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Articles and Analysies ÇáÕÝÍÉ ÇáÚÑÈíÉ Last Updated: Oct 27, 2009 - 9:33:43 PM

Community Land: A Critical Socio-Economic Factor To Temper With In Southern Sudan By James Okuk

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Community Land : A Critical Socio-Economic Factor To Temper With In Southern Sudan


By James Okuk



Until I have experienced the sensitivity of land tenure and ownership (like Thomas in the bible when he touched the nails’ holes in Jesus’ risen body), I couldn’t imagine that land was so valuable like the human life itself. When I use to see (as a child) some elders quarrelling over the borders of their villages and demarcation of their farms, I thought it was a simple thing like our children case when we constantly pinch and fought each other during interactions and plays. Even during my Primary, Secondary and Tertiary education, I just regarded ‘Land’ as a simple factor of socio-economic production along side with ‘Capital’, ‘Labour’ and ‘Market’. I was wrong!




It was only in 2004 when I travelled with a team of researchers under funding of Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) and supervision of SPLM that I discovered I was mistaken in my previous perception on land. Our team comprised of Dr. William Kon   Bior (who was by then the Undersecretary of the New Sudan Legal and Constitutional Development Commission), Dr. Elizabeth Akinyi Nzioki and Mr. Michael   Ochieng Odhiambo (who are professional Kenyan researchers on community land issues). Some scrupulous SPLA MIs in Loki suspected me of carrying messages to the field in support of Cdr. Salva Kiir’s loggerhead with C-in-C Dr. Garang but they didn’t know that I was in that mission with recommendation from Cdr. Oyay Deng Ajak. We went to different sample parts of Southern Sudan and in every interview we conducted I felt the importance of community land ownership. Tribes of Southern Sudan believe strongly in the respect and safeguard of their motherland. They revere and sanctify the graves of their ancestors under the soil without remorse. Africans are known of communicating with the spirits of the dead ancestors in the graves and they do not joke about it. When bad luck stroke a family or a village, people go to clean up the ancestors graves; asking for mercy, forgiveness and prosperity.


For unbiased judgment, let me give these excerpts from our 96 pages Report of that qualitative research finding. Please, it is a must to read it because there is a lot of sagacity and commonality with different tribes in our villages; very interesting!


e)    Existing opportunities and Challenges within the Land Tenure Systems

i)           The Returnees:

·          Discussions with communities revealed that there is no problem for returnees because these people know where they came from and they will go back where they belong. The customary handling of members of the community is very clear and those returning home will be accommodated.


·          However, they do not want planless arrangements for returnees without consulting with communities. This will not be accepted. “The role of any NGO repatriating refugees into Southern Sudan should remain only at the level of transportation and logistics but not resettlement. This will be the responsibility of the community. We will only follow our customary land allocation system to resettle the returnees. We would not accept to follow any other new method imposed on us by any organizations or government”


  • For the Collo (Shilluk), those who have been internally displaced, and the returnees will be allotted land by communities where they came from so that they can perform Ywok –a ceremony to appease the sprits of the dead before the returnees can settle down in peace. The returnees from the Collo are free to go home and be given their land back because they left from specific villages. Their families are known and the Chiefs together with the elders can settle them in their ancestral lands.


  • For the Dinka of Bor, the returnees will go back to their families. These families will know the procedures of allotting land to them according to the Dinka customs. “The refugees left from their land and they have to go back to their land when peace comes. Those who do not know their places will be directed by their relatives.” For the Dinka of Yirol County, those coming back after the war must go back to their families and ancestral land. “We only want our own children from here to come back here and not anybody else from Southern Sudan . You either come back with your parents or if they are not there, you have to know the names of your grandfather.”


  • For the Dinka of Malual Kon the community knows how to take care of the returnees. “They are members of our community and we know that they left this country from us. Each will go back to his family land. If the all the members of the family are dead, the clan knows how to direct those returnees from our land to their original places. There will be no be problem as long as they can remember their roots and ancestors.” However, a returnee is expected to know his roots. [1]


  • The Nyuei will accept their sons upon return. The clan and family of the returnee will be traced and they will be allocated land by the elders. “But everyone who returns must go back to their own clan land. They go back where they came from – the land of their clans and ancestors. Everyone from Southern Sudan , every community have their own land. Akot belongs to the Nyuei and it does not belong to everyone in Southern Sudan . The Nuer, the Bor Dinka, the Anuak have their own land and their own airports where the returnees can be taken. The origins of those being returned must be established before they are brought back, so that they are directly taken back to their places. If some people do not want to go back to their communities, there must be an acceptable reason. Otherwise why would the person refuse to go back to his own clan? We do not want such people to be settled among us, for we do not know why someone would not want to go back to his family if there is peace there. If we are in Akot we shall say NO”

ii)    Consultation with the Community with Regard to Land


  • It is expected that the New Government of Sudan will consult with communities, whenever the government want to use their land to provide services, or to lease out to investors.


·          For the Kakwa, consultation with the Community over the use of their land is critical particularly with the ‘landlord’ – who is the guardian over the Kakwa land. “ If the government wants to lease land for a period of e.g. 30 years the community have to know how they will benefit from those years. They also have to assess whether the old agreements made in the old Sudan are still fine with the community. Pieces of land that have been illegally occupied in the old Sudan should be evacuated. The existing customary land practices and clan boundaries should not to be interfered with without the consultation with communities .”


  • The Collo will not reject public utilities being put up by the government, like schools, hospitals and roads because this will benefit the community. “But what must be clear is that the land belongs to the King, and anyone who wants to deal with land has to come through the King. It is the King to tell us what to do.   Our land can only be taken in exchange of real services. But this does not mean it is totally taken away from the authority of the king and the Collo community. We will only give out land for services but ownership remains that of the community. If you want any land from the Collo, go first to the King. It is the king alone we respect and nothing will happen here in the land of the Collo without his approval.”


·          For the Dinka land belongs to the community. If the government needs land, it is important that they consult with the community. The community is the overall decision-maker over its land and the guardians over it. The elders cannot be employed by the government and taken away. They are the ones who represent the interest of the community. The elders defend the community and they cannot get into the payroll of the government. Politicians are expected to consult with communities before they make any decisions with regard to community land . “We will not accept illegal issuing of our land to the foreigners or adjustment of our original land even if it is our own children who will try to do this. We would like our customary practices to be our guide in the management of our land. The protection of land is the responsibility of the whole community; not individual. This is why the community volunteered to fight the enemy for over 21 years because foreigners invaded our land.”


iii)    Investment on Community Land


Discussions held on investing on community land revealed the following:  


·          For Kakwa: “the Kakwa reserves belong to communities and should not be thought of as empty and no-man land. If the government wants to invest in such reserves or welcome other investors to use it, the community must fully be in the picture otherwise there will be conflict. This is the only way the new government will show itself as different from the old government. That they have to involve the people, consult with them before community land can be used, or any other natural resources.”


·          Let the government work with the community with regard to land. The government can rely on the traditional institutions that communities have relied on all this time for the management of their land. The community should be allowed to remain in control of their land.”


·          For individual ownership of land, the community need to be made aware particularly with these new challenges likely to arise with regard to individual ownership of land.”


·          Evacuation of communities to give way for investments will create problems. The new government has to think through very clearly on how to accommodate customary land practices of the communities.”


  • All investors should go through the government who in turn will consult with the community and be made aware/be involved in major decisions that will affect them and their rights in land.”


·          For the Collo:  private arrangements between the Chiefs and individuals without the knowledge of the King will not be accepted by the community and the King. The authority will come from the King. If the government comes or any investor, they must go to the King who will consult with the chiefs before any decisions are made. Investors who will not benefit community will not be allowed.”


  • The Toposa Community believe that challenges lie ahead in the grabbing of community land by investors.



f) Individual/Private Utilization of land for market production:

On private utilization of land as a commodity and market production the communities had this to say:

·          For the Kakwa, no one is allowed to sell community land except in towns where it can be leased for a definite period. Commercial Land is not being used as collateral to get loans despite the fact that title deeds in towns such as Yei are issued by the County Councils. Land belongs to community and therefore it cannot be used as collateral to get loans.


  • When asked if they could sell land, the Toposa Community answered, NO, (it was almost like a protest as to what kind of question we were asking). One old man said, “Land is not like tobacco to be sold anyhow. Land is sacred and thus it is forbidden for it   to be sold.”


  • However, the Toposa will consider giving land to do business e.g. lease for a period of time to build a shop if it is a small piece of land but not a big piece land. They expect that consultations must take place with the community if the government want to use their land. It also expected that the same should happen if the government is giving out land to investors. “Developments that displace a lot of people without giving better option must be carefully checked.”


  • The Dinka of Yirol County will not only accept investments that are going to benefit the community but they we will not accept investments that will displace their community because, “Where will we go if this happens?” We also do not expect the new government to grant licenses to such investors but to protect the interest of the community. It should be known that people went to war as a result of poor planned investments that were initiated by Government of Sudan which did not benefit the people.”


  • For the Didinga “Our community do not sell land, because this is where we live. That is why we have Trustees over our land, with powers from God to protect our land. Trustees have this in their memories and the community accepts their decisions”. However, according to them, if anyone wants land for investment, it will depend on how much land the person needs. A small piece of land is acceptable, but the community cannot allow an individual to be given a large piece of land.


  • On privatizations and investment on land, the chiefs and elders of Collo Kingdom had this to say: “That government must consult with the communities. Three parties must agree: the Government the King and the people, otherwise the government will have trouble with investors when they are rejected by the communities. Land of Collo Communities is not for sale. It is important to recognize the kingdom and its authority However, land for public utility is acceptable “Because this will benefit our communities, but only as long as the King has instructed and given the mandate to the chief to give such land out to the government for development.”  


  • For the Jur Community, there is no buying or selling of land. Any allocation of land to the government will have to be discussed between the government, the Bodo Yay – the guardian of the Jur land - and the Community. Likewise any investor must do the same with the government as a mediator between the community and the investors if the investment will be of benefit to the community. “This is because Bodo Yay got instructions from our ancestors: “Do not sell this land of the Jur or your powers of blessings will go away.”


  • On sale or privatization of land, the Nuer reported that there is no such a thing as selling of land in that community. Land is given freely to the one who approaches the community and after consultation among members of the clan- but also not such a big piece that can lead to the displacement of members of the community.


·          According to the Dinka of Bor, Sale of land by individuals has never been heard of in this community. There is no such a thing as selling of land in the Dinka community. The land cannot be sold even to the members of the Dinka themselves. One is allowed to sell or batter his tukul/Lwak – house but not the land. We do not give out Dinka land to the non-Dinkas.”



  • On sale of land The Dinka of Malual Kon had this to say: “We do not sale land. Even if a family or an individual try to do this we will stop them because the whole Dinka land belongs to the community. If our land could have been sold, we would have not been here today. It will have been in the hands of those who have money. We can sell other properties like cows and goats because we know we can get some from anywhere but if you sell your land you will not get it back. Even if it is my land the community will not allow me to sell it. Land sale is not in our program at all.”


  • The chiefs and elders were adamant about investors; “We will not allow a private individual coming with a big company to displace us from our land. The community will not accept to give vast land to an individual.   Where will other members of the community get their share of land? All land is for our use, for grazing and for allocation to members of the community.”


  • For the Dinka of Yirol County : “One cannot sell land that has been allocated to him. The concept of selling land does not exist in this community. One can be allowed to stay as “a guest” for 2-3 years, but not to settle permanently. Thus the land can be shared by other people- in terms of use- but not in terms of ownership by “strangers”.   Land cannot be hired out or leased. In towns, only houses are leased.


·          The same feeling about selling of land was expressed by the Anyuei “No individual is allowed to sell his land. One is allowed to sell the buildings but land cannot be leased or given out to anybody because it belongs to the clan. A friend or ‘guest’ can be given land to stay for a period of time as long as he does not bring about quarrels to the community. Foreign investors will not be allowed unless they consult with the communities. Otherwise, this is what brought about a quarrel between us and the Arabs. They came with tractors taking our land and only leaving us with small portions and wanting only to make us their servants. This will not be acceptable anymore”.


·          From the above responses, communities strongly feel that land for investment can be leased out and not sold out to investors. For any investment to take place communities must be consulted and made to understand what type of investment it is and how it will benefit them.


My Emphasis: What is interesting in that finding is the agreement of all the tribes we interviewed: They affirmed the SPLM position that “land belongs to the community.” They also converged on the point that “community land cannot be sold.” This made me to believe strongly that Southern Sudan is, in fact, a one nation even when divided by tribal affiliations. No community told us that they would reject government to make use of their land; what they require from the government is only consultations and transparency in what is going to be the outcome from the land use. That is, the government has to involve the community and make it understand the benefits from the use of their land. Not only the government, but we found out that those communities do not have a problem with a stranger coming to live and use their land if it is done with their consultation and consent. What they totally reject is the deception or use of force in acquiring and taking away the land ownership from them.





Dr. William lectured me a lot of how the case of land definition and ownership was so serious and controversial in negotiating the Naivasha protocol in 2002. SPLM position was that the land (above in the sky, levelled on the surface and below under the ground) should belong to the community and not to the government. The GoS position was that the land should belong to the government and that the government have the authority to evict any settlers out from any land in any part of the country. It was a deadlock for some weeks but the resolution was reached when the SPLM position was agreed to be applied to Southern Sudan while the GoS position will remain operative in Northern Sudan .


The land provision was later included in Naivasha’s Wealth Sharing Protocol (in article 2) but with some distortion out of ‘gentlemen agreement’ which is hidden from the public and which was not there in Machakos. For example, article 2.1 of CPA states: “Without prejudice to the position of the parties with respect to ownership of Land and subterranean natural resources, including in Southern Sudan . This Agreement is not intended to address the ownership of those resources. The parties agree to establish a process to resolve this issue.” Also you can detect the crafty language from article 2.3: “The parties record that the regulation of land tenure, usage and exercise of rights in land is to be a concurrent competency exercised at appropriate levels of the government.” A process to develop and amend the relevant laws is supposed to be instituted by the two partners so that customary laws and practices, local heritage and international trends and practice is incorporated in the land rights and ownership in Southern Sudan (see article 2.5).


SPLM would have done a very good thing to Southern Sudan communities if what was negotiated in Machakos could have been written in Naivasha in 2004 (as it was argued out in 2002). I can understand here why Dr. William Bior got disappointed and decided not to participate in the CPA government because his original ideas for community Land Ownership were distorted by the very comrades he trusted. He is now doing his private consultancy as an advocate and legal broker in Juba (he presented the case of Hon. Telar and Hon. Aleu for appeal in SPLM Political Bureau). He drafted the current operating laws in Southern Sudan, which is different from the Shari’a law applied in Northern Sudan . He is doing a great service to those who are denied justice. He is indeed a treasure in our midst; we need to discover him more. May God increase the age of this honest and straight forward Southern Sudan and SPLM Veteran so that he witnesses the beginning of the real destiny of the independent South Sudan State in 2011.


Nonetheless, even with the distortion that occurred, I hope that GoSS will make what is in the CPA about land ownership in Southern Sudan to mean what it says; even when the ‘Jellaba’ is not there. The law is supposed to be applied impartially regardless of who is who and who is where.



I know well about the sensitivity of land for the people of Southern Sudan because land is their life as they love to live closer to nature: Take away the land from them and you become their number one enemy even if you are their brother or sister – you threaten their land you threaten their life. I agree with what our veteran journalist Atem Yaak wrote last month in Gurtong.com and Southsudannation.com that H.E. Governor Kuol Manyang was the winner of the SPLM recent reshuffle because he was fortunate to achieve his last wish of going home in Jonglei State to live closer to nature far away from the confusion of the cities: “I envy Kuol Manyang Juuk not for his job as governor of Jonglei State but because his present assignment brings him closer to what he loves best: staying closer to the rural people and bountiful land endowed with natural resources, pristine environment free of pollution and stressful noise. What more could one wish for more than this gateway and prelude to a well deserved retirement?” said uncle Atem.

Governor Kuol is happy because he can live in the land he owns within his community set up. This is exactly the same concern of the Equatorians who are very bitter about their land being occupied by Dinka; they want to live closer to nature in their own land. Where will they go and live if their land is being occupied by a community who has its own original land somewhere unoccupied by strangers? Let our Hon. Governor Kuol Manyang or any other governor do something to bring back their citizens who are said to have occupied other people’s land in Equatoria. I am confident they can do it to calm the tensioning nerves and swallowing muscles of the bitter Equatorians. After all there is no community in Southern Sudan who doesn’t have its own land with pride. I know that those Dinkas who are now living in Acholi, Madi, and etc… lands are also proud of their land and will not have remorse to return, resettle and integrate into their original community motherlands.

Our African veteran freedom struggler, Peace Nobel Laureate, Bishop Desmond Tutu is famous of the saying on land in Africa in reference to colonialists; that when the Christian Missionaries came to Africa they told African to close their eyes for prayers, but after the prayers, when they opened their eyes, they found their land and resources stolen and appropriated to strangers. They have to struggle for decades to regain it back (but after having been exhausted and milked in the darkness). Tutu wisdom has been true in many African countries, particularly Zimbabwe and Kenya whose elections violence was fuelled by retaliation for denial for land ownership to some communities. The bitter Equatorians argument also look like this “The Dinkas are telling us to close our eyes because of the CPA but in the process, they are invading our land so that when we open our eyes everything would have gone without return, and we would not have somewhere of our own to settle and live.”

But as we understand the concern of many Equatorians regarding the possession of their community land, I would like to kindly ask them to be patient a bit and not exaggerate the case and indict all the Dinkas for it. It is not healthy to use the criteria of ‘one onion rots all the onions in a sack.’ The members of Dinka who have occupied some lands in Eqautoria are not the whole Dinka of Bor, leave alone the other Dinkas of Bahr el Ghazal, Upper Nile and Unity States . Even those few individuals Dinkas have not occupied the whole Equatoria or the whole Madi or the whole Achili lands. Therefore, it will not be good and right at all for some Equatorians to exaggeratingly say “over my grave and away with the CPA if the Dinkas continues to be in our community land”  without considering other factors.


Let Southerners take seriously the warning given by former president of Tanzania, H.E. Julius Nyerere when he addressed the parliament in Juba in 1974 and said that Southern Sudan is a great nation but impatience will not do it any good; it will foolishly destroy its long-term common benefits. Let Southerners avoid proving some Western anthropological theories to be true that “African do not have concept of far future and that is the reason they cannot plan ahead for their long-term living requirements.” This theory seems to be true if we reflect back to our history of the struggle: What we struggled for got delayed because of lack of vision and future imagination from many of our peoples. Even the literate ones couldn’t break this short-sightedness. Problems are never solved rightly through violence and the barrel of the gun. This will only fuel more fire and devastation. How do we now honour those who went before us fighting for freedom, fighting for peace, fighting for human rights, fighting for justice, fighting for democracy?  How will we honour our dead who sacrificed their lives for our future?   We MUST bury our guns so that we do not point them to each other any more. We MUST become soldiers of peace and lovers of Mother Nature. Otherwise, twenty-two years and millions of lost lives will have all been in vain. If tribal war breaks out now, the world will throw up its arms in defeat and shake its heads in disgust. We will be seen as a hopeless people.


The current contention on land occupation in Southern Sudan is not the issue of who liberated who from the Jellaba’s oppression; it is the issue of who rightly owns what. This land issue in Southern Sudan must be handled with care. If not, the souls of all those who may have died in vain, died for nothing, will be crying eternally in pain. As tribes, we must respect one another. We are unique in our own ways. We must unite as African Southern Sudanese while maintaining our culture, our tribes and our land. We can do this by practising justice and fairness among ourselves. We are beginning to have the opportunity to return home. Most of us define home as the best place of our original tribal land prior to the war. If we all volunteer to honour one another by respecting our rights to our own land, we may have peace and love for each other. But as long as we have animosity toward one another, we will always remain weak and vulnerable to be good for nothing but evil use by enemies of freedom destroyers of human dignity. We will always be subject to destruction by those who wish to smother us as a people. The war was fought by all. No one tribe was immune to the effects of the war. We all suffered together. Now, we must all rejoice together! Our education and literacy should de-stereotype our minds from negative tribal biases and superiority complexes. Long Live the growing forthcoming South Sudan in the womb of the CPA politics!!!


* The Author is a Southern Sudanese pursuing his PhD in the field of Political Philosophy in the University of Nairobi . He can be reached at: [email protected]

     [1] Culturally a Dinka is expected to know his genealogy (family tree) upto the fifteenth to twentieth generation; otherwise he is considered not a true Dinka. There are other ways of identifying a true Dinka, for example if he gives the symbol used in marking the cows when cutting the ears.

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  • Yes, there is a human atrocity in Darfur but who behind it… by AL-Tayeb M. Al-Hassan
  • Differences within SPLM Northern Sector by Adil Faris
  • Will not vote for Kiir as president by Atem Garang Atem
  • War Crimes, Crimes against Humanity and Genocide in the North-eastern Sudan By Dr. Abu amna
  • Misleading claims by John Gordon
  • More and more development projects by Ahmed Al Bahi
  • American Aggression against Sudan by Yassir Madani
  • Rebecca Nyandeng's desperate ambitions shall fail! BY: Deng John, South Sudan
  • Justice and Equality Movement and its Great Deception for the Sudanese People. By: Mohammed El Hassan Ali
  • Nyandeng, mother of corruption? Mother of corruption, Nyandeng Garang Ngino Nyikako, USA
  • Ocampo must resign By: Abd Al Mahmoud Nor Aldaim Alkoronki
  • Confronting hostilities by development by Hassan Ali
  • What's Rebecca Nyandeng up to: Next President of GOSS? By Tut Gatwech, South Sudan,
  • Development in spite of sanctions by Ahmed Al Badri
  • Removing the remains of war /Zakieldeen Abd Allah
  • New efforts to end the conflict over Abyei by Sami Alshazali
  • DARFUR: A WAKE UP CALL FOR AFRICA By: Adeeb Abdel Rhman Yousif
  • Do not depend on American support by Fisal Alnour
  • Sudan’s peace partners resolve some key outstanding issues on CPA by By James Gatdet Dak
  • Arop Pledges to Restore Confidence Between Messeriya and Dinka By: Al-Sammani Awadallah / Mona Al-Bashir
  • SLA moves towards Israel by Omar Al Bushra
  • Sudan capable of brining justice to Darfur by Salma Tagani
  • Arrest Warrant Will Negatively Affect Neigbouring Countries, By: Mona Al-Bashir
  • Sudan, an independent country by Adil Faris
  • Why is Pagan Out of the Government? by Urban T Kir in Juba, South Sudan.
  • Darfur: between defiance of accused and hindrance of Justice By: Elrayah Hassan Khalifa California USA
  • President Al Bashir visit to Darfur and Ocampo claims by Omar Khalid
  • Efforts for normalizing Sudanese Chadian relations by Yassir Madani
  • SPLM’s Kiir will NOT be the next President of Sudan by By Tut Gatwech, South Sudan
  • Local Perspectives on a Global Responsibility by Adeeb Abdel Rhman Yousif
  • The challenge that faces Sudan diplomacy by John Gordon
  • Steady Stance and Flexibility in Movements by Ahmed Al Bahi
  • In Memory of Dr. John Garang by By: Enoch Daniel Aba-Phoenix, Arizona
  • Waging Peace: A Credible NGO? By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • Minnawi and GoS by Omar Al Bushra
  • UN and Child Rights by Ahmed Al Badri
  • The Concrete Evidence by Sami Al Shazali
  • Division within Darfurian Movements by Zakieldeen Abd Allah
  • Dr John Garang remembered By Majok Nikodemo Arou
  • Darfur Child Soldiers by Adil Faris
  • Ocampo and his Fall in Abyss by Salma Tagani
  • President Omar Al-basher has to think twice that the crises are not over in Darfur. by Musa Yakub
  • Peace in Darfur, a priority by Hassan Ali
  • We need a clear position now by Yassir Madani
  • WHO WILL PAY FOR ABYEI? by Julie Kuol
  • Flawed Justice for Sudan by Antonio Cassese
  • We can Shield off Ocampo and his Likes when United by Ahmed Al Bahi
  • El Bashir !!! Die a man, not a ridiculous ape. by By: Hajareen Toum.
  • What crimes? by Omar Al Bushra
  • Where the indictment president Al-basher mislead people by Musa Yakub Media officer \ Sudan Liberation /movement in the UK and Northern Ireland
  • International Criminal Court Has Been Political Corporation … by Gibreel Musa Ahmed ---- Khartoum - Sudan
  • Ocampo Awakened the Arab Solidarity/Adil Faris
  • The Sudanese Unique Social Fabric Can't be Destroyed by Ocampo's Statement by Omar Al Bushra
  • The Truth will Remain Glaring by Omar Khalid
  • Why Sudan Opposes the ICC Decision by Salama Tagani
  • Justice is Useless If it Destroys Peace *By James Okik
  • Comment on Bashir Indictment by Dr Isam Siddig
  • The Value of ICC Action on Darfur by Anne Bartlett
  • Providence is always on the side of the strongest battalions by Hassan Ali
  • Double Standard in Daylight Time by Ahmed AlBahi
  • No more “Malesh” we welcome the ICC move by Hatim El Madani*
  • Ocampo is Playing with Fire by Omar Khalid
  • President Salva Kiir's Abuse of power and Rule by whim. By: Joseph Aban Adyieng
  • Western Culture Moral Bankruptcy by Yassir Madani
  • Sudan Does Not Seek to Become US Eager Ally Ahmed Al Badri
  • Sudanese Peace: To Attain Democracy or Autocracy Consolidation? (1-2)/By: Mahmoud E. Yousif - Juba
  • US Feverish Attempts by Omar Al Bushra
  • Freeing Communities from the Legacy of War by Zakieldeen Abdllah
  • Averting Rainy Season Hazards by Salma Tagani
  • Enemies of the CPA poise to create confusion by By Majok Nikodemo Arou
  • Sudan's Position on NATO Troops Unchanged by Hassa Ali
  • Winter,Supporting Who against Who? by Omar Al Bushra
  • Are They Rebels or Bandits? by Ahmed Al Bahi
  • Need for Reciprocity in Sudan-US Relations by Omar Khalid
  • Reconciliation, Accord in the Offing by Yassir Madani
  • A Giant Step to Combat HIV/AIDS /Ahmed Al Bahi
  • Purging Political Life by John Gordon
  • Foreigners Presence in Sudan by Omar Al Bushra
  • The Massacre of Port Sudan By Dr. Abu Amna
  • Mr Al-Al-Nur wailing on the wrong Wall abandoning the three cards Monte trick by Hatim El Madani*
  • Delay in the Hybrid Operation Deployment by Omar Khalid
  • Would Sudan’s inflexible National Congress Party (NCP) honour a World Court Verdict on Abyei,? By Peter Lokarlo Marsu- Melbourne
  • The Elections Act by Yassir Madani
  • CPA Protection Responsibility of All National Forces by Omar Al Bushra
  • The Up-Coming Elections A Collective Responsibility towards Peace in Sudan by Dr. Ahmed Hamoda Hamid Fadlalla.
  • Updated JEM Proposal for Change by Dr. Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • Re to a Professor: Anne Bartlett Darfur is True By- Taha Zein
  • A Witness from among themselves by John Gordon
  • A Collective Responsibility towards Peace in Sudan by Dr. Ahmed Hamoda Hamid Fadlalla
  • Public Opinion No Longer Concerned About the Sudanese-American Relations by Yassir Madani
  • An Opportunity for National Reconciliation by Omar khalid
  • Towards Responsibility and a Harmonious Relationship by Omar Al Bushra
  • ICC Prosecutor Dealt another Blow by John Gordon
  • Unity of darfur by Babiker Gardia
  • Darfur: Truth or Fiction? By Anne Bartlett
  • Beyond the Last Computer by Philip Emeagwali
  • “The Chevron way” the US in open talks with Al-Qaida of Sudan by Hatim El-Madani*
  • Abu Dhabi looks to Sudan for food supply by Dr. S. A. Suliman
  • The world has to save Sudanfrom the brutality of the Khartoum regime by Bahar Arabie
  • Fragile Sudan: Search for Unity that will Never Be *By James Okuk
  • Government Suggests Joint Administration for Abyei Area
  • The Question of African Identity, Arabism and Islam phobia in the Sudan By: Justin D. Wannis
  • Salva Kiir: Shedding the tears of failure/John Sabit Atar, Nairobi, Kenya;
  • Expert De Waal Continues Misleading the World on Darfur by By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • Darfur and Prof Anne Bartlett By Mohammed M. Haiba
  • Bravo” Toyota 4X4 you reached “Trap” Khartoum by Hatim El-Madani*
  • Stop the Witch-hunt in Khartoum by Anne Bartlett
  • Battle of Omdurman responsible for Battle of Omdurman. by By Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • It's Historical! by Mack Awer
  • Another Rwanda Genocide going on in the capital of Sudan, Khartoum and in Omdurman. by Mohamad Ahmad Moaz.
  • Why didn't Kiir cry so much for Garang? Tungawan Chol, Syndey, Australia
  • Expected Results from SPLM’s 2nd Convention *By James Okuk
  • Statement on DPA Second Anniversary by Abdel Gabar M. Dosa
  • Airplanes Nightmare for South Sudanese By Steve Paterno
  • Stepping Out of Naivasha Paradise By: Abd Al Mahmoud Al Koronkai
  • The Politics of Panic in Southern Sudan By: Prof. Wani Tombe
  • Salva Kiir provokes a dangerous situation in the South By :Tut Gatwech
  • Towards a Sudan without a Government Army By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • Who is Behind Masseriya Tribe? by Mack Awer, former Red Army
  • The London-led Western crusade against Zimbabwe lacks rationalization. by Peter Lokarlo Marsu
  • The United Nations honors a female Sudanese researcher as part of the UNEP champions of the Earth: By Taha Yusuf Hassan
  • Britain to “Darfur in” daresay “France it out” by Hatim El Madani*
  • Darfur: Why Insecurity by Proxy has to Stop by Anne Bartlett
  • Corruption in the GOSS is a threat to peace in south Sudan. by Thomas Mawein Bior, Gogrial, Sudan
  • Disability is not Inability: Eliminating Teachers with Disabilities in Education by Ustaz Atem Dut Kuek
  • Postponing Sudan Census: Unjustified GoSS’s rush hour By James Okuk
  • Sheikh Salva Keir “Birneeeta” by Hatim El Madani
  • Justice must be alive in Sudan if peace is genuine? By Mawien D Kuol
  • Sudan’s Bor county leaders disagree on town ownership by Philip Thon Aleu
  • Sudan and the popular uprising By Arman Muhammad Ahmad
  • Why politics must now also become personal on Darfur and China by Anne Bartlett
  • The Joke of the Poorly Ambitious Sudanese by Ali Bashir
  • The World Bank and NGOs in Southern Sudan: Keeping Poverty For Expatriate Benefit *By James Okuk
  • Kiir: Saying and doing differently by Malual Maker, South Sudan
  • Besides tribalism political favouritism a grave concern in New Sudan By Koang Tut Jing
  • South Sudan Democratic Forum in Canada informs the Goss to be mindful and permits the equality to any one (from South Sudan).By Ker Biel Ruey
  • English, the Crazy Language by Ali Al-Bashir- Jeddah.
  • El-Tom and Mr Nur “Israel Taboo” Loose lips sinck ships by Hatim El Madani
  • Our Parliament in Juba paid for doing nothing! by David Char Akau, South Sudan
  • Sudan's Economic Development Increases Despite Sanctions By Sabina Castelfranco
  • THE SOUTH IS EMPTY by Tharwat Gassim
  • Sudan’s Defence Minster: How Racist Can He Be? By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • False Accusation against Dr.Riek Machar, A true Nationalist Leader in South Sudan By: PeterT.Nguanok
  • Taban’s acquittal an example of double standard treatment of SPLM members Atem Mabior
  • Sudanese Responses To: "Obama And My Son": Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, DC, USA
  • American Responses: "Obama And My Son": Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, DC, USA
  • Community Land: A Critical Socio-Economic Factor To Temper With In Southern Sudan By James Okuk
  • Breaking a Taboo: Mr Nur and his SLM Office in Israel By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • China refutes accusation on arms sales to Sudan
  • SPLM 2nd Convention: A Hard Test in Democratic Transformation *By James Okuk
  • The 60 Currents by Hamza M Babbikr
  • The unauthorized profile of the Eastern-Sudan Front’s Chairman 2-3 By Mohamed Ibrahim
  • The Justice & Equality Movement (JEM)/ Religion and the State By: Dr. El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • "USA TDOAY": Obama And My Son: Mohammad Ali Salih: Washington, DC, USA
  • CPA Adjustment and Quest for Southern Sudan Development *By James Okuk
  • Dear Cde Pagan Amoum Okiech by Aleu Ayieny Aleu
  • April 2008 General Population Census: Will I be Counted a Southerner? *By James Okuk
  • NUBA ASSOCIATION IN FRANCE:Condolence on death of Bishop Philip Abbass by Dr Ahmed Osman Tyia Kaffi
  • The Trembling Tip of the Nose!/Faisal Ali Suliman Addabi/lawyer/Doha/Qatar
  • An open letter to Hassan Abdullah Turabi By: Brian Adeba,
  • The big lie by Ismail Abdallah M.
  • JEM’s Vision for a New Sudan by Dr El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • Reframing the Darfur Crisis by Anne Bartlett
  • Confederation for Southern Sudan a Betrayal to Self-determination By James Okuk
  • President Kiir should admit his failure and resign gracefully by Jor Deng
  • Kiir must be indicted for war crimes BY Atem Mabior
  • Kiir shows his real colours By Atem Mabior
  • Will UN Envoy Eliason Do His Homework on Darfur? By Dr. El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • Critical Analysis on the paper presented by Presidential Advisor, Mr Bona Malwal under the title ‘The Future of the CPA under the Current Political Crises`.
  • Sudan needs reality check By Hassan Ibrahim
  • The Hypocrisy of NCP Supporters on Darfur By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • The Polemics of Politics of Transitions in Sudan By John G Nyuot Yoh*
  • SPLM: A Party that Deserves Building not Ruining By James Okuk
  • The Paradox of Political Transformation by SPLM Standards. By; Baraj Ayuen
  • Fanatic Islamic Iran & Exploitive Transnational Capitalism are the Most harmful Sources of insecurity in the World
  • Movement erosion Bneha .... Conflict adults ousts Emin Tela t by Shol Goba
  • Northern Sudanese and Bashir’s Call for Jihad Time for Southerners to Think Aloud Lily A. Akol
  • Sudanese & American Friends March for Peace and Reconciliation By Jimmy Mulla
  • The Dilemma of The SPLM: Is it justified? By: Ngino Nikako
  • The 4th General Congress of the Justice & Equality Movement (JEM) By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • If Sudan Want Peace it has to Prepare for War? * By James Okuk
  • Yet Another Africans Challenge: Liability No. 21 the IQ By Dr. Mohamed N. Bushara*
  • When will Darfur mediators learn (2) By Suliman A Giddo*
  • Bravo to Mr. Salva Kiir for Rejecting the US Proposal By James Okuk Solomon
  • Female Circumcision Negligence and Abuse By Dr. Amal Ahmed Elbasheir.
  • U.S Should Upgrade the SPLA if it is willing to Help Southern Sudan *By James Okuk Solomon
  • Where Sudan Is Booming By Alexis Okeowo
  • When Will Darfur Mediators Learn? By Suliman A. Giddo*
  • Mob Emotions Is Anti-Democratic Transformation By James Okuk Solomon
  • Check with Improper Balance: SPLM Risky Politics of Partnership By James Okuk Solomon
  • Another way to break Abie deadlock by Dr. S.M.Eldebailo
  • The SPLM & Protecting the CPA: Guarding Against the Cynical Obstructionism of NCP Parek Maduot
  • Do Ministers belong to the Party or to the Government? *By James Okuk
  • Habib Bank v Central Bank of Sudan Ismat Abdel Gadir - LL.B
  • Shilluk Communities vs Shilluk International Congress (SIC) By: Kimo Ajing Aba
  • It is Darfur Again and the Misery Goes On By E. Ablorh-Odjidja
  • SLM request to delay Libya talks by Tag Elkhazin,
  • Will the united Sudan remain attractive for all under the NCP regime?! By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • The Value of Peace in Sudan: From Ki-Moon to International Wisemen By James Okuk Solomon
  • South Sudan Egyptians relations / John Lawrence Morbe Joseph
  • Will the Failed Abuja Diplomacy Be Repeated in Libya? By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Why a reality check is needed on Darfur by Anne Bartlett
  • United, Cairo's poor and poorer get heard
  • A Message from Ajik (Ajang) Union in North American To: Commander and Comrade Daniel Kodi by Fadul H.Haimad
  • What Happened To Gen. Kiir First Vice Presidency Position? / by Isaiah Abraham
  • Eritrea in the Sudan's president's office, By: Mohamed Osman Ibrahim
  • UN Ban Ki-Moon and his Drought Thesis of Darfur Conflict By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • UN Secretary General: Mission Impossible By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Old Habits Die Hard: The National Congress Party is Back to Its Outmoded Tactics—By: Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Greatest Marginalization of All Time/Isam Siddig
  • Darfur: A Little Less Talk, A Little More Action by Anne Bartlett
  • Muslims eye America by MOHAMMAD ALI SALIH
  • General Elections in Sudan by the Year 2009: A Fact or a Fiction?/By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Alsalkeen Charitable Organization General Secretary. /By Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Cons and Cues About The Sudanese Forthcoming General Election/Isaiah Abraham
  • Animal’s rights are also rights/Isaiah Abraham
  • SPLM Official Counters the Recent Remarks of the NCP Official over Abyie and Darfour Translated by MAJOK NIKODEMO AROU
  • The Arab Congregation and the Ideology of Genocide in Darfur, Sudan By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • Catholics Led to Hell/Written by Daniel Deng Monyde,
  • Keep away from Darfour, Mustafa Osman Ismail, warns the SPLM Translated by Majok Nikodemo Arou
  • Abyei Protocol. by Mayen. D. Ater
  • Darfur Actors and the absence of Road Maps By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Judiciary Reshuffle Ineptly Calculated by Daniel Deng Monyde
  • Stop the Genocide and give the security then peace will come/Hamed Mohamedain Omer
  • THE AMERICANS AND ME (2): ISLAM Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, “Asharq Alawsat
  • Unwanted in Israel By Sherine Tadros at the Egyptian-Israeli border
  • ISSUES that Rose From the Sudanese Ambassador Press Conference By Jwothab Amum Ajak
  • Al Bashir Slams on Campaigners against Sudan, Reviews Political Developments By: Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Was Dr. John Garang Assassinated?/Daniel Deng Monyde,
  • What had happened in Darfur?/Mahmoud E. Yousif
  • Abie conflict The Inferno of Nivasha or the Paradise of Peace by Dr. S.M.Eldebailo
  • TEXT- Conclusions of AU-UN, Sudan on the Hybrid Operations
  • Alfashir is nearer than Kampala: JEM/NRF Commends New SPLM Stance on Darfur/By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • Sudan: The Politics of Naming - Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency/Prof. Mahmood Mamdani
  • US to Sanction Dr. Khalil Ibrahim! A Statement/Gammali Hasan Galal Eldin
  • Can Darfur Survive the CPA?/Abdullahi El-Tom and Mahmoud Abbaker Suleiman
  • GOD OR AMERICA: WHO IS FIRST? 8 DIFFERENT OPINIONS/Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, “Asharq Alawsat”
  • It would be Unwise to think that a United Sudan Properly Functions within the Main Frameworks of the Phenomenon of Eastern African Development./Urban T. Kir
  • Darfur Crisis: Mediation Failure (2)/Ahmed M. Mohamedain
  • Government of Sudan and Darfur crisis/Musa Yakub Daoud
  • President Bush "Hurts" for Darfur Darfur Is Safer than US Urban Cities/Ali Baghdadi
  • Our Vision on the prospect of peace to end the Darfur tragedy/By Dr. M.A.Suleiman
  • Lies, Damned Lies and the Darfur Crisis by Anne Bartlett is a Director of the Darfur Centre for Human Rights and Development
  • International Media Ignore Sudanese Voices /AfricaFocus (Washington, DC)
  • Sudanese cyber rally forces website to remove controversial ad by Wasil Ali
  • why war in abyaii by bakhit mohd humaidan
  • Al Salikeen Earmarks 1.2 Billion Pounds for Service Schemes by Al Sammani Awadallah
  • A CALL TO ALL THE PEOPLE OF SOUTH SUDAN/By James Ogilo Agor Agokwech-Rochester, MN USA
  • Will the Quartet Summit Contradict with the UN, AU Role in Darfur By: Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Sudan Vision Carries Out a Survey on Pros and Cons of Humanitarian Aid in Sudan By: Al-Sammani Awadallah
  • Al Khatim Adlan’s legacy of wisdom and vision/ahmed elzobier
  • WHEN THEY BEG FOR UNITY by Mack Awer Riak
  • The Genocide Glitterati by Anne Bartlett
  • Darfur-Darfur Dialogue Will Not be Held Hostage by Hostile Armed Factions", Says Dr. Omar Adam
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains/by Nuba Mountains Democratic Forum/Nour Tawir
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains by Nuba_Mountains Democratic Forum by Samie A Djudo
  • How Dr. Garang wanted Abyei to be? (1) /By Akol Miyen Kuol
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains by Nuba Mountains Democratic Forum
  • The Doomsday Cult/Ahmed Sam, human rights activist.
  • China must emulate AU wisdom in Sudan by Simon Roughneen for ISN
  • An article introducing our country Sudan by Maha esmeal ahmed esmeal
  • It is a time for all Peace forces to take action By : Matur Aciek
  • Kiir stood to his pledge of no reverse gear/ BY MAJOK NIKODEMO AROU
  • Unwitting Party to Genocide By Stephen Rademaker
  • January 9th- a Day of Peace and Full Independence/By Dr. Mawien Akot
  • Muslim cadet clear on identity/YVETTE CABRERA
  • 2008 General Elections: What Are The Scenarios Awaiting Us?/Maker Costa-Syracuse New York
  • ’s NCP is planning to rig elections at census level/By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Criticism to the Global War Against International Terrorism, (G-WAIT) by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Swindles of Modern Liberal Democracy by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • Peaceful Conflict Resolution & the War on Terror The cases of Sudan and Iraq by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Jinjaweed Leader By : kuku kadia
  • UA-GSC Sudan Resolution Passes/By Marie Y. Thibault
  • All About Darfur: Is Sudan in a culture of war? By Virginie Wembey
  • AU Recommends Six Month Extension for its Mission By: Al Sammani Awadallah / IOL
  • No South/North border and ABC: CPA is dead.By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Darfur destruction is Sudan’s al-Bashir’s Shame/By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Relationship Between Economic Mismanagement & Social Instability by Eng. Tarig M.M.K. Anter
  • Fake Modern Religions Are Fighting Faith by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Ideological Structure of The Conservative Professional Nationalist Party & System by Eng. Tarig M.M.K. Anter,
  • 'Lost Boys of Sudan' By: Kristin Boyd , Staff Writer
  • Sudan's al-Bashir and Palace are imperfect Match By Sabrino Majok Majok
  • Frank Wolf: Divest from Sudan By U.S. Rep. Frank Wolf (R-10)
  • Sudanese Native Relates Horrors of His Childhood/By Konstantin Shishkin
  • General Congress of JEM Asserts Creation of a political Party/Professor Mahmoud Abakar Sulaiman
  • Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and the Litany of AU Deceit in Darfur/Dr. Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
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  • Reign of Corruption and political stagnation By Andrew Bak
  • Current American Planning Strategies vs. Planning Strategies of the 50s’/By: Adil Bala (PhD)*
  • Free Will, JEM Peace Wing Sign Political and Military Protocol By Al-Sammani Awadallah
  • Only Favourable Humanitarian and Security Conditions are Needed in Darfur By: Al Sammani Awadalla
  • A call to Abolish Sha’ria Law in South Sudan: GOSS must take a Lead
  • Race and colour consciousness art or is it ... Religions? Hatim Elmadani
  • Who are Landless People in Sudan? Mack Awer -Cairo
  • Darfur: Diplomacy and its Discontents by Anne Bartlett
  • Why Egypt won't press Sudan: the Nile By Dan Murphy | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor
  • Pathological Delusions by Ahmed Elzobier
  • NIF is determined to kill CPA By Sabrino Majok Majok
  • Darfur - Solution Must Come From Africans By Mohammed Eisa Ismail
  • The responsibility to protect Darfur By William G. O'Neill
  • Sudanese go tech savvy By Cheryl Lecesse
  • Sorrow in Sudan By Vivian Ho