoum summons Jordanian Ambassador about Jordan mission statements to UN
  • Sudan calls on (UNSC) to cancel resolution 1593 which referred the Darfur file to ICC
  • ICC’s referral of Darfur issue to UN is a means of pressure to arrest those wanted by the court: Su
  • Displaced urge UN Security Council to act on Darfur case
  • Statement by the UK Legal Advisor to the UK Mission to the UN to the Security Council Briefing on S
  • ICC decision is a “chance” to Sudanese and African community to put an end to the court: Sudan’s Pa
  • Al-Bashir says (ICC) is one of the tools aims to humiliate and subjugate Sudanese
  • ICC criticizes UN for failing to push for the arrest of Sudanese President
  • Sudan Call A Political Declaration on the Establishment of a State of Citizenship and Democracy
  • Bemba, Kilolo et al. case: Pre-Trial Chamber II commits five suspects to trial
  • Beja Congress Condemns Rape of Women in Darfur
  • The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, attends 7th Colloquium of Inter
  • Re: Sudanese Congress Party Leader banned from travel
  • An important Statement No.14 by Commander Ismail Khamis Jalab The former governor of South Kordofan
  • ICC holds first sub-regional Seminar of Counsel and the Legal Profession in Dakar, Senegal
  • Fatou Bensouda briefs the United Nations Security Council
  • Sudan's ruling party nominates Al- Bashir to new presidential term
  • Another brutal war crime committed by khartoum regime in Hieban town
  • Experts consider appearance of Kenyan present before ICC as legal precedent
  • Al Bashir should take Kenyan President as example: Sudan rebels
  • Letter to President Obama from Sudanese living in Diaspora
  • A demonstration in London on April 28 to condemn terrorism and violence practiced by Sudanese autho
  • Sudan leader rigid, ex-media boss uncle says
  • US urges parties to conflict in S. Sudan to stop fighting
  • Fighting the war in the mountains of Sudanand#138; with a camera
  • Press Release from U.Sudan Peace and Development Foundation
  • Sudan: UN Body Should Press for Inquiry One Year On, No Justice for Protester Deaths
  • International Criminal Court opens its doors to more than 750 visitors on Hague International Day
  • ICC Trial Chamber IV issues arrest warrant against Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain
  • ICC to start trial of Banda on Friday
  • Head of Sudanese Alliance puts road-map plan to remove tension
  • Sudan renews rejection to ICC measures
  • New Amnesty International report - Nowhere Safe: Civilians Under Attack in South Sudan
  • Sudan’s 2015 elections: an ominous deja vu؟
  • South Sudan Facing Genocide Risk Amid Personal Power Struggle, U.N. Officials Warn
  • ICC urges Ethiopia to arrest President Al-Bashir
  • AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL Obituary: Osman Hummaida
  • Solidarity Committee threatens to take” September victims” case to ICC
  • No justice for Sudan protest killings: Human Rights Watch
  • Sudan: No Justice for Protest Killings Release Detainees and Punish Abusive Forces
  • ‘Legal technicality’ leads to expulsion of NGO Merlin from Sudan
  • Human rights activists call for cessation of war in Sudan
  • Sudanese civilians terrorised by capricious militia
  • Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood leader visits Khartoum
  • Sudan aid needs astonishing : British official
  • Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin for the period 01 to 15 March 2014
  • Sudanese Parliamentarian considers non-invitation of President Al-Bashir to attend African-European
  • Sudan accuses EU of seeking to create a rift in African position
  • Alarm raised over violence in Sudan's Darfur
  • Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin for February 2014
  • Mohamed I. Elgadi’s Letter to President Obama
  • Musa Hilal’s insurgency
  • SPLM Secretary General describes death sentence by Sudanese court against him as political
  • Sudan police clash with mourners at funeral
  • Statement of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, providing an updat
  • Statement by the International Criminal Court on the occasion of International Women’s Day
  • statement issued by DRDC concerning the ongoing round of ethnic cleansing in Darfur
  • Arson, #####ng displace thousands in Sudan's Darfur
  • Booth: The US will continue urging international community to ask Sudan cooperate with ICC
  • NEWS FLASH: DR Congo: Arrest Sudanese President al-Bashir, wanted for genocide
  • President of the Assembly calls upon the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to resp
  • A comprehensive peace Khartoum: Hussein Saad
  • Publication of Constitutional Proetction of Human Rights in Sudan
  • Issues No. 6 and 7 of the Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin covering the periods 01 to 1
  • Sudan’s Humanitarian Aid Commission suspends the International Committee of the Red Cross’ operatio
  • Fighting the war in the mountains of Sudanand#138; with a camera
  • US urges parties to conflict in S. Sudan to stop fighting
  • The Nuer Community of North America Calls upon China, Russia and Iran
  • Massacre of Nuer civilians at The Hands of President Kiir’s Dinka mili
  • Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin Issue No 4 01 – 15 Decem
  • Statement by the International Criminal Court on the passing of Nelson
  • New Report: Crisis situation for women in Sudan
  • 3rd Issue of the Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin for the
  • Sudan leader rigid, ex-media boss uncle says
  • Ex-media boss uncle says Sudan leader will never change
  • Sudan feels the heat from fuel protests
  • UN revels that Sudan's president has canceled his visit to New York
  • Darfur People's Association of New York Rally to urge UN, UNSC and the
  • Rally to urge UN, UNSC and the United states to stand for Justice for
  • UN: Demand al-Bashir’s surrender to the International Criminal Court
  • ICC urges American administration to arrest Sudan's president, if he v
  • Al Bashir case: ICC Judges invite the US to arrest the suspect and sur
  • U.S. is not qualified morally, politically or legally to give any less
  • Letter from African Centre for Justice and Peace Studies
  • Human Rights Situation in Sudan: Amnesty International’s joint written
  • Renewal and strengthening of the special procedure mandate on the situ
  • Kenya: Cooperate fully with International Criminal Court trials