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01-10-2006, 02:10 AM

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هل ولدت الهلوكوست من رحم المسيحية..؟

    أنقل لكم هذا المقال وآمل أن يجد الترجمة إلي العربية
    خصوصا وأن كاتبه قد تجرأ بهذا السؤال لفتح أفاق الحوار بين
    علاقة الاديان بما جري من كوارث مرة,مثل الهلكوست, سببها جنس البشر لبعضهم البعض, ولاهمية المقالة تم الاعلان عنها بالامس في العدد الاسبوعي لصحيفة الواشنطن بوست
    وربما تجدون في الموقع الاساسي للمقالة التصويت الذي شارك به القراء حول ما إذا كانت المسيحية سببت مأساة الهلوكوست أم لا.

    صلاح شعيب

    الرابط: http://doubtcome.com/

    Did Christianity cause the Holocaust?

    Question submitted by Daniel McBride, Salem, Massachusetts

    September 29, 2006

    There has been arguably no more horrific episode in human history than the Holocaust of WWII. This systematic extermination eliminated more innocents than the alleged genocidal acts against Armenians by the Turks earlier in the 20th century, and far more than the awful ethnic cleansing atrocities in the Balkans after the breakup of Yugoslavia. The Holocaust is usually viewed as an isolated horror committed by the Nazis under Adolf Hitler, but Jews, other victims, and secular historians see it as the top note of a terrible crescendo that started many years before.

    The major target of the Holocaust by the Nazis was the Jews of Europe with between five and seven million of them massacred. Millions of others also were butchered, however, including Catholic and Protestant clergy, Freemasons, gypsies (the Roma), the physically and mentally disabled, intellectuals and academics, and many “inferior races” (particularly Slavs) considered to be subhuman by the Nazis. Estimates of total deaths range usually from nine to 11 million, but some have suggested a figure as high as 26 million. Hitler and his underlings promoted an Aryan ideal type which was superior to all other human beings and Jews were regarded as the lowest of the low. Eliminating as many of these “insects” as possible was the ultimate goal.

    There have been numerous attempts to deny that the Holocaust ever actually happened in the past several decades. French extremist right wing leader Jean Marie Le Pen, who made a startlingly solid run to become France’s president, is one such denier. Very recently, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad maintained that the Holocaust is a myth and even convened a conference of Islamic intellectuals to present “evidence.” Neo-Nazi groups in Europe and the U.S. either adhere to the denial or see it as the correct solution to “the Jewish problem.”

    But, “The Final Solution,” as the Nazis called it, did happen and was carried out with ruthless efficiency. Jews and the other “objectionable groups” were rounded up and herded into concentration camps with such now famous names as Auschwitz. Nazi fanatic Reinhard Heydrich chaired a conference in 1942 at Wannsee where plans to eliminate Jews more rapidly throughout Europe were set in motion. Evidence presented at the post-WWII Nuremburg war crimes trials produced incontrovertible proof of the horrible slaughter of millions of innocents.

    The question arises as to how things got to this grim point in Europe where the Nazis could not ony implement their plans, but have the almost enthusiastic support and backing of local populations and the governments of several conquered countries, such as the Vichy regime in France (not to ignore well meaning individuals and governments who shielded and hid some of the intended victims). Or, one wonders about powerful leaders who turned a blind eye or indirectly helped carry out the slaughter. One finger points squarely at Christianity. And, it is worth noting that a number of Nazi leaders were practicing Christians.

    The doctrine of many Christian sects, particularly the Roman Catholic Church, holds that Jews were responsible for the crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ. Over the course of many centuries, Jews were isolated, used as scapegoats for tragedies, and killed, banished, or taxed harshly for this version of original sin. The Catholic Church in much of Europe supported or even instigated persecution of Jews. The Russian Orthodox Church was also complicit or an active participant in pogroms against Jews. The mindset of the Christian groups was to blame any major, or minor, problem on relatively helpless Jews. Even the Black Plague that decimated Medieval Europe was occasionally blamed on evil Jewish plots. Many European rulers gleefully stripped Jews of any wealth they might possess and financed some of their wars and excesses through confiscation.

    In more modern times, accusations and discrimination against Jews continued. As WWII and Nazi targeting of helpless Jews and others wore on, critics of Christianity maintain that church leaders did little to stop the carnage. Most famously, Pope Pius XII, sometimes derisively referred to as Hitler’s Pope, was charged with turning a blind eye to the Jewish plight. Pius was castigated for acting in a manner that encouraged Nazi actions, partially to preserve Vatican interests in fascist Italy, Germany’s war time ally. Revisionist historians have suggested that the verdict on Pius is too harsh, but doubts about his actions persisted.

    Christians in many other places also have been criticized for failing to make any real effort to help save Jews from the slaughterhouse. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Administration was skewered by many historians as having known about the Holocaust in progress, but doing little to stop it or slow down the pace of Nazi exterminations so that the eventual victory of Allied forces would have seen less loss of Jewish life. As with Pius, defenders of Roosevelt and other Allied leaders believe that other critical interests during the war tied their hands due to vital, long term interests.

    Or, did any of these wartime Christian leaders really care? Roosevelt, Pius XII, Churchill and other leaders, in a more ideal situation, might have protested and acted to stop the horrific murders. But, many Jews and some less involved dispassionate observers might remark that you scratch a Christian and find somewhere in there varying degrees of anti-Semitism. A common phrase among modern Jews is “Never Again” with reference to the Holocaust and their need to look to their own defenses. The post-WWII creation of the State of Israel was partially a guilty reaction on the part of the Christian West to what happened during the war. It is a given that the Holocaust will never be forgotten, however one interprets the historical antecedents and the event itself.

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