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Open Letter to the AGU-AAAS-APS by Mahmoud E. Yousif

06-17-2020, 00:21 AM
محمود الحاج يوسف
<aمحمود الحاج يوسف
Registered: 04-11-2017
Total Posts: 12






Open Letter to the AGU-AAAS-APS by Mahmoud E. Yousif

    00:21 AM June, 16 2020

    Sudanese Online
    محمود الحاج يوسف-Sudan
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    Subject: My perspective on your great #ShutDownSTEM, for Black Life Matter
    To The:
    American Geophysical Union (AGU)
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    American Physical Society (APS)
    Dear Sir,
    First, I would like to thank you for devoting a day for #ShutDownSTEM, designated for Black Life Matter, and would like to take this opportunity and link the efforts of Black Life Matter with glimpse from historical background of wrong science, and why it was incorrect, consequentially, it negatively structured behaviors of many in western countries, and some pockets worldwide, including my country, expressed at lower levels by the policeman who killed George Floyd with cold blood, and related personal attainment which will help to understand the depth of racism and how we can overcome it for the betterment of human kind.
    Historically, when Hans Christian Ørsted discovered the relationship between electricity and magnetism in 1820 [1], André-Marie Amp`ere's derived his electrodynamics theory in 1820/26, based on the interactions between the current-carrying conductors, with an assume electric currents in the magnets, although Ampere’s work was criticized by his contemporary scientists, namely, Ørsted, Biot, Savart and Faraday, and later by Grassmann, but they couldn’t get an alternative formula to replace Ampere’s [2], the rift between understanding mechanism of a phenomena and deriving a formula to regulate its function started with Newton’s gravitational law, based on the inverse square law, followed by Coulomb’s two laws of electrostatic force and force between two magnetic poles, consolidated with Ampere’s who stated that, mathematics is much important than mechanism, leading to the concept of action at distance [2], after which James Clerk Maxwell unified electricity and magnetism and light as an electromagnetic radiation (EM-R), but he couldn’t showed the mechanism through which both electric and magnetic fields interacted to produce electromagnetic radiation, or conditions to initiate it, or even why it move with speed of light.
    Thinking within that framework, forced Einstein to introduce quanta (photon) to knock electron from atom [2], although opposed by prominent contemporary scientists like Millikan, Lorenz and Planck [4], but Compton’s claimed in his experiment in 1923, that “scattering is a quantum phenomenon; and a radiation quantum carries with it momentum as well as energy” [5], that shattered opposing voices, and although Einstein got the Noble price by that, but for fifty years he couldn’t stop thinking about what’s photon [6]; this background raised a serious question, if a wave formula is discovered in replay to Ampere’s challenge 200 years ago, and a formula is discovered showing the existence of radiation force in electromagnetic radiation even after 110 years from introduction of quanta (photon), is it legitimate to seek scientific truth by an individual within human society, or the path of science has already been concealed by the quantum mechanics and should not be reviewed؟ Then what’s the justification for the existence of scientific societies؟
    In 1999 the Almighty God helped me to discover the elusive field’s formula, it helped me solving the force between two conductors carrying electric currents, catapult force, Lorentz force, the Spinning Magnetic Force (SMFs) or the Nuclear Force (FN), suggesting an energization of charged particles, and an atomic model for hydrogen atom including the production of spectral lines, in “The Magnetic Interaction” [7], although these are attractive subjects, and should have initiated debates to review the current scientific foundation, unfortunately, for more than three years, all approached peer review journals, declined to publish it, then I resorted to an Internet journal in 2003. In 2018 I expanded the paper to include the electrostatic force in addition to all magnetic forces in “The Unified Force of Nature: 1-The Electric and Magnetic Forces” [8], of course peer review journals refused to publish it; while to understand magnetism, I came with “ELEMETS OF THE MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE” [9], which could help to understand thickness of magnetic lines in sun.
    After that in 2004, I expanded the Spinning Magnetic Force (SMFs) or the Nuclear Force (FN), in “The Magnetic Interaction” [7] to include the interactions between electrons, protons and neutrons resulted in strong forces and energies, in “The Spinning Magnetic Force” [10], but rejected by peer review journals. I thought alternative renewable energy is an important issue for the continuation of humanity in this planet, as I came up in 2004 with “THE UNIVERSAL ENERGIES” [11], unfortunately rejected by different peer review journals! Then in 2016 I explained the weak force as a disintegration of the strong force in “The Weak Spinning Magnetic Force (FW) (The Weak Interaction)” [12], but peer review journals were not interested! After that, I regulated the Spinning Magnetic Force [10] with some changes in “The Grand Unification: 2-The Nuclear (F_N) and Weak (F_W) Forces” [13], I thought it is an important logical analysis, but failed to get attention of peer review journals.
    In 2013, I have been challenged in the ResearchGate, to explain the double slits experiments, after researches, I realized I need first to explain the two elements of Electromagnetic Radiation (EM-R) and how its produced, hence in 2014, I came up with a paper explaining the nature of electric and magnetic fields and how they interacted to produce electromagnetic radiation (EM-R) in “The Electromagnetic Radiation Mechanism” [14], a good paper, but rejected by peer review journals, although I published it in internet journal, but two years later, it disappeared from the net, when returned, my paper was not there!
    Then I explained the energy of EM-R and relation with Planck’s constant and conditions for EM-R to be produced in “Electromagnetic Radiation Energy and Planck’ Constant” [15], of course, rejected by peer review journals!
    Then I discovered a formula in 2015 which showed the existence of magnetic force in EM-R given by Eq. (24), proving the non existence of photon, and explained the photoelectric effect and explained compound atom of potassium with its spectral lines in “The Photoelectric Effects-Radiation Based With Atomic Mode” [16], that time instead of only been rejected by peer review journals, I was rewarded by multiple heavy virus, which crashed my Laptop, and later lost all my data, for the third time.
    I revisited the Compton effects and explained it, including details aspects of how EM-R is produced, and why its released with speed of light, in “The Compton Effect Re-Visited” [17], although its among the most complicated papers, unfortunately, it was rejected by all peer review journals that been submitted to; then I showed the mistake by Compton in using Einstein’s formula of mass energy equivalent, which only could be correct at a single frequency, in “Compton was Greatly Mistaken Using the Quantum” [18], as usually rejected by peer review journals. The double slits, which Feynman described saying “we choose to examine a phenomenon which is impossible, absolutely impossible, to explain in any classical way, and which is in the heart of quantum mechanics” [19], but after the above five background papers, we explained it together with Planck’s constant in “The Double Slit Experiment-Explained” [20], but as usual, peer review journals declined to publish it, I don’t have alternative except to resorted to internet journals; then I tackled the electron diffraction in “Electron Diffraction Re-Explained (The Intense Magnetic Field Interaction with Crystals)” [21], but peer review journals refused to publish it, these five papers shaken the bases upon which quantum mechanics was established.
    Other outstanding papers I venture to write like, “Exploring the High-altitude Nuclear Detonation and Magnetic Storms” [22], rejected by peer review journals, then “The Source of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) Measured by Pioneer V” [23], also rejected by peer review journals, then an interested subject of “The Sunspots Mechanism” [24], then “The Solar Flare Mechanism” [25], as usually, rejected by peer review journals; earlier I wrote “Solar or Interplanetary External Magnetic Field” [26], peer review journals rejected it; much earlier I wrote “What is Beneath the Sunspots؟” [27]
    An old experiment by Faraday was revisited, in “The Faraday Effect Explained” [28], also rejected by the peer review journals, then thinking about mystery of the gravity, in “Newton‟s Gravitation Law is Wrong!” [29], rejected by peer review journals; then I wrote an alternative for the gravity in planets with atmosphere in “The Hydrostatic Force (FH) of Gravity (The Atmospheric Force of Gravity)” [30], rejected by peer review journals.
    My last paper, title “The Sources of the Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: 1- The Dipole Moments of the Sun and Earth,” [31] as the title indicates, it tackled one of the most complicated phenomenon affecting humanity, and although its knowledge is crucial for the existence of humanity on this planet, where the origins of Earth’s magnetic field remain a mystery [32], but it was rejected by four peer review journals, including AGU’s ESSOAr, which although first wrote me on 12 February 2020 “Your preprint (The Sources of the Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: 1- The Dipole Moments of the Sun and Earth) has been successfully submitted to the earth and Space Science open Archive (ESSOAr)” and given DOI:10.1002/essoar.10502254.1.
    I was happy, for the first time in twenty five years of researches, because as policy of the journal stated, it will be accessible to readers before a decision is made on it, but suddenly after only five days on the Archive, I received an email on 17 February 2020, “Your preprint (The Sources of the Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: 1- The Dipole Moments of the Sun and Earth) has been rejected for posting at Earth and Space Science Open Archive (ESSOAr). The advisors provided the following reason for the rejection:”
    “This content did not meet the requirements for posting in ESSOAr and requires great depth and scholarship. Please refer to our submission guide for more information. Directions or links to the publicly available data used in the manuscript are not explicit in the text or acknowledgements.”
    I was shocked, a single acceptance by a peer review journals, after 26 rejections, then it change its mind five days later؟ Is the justification of those advisors is logical؟ And is it really posted in the first place to be reviewed like other papers؟ For how long, with the DOI:10.1002/essoar.10502254.1., as its Digital Object Identifier(DOI), which identified the document and link it to web and opened to readers؟ [33] Is it really meant to be accessible to readers before a decision, though been given only five days؟ While advisors decided it did not meet the requirements for posting in ESSOAr that should be before posting not after, then what level of depth for something nobody managed to know؟ Regarding scholarship, it was odd comment! So, who is wrong, these peer review journals؟ Or my papers؟
    Let’s start with my papers, as mentioned Ampere challenged his contemporary scientists like Ørsted, Biot, Savart and Faraday in 1820, to bring an alternative formula to substitute his defective one, but they couldn’t get the required formula [2], later, many scientists tried that, in vain, my question is does that challenge ended there or it was vibrating through time؟
    Logically, it was valid, and since objectivity in science is an attempt to uncover truth about the natural world, by eliminating personal biases, emotions, and false beliefs [34], therefore our response to Ampere’s is based on field’s interaction, it’s the truth which unified all forces of the nature by single formula, which was the hope of scientists in different eras. The same paper [7], contain a model for hydrogen atom with the spectral line, such presentation until recently, was the only condition for scientific establishment to make a review in its stand, but the goal post not only reduced, it was completely vanished!
    Secondly, in 2015, I discovered the formula for the Radiation Magnetic Force (FmR) given by Eq. (24) [16], the paper even explained the spectral lines for potassium atom in “The Photoelectric Effects-Radiation Based With Atomic Mode” [16], the scientific community supposed to celebrate that formula and the atomic model, because it was a big achievement for the whole humanity, it was not less than what Max Planck achieved in 1900, therefore, nothing wrong with my papers.
    Then what’s wrong with these peer review journals؟ Frankly, because my papers contradicted the deep rooted believed in White Supremacy, and the limit of what Blackman can achieve!
    Historically, in the earlier era of slave trades, religious scholars tried to justify the evil practice of slave trade in Africa by misinterpreted the curse of Ham’s son Canaan, in the Book of Genesis, the story original purpose was to justify the subjection of Canaanite people to the Israelities (sons of Israel), but in later centuries, the narrative was interpreted by some Christians, Muslims and Jews as an explanation for Black skin, as well as a justification for slavery; although most Christians and Muslims now disagree with such interpretations, because in the Biblical text, Ham himself is not cursed, and race or skin color is never mentioned [35], later in nineteen century, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) American politician, scientist, and slave owner, contributed to scientific racism. According to article in McGill Journal of Medicine “One of the most influential pre-Darwin racial theorists, Jefferson’s call for science to determine the obvious ‘inferiority’ of African Americans is an extremely important stage in the evaluation of scientific racism,” Jefferson concluded “blacks were inferior to the whites in the endowments of body and mind” although that slightly changed by a letter and almanac from Benjamin Banneker, an educated black mathematician [36], although Charles Darwin didn’t discussed human race in his “On the Origin of Species,” but the French aristocrat and writer Arthuer de Gobineau (1816-1882) proposed three human races (Black, white and yellow) were natural barriers and claimed race mixing would lead to the collapse of culture and civilization, his works were praised by many white supremacist American pro-slavery thinkers such as Josiah C. Nott and Henry Hotze [36], then came people like Carl Vogt (1817-1895), who believed that the Negro race was related to the ape and white race is separate species to Negroes [36], Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919 compared Negroes to four-handed apes, he believed Negroes were savages and that whites were the most civilized [36], the Dutch scholar Pieter Camper (1722-1789) used “craniometry” (interior skull-volume measurement) to scientifically justify racial differences. In 19th century early American physical anthropologist, physician and polygenist Samuel George Morton (1799-1851), claimed he could judge racial intellectual capacity by measuring the interior cranial capacity, hence a large skull denoted a large brain, thus high intellectual capacity, conversely, a small skull denoted a small brain, thus low intellectual capacity; he claimed since Noah’s Ark had washed up on Mount Ararat only a thousand years earlier, Noah’s sons could not possibly account for every race on earth, hence race separated since the start, Morton claimed Caucasians had the biggest brains, averaging 87 cubic inches, Native Americans were in the middle with 82 cubic inches Negros had the smallest brains with an average of 78 cubic inches, thus he established superior and inferior ethnicity, while Madison Grant (1865-1937) presented the Nordic race by Joseph Deniker as “white racial engine of the world civilization” [36]. In America, scientific racism justified Black African slavery to assuage moral opposition to the Atlantic slave trade, Alexander Thomas and Samuel Sillen described black men as uniquely fitted for bondage, because of their “primitive psychological organization.” At the time of the American Civil War (1861–65) early anthropologists, such as Josiah Clark Nott, George Robins Gliddon, Robert Knox, and Samuel George Morton, aimed to scientifically prove that Negroes were a human species different from the white people species; that the rulers of Ancient Egypt were not African [36]. In Medical Apartheid, Harriet A. Washington noted the prevalence of two different views on blacks in the 19th century: the belief that they were inferior and "riddled with imperfections from head to toe", and the idea that they didn't know true pain and suffering because of their primitive nervous systems and that slavery was therefore justifiable. Even after the end of the Civil War, some scientists continued to justify the institution of slavery by citing the effect of topography and climate on racial development. Nathaniel Shaler, a prominent geologist at Harvard University from 1869-1906, published the book Man and the Earth in 1905 describing the physical geography of different continents and linking these geologic settings to the intelligence and strength of human races that inhabited these spaces. Shaler argued that North American climate and geology was ideally suited for the institution of slavery [36].
    Scientific racism played a role in establishing apartheid in South Africa. In South Africa, white scientists, like Dudly Kidd, who published The essential Kafir in 1904, sought to “understand the African mind”. They believed that the cultural differences between whites and blacks in South Africa might be caused by physiological differences in the brain. Rather than suggesting that Africans were “overgrown children”, as early white explorers had, Kidd believed that Africans were “misgrown with a vengeance”. He described Africans as at once “hopelessly deficient”, yet “very shrewd’ [36].
    Before 1920s, social scientists agreed that whites were superior to blacks, but they needed a way to prove this in order to back social policy in favor of whites. They felt the best way to gauge this was through testing intelligence. By interpreting the tests to show favor to whites these test makers' research results portrayed all minority groups very negatively. In 1908, Henry Goddard translated the Binet intelligence test from French and in 1912 began to apply the test to incoming immigrants on Ellis Island. Some claim that in a study of immigrants Goddard reached the conclusion that 87% of Russians, 83% of Jews, 80% of Hungarians, and 79% of Italians were feeble-minded and had a mental age less than 12. Some have also claimed that this information was taken as “evidence” by lawmakers and thus it affected social policy for years [36].
    In the 20th century, concepts of scientific racism, which sought to prove the physical and mental inadequacy of groups deemed “inferior”, was relied upon to justify involuntary sterilization programs. Such programs, promoted by eugenicists such as Harry H. Laughlin, were upheld as constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in Buck v. Bell (1927). In all, between 60,000 and 90,000 Americans were subjected to involuntary sterilization. In the late 19th century, the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) United States Supreme Court decision—which upheld the constitutional legality of racial segregation under the doctrine of “separate but equal”—was intellectually rooted in the racism of the era, as was the popular support for the decision. Later, in the mid 20th century, the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) decision rejected racialist arguments about the “need” for racial segregation—especially in public schools [36].
    Reviewing these shocking backgrounds, not only shows the deep-rooted historical discrimination in America and many Western countries, but it also explained the supremacy feelings of the white policeman pressing on the neck of George Floyd for Eight Minutes Forty Five Seconds (8:45), such cruelty showed how he was recalling the slavery area, where Black life means nothing, mentally he’s still part of that past.
    Such negative impressions towards Black people was expressed recently by a very high academia, Dr. James D. Watson, founder of modern genetics, when he suggested that black people are intrinsically less intelligent than whites. In 2007, Dr. Watson, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for describing the double-helix structure of DNA, told a British journalist that he was “inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa” because “all our social policies are based on the fact that their intelligence is the same as ours, whereas all the testing says, not really.” Moreover, he added, although he wished everyone were equal, “people who have to deal with black employees find this not true.” [37]
    As a specialist in DNA’ double-helix structure, what Watson said could be interpreted by white supremacist as a confirmation that Black’s DNA is the reason for their lower achievements compared to the white, which means the white supremacy is an inheritance in their DNA, hence such racist could have ventured into DNA’ studies to find differences in Chromosome [38]!
    Such level of unscientific allegations, compounded with long history of white achievements in scientific arena, lead many, even among Blacks who were doctrine, to believe that, only whites are genetically qualified to make scientific discoveries.
    This as a background to the current, reality when a Black man claimed to have discovered the field’s formula which was a challenge for scientists during the past 200 years [7], [8], or the claim that he discovered Eq. (24) after 115 years [16], suggesting the existence of magnetic force in electromagnetic radiation, proving that the quanta (photon) and the related action at distance are just a virtual reality; hence which among peer review journals inherited with such supremacy feelings could have accepted these claims؟
    My past experience showed the existence of international ghostly system which infiltrated into different sectors of life and working to keep the white supremacy.
    As journals of your institutions are the leading in the scientific arena, and they are among the peer review journals which rejected most of my papers for the past seventeen years, the above acceptance then rejection by the earth and Space Science open Archive (ESSOAr), is a good example of the true objective of those deciding on your behalves, which could be interpreted as to keep the continuation of white supremacy, or maybe it had been subjected to pressure by the above ghostly system!
    Linking these attitudes with the letters which I submitted to the institutions and many others since February 26, 2018; till now I didn’t got even a confirmation for reception, which means you don’t give this issue much attention or care as should have been, and if the institutions and the peer review journals were faire in dealing with my efforts, maybe the life of George Floyd and thousands others since 2001, could have been spared, or at least those policemen could have realized African Americans are human beings like them, and the supremacy was merely wrong scientific interpretation influenced by slave traders, just like photon which was wrongly introduced by Einstein [3] and incorrectly endorsed by Compton [5]; hence, the world dreamed by Martin Luther King could have been achieved by courageous decision, unfortunately you couldn’t take such opportunity, I was not asking for a favor, I am just hoping the truth may prevail, which could have lifted the historical burden incurred by some of us merely, due to arrogances by some to satisfy supremacy.
    A recent study indicating Black researchers applying for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants consistently receive lower scores than white in the first phase of the application process, a key reason why they receive fewer grants [39].
    Even if they get the grant, and worked very hard to come with new ideas, they may not get the chance to publish it in peer review journals؟ Simply, because many who grow up in period where Black Africans children were kept inside a cage in Human zoo in Belgium in 1958, the image of which would never erase from their brains, its among the reasons why the impression of that policeman and others towards Africans still linked with such images [40]. This is the dilemma faced by Black scientists in general, I am in particular, and as Rev. Al Sharpton put its
    “George Floyd’s story has been the story of black folks because ever since 401 years ago, the reason we could never be who we wanted and dreamed to being is you kept your knee on our neck. We were smarter then the underfunded schools you…” “it’s time for us to stand up in George’s name and say get your knee off our necks.” [41]
    All these leads to the core question, can Black scientists added something to the advancement of human progress؟ The above mentioned two formulas are a good example for what Black scientists can do if they restored their confidence, while if peer review journals allow a chance for these papers, they may generate discussions, that could reflects positively in many sectors, particularly in the alternative renewable energy, such as our “EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD PROPULSION SYSTEM (ExMF-PS)” [42], which will secure the future of humanity on this planet and above all the dignity of hum being as prescribed by Almighty God.
    During the period, when peer review journals declined to publish my papers, I became affiliated to two great institutions, without whom my voice could have never reached such levels, these are ResearchGate and LinkedIn, I take this opportunity to thanks them, with loud voice too, because efforts by such institutions are the one which will transform the world to be a better place to live.
    I thank your three institutions, in its efforts for the #ShutDownSTEM designated for Black Life Matter; and hope this will greatly add to the struggle by many among the diverse human kind to open new pages with diversities.
    Finally, in regards to my efforts which led to the discovery of the field’s formula, and the resulted new physics, it’s clear that, these new ideas in physics will bring humanity together to face many challenges that may face the world in future; contrary to the current fundamental physics, in addition to the fact that, it’s wrong, it had divided humanity in the past on racial bases, mislead some scientists to cause great rift among human kind, leading to great miseries among human societies. While the truth is that, in a healthy society, any human being can exert extra efforts to achieve his/her dreams, regardless of race or ethnicity.
    Finally, as scientists, I hope you will be able to take an appropriate action that will satisfy your consciousness and attain the paramount truth, which I am sure, will represent a decisive historical moment, it will remove the mist from large part of humanity, and will reflect positively on the restoration of single human race, and accept my best regards.
    Mahmoud E. Yousif
    [email protected]
    Jun 11, 2020
    Member of:
    American Geophysical Union (AGU), Member ID: 11479050
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Member ID: 40524859
    American Physical Society (APS), Member ID: 61149208

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    Yousif M E (2018a) Compton was Greatly Mistaken Using the Quantum, OSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP) e-ISSN: 2278-4861.Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. I, PP 30-40. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322835620_Compton_was_Greatly_Mistaken_Using_the_Quantumhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/322835620_Compton_w...en_Using_the_Quantum
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    Yousif M E (2016) The Double Slit Experiment-Explained, J Phys Math 7: 179. doi:10.4172/2090-0902.1000179. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307122920_The_Double_Slit_Experiment_Re-Explainedhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/307122920_The_Doubl...eriment_Re-Explained
    Yousif M E (2016) Electron Diffraction Re-Explained (The Intense Magnetic Field Interaction with Crystals), IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP) e-ISSN: 2278-4861.Volume 8, Issue 5 Ver. II, PP 99-116 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308947884_Electron_Diffraction_Re-Explained_The_Intense_Magnetic_Fields_Interactions_within_Crystalshttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/308947884_Electron_...ions_within_Crystals
    Yousif M E (2014) Exploring the High-altitude Nuclear Detonation and Magnetic Storms, J Astrophys Aerospace Technol 2: 105. doi:10.4172/2329- 6542.1000105 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265510073_Exploring_the_High-altitude_Nuclear_Detonation_and_Magnetic_Stormshttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/265510073_Exploring..._and_Magnetic_Storms
    Yousif ME (2014) The Source of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) Measured by Pioneer V. J Astrophys Aerospace Technol 2: 108. doi:10.4172/2329-6542.1000108  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265510247_The_Source_of_the_Interplanetary_Magnetic_Field_IMF_Measured_by_Pioneer_Vhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/265510247_The_Sourc...easured_by_Pioneer_V
    Yousif M E (2013) The Sunspots Mechanism, Int. J. of Res and Rev in App Sc, Vol. 16, Issue 4, ISSN: 2076-734X, EISS: 2076-7366. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258508471_The_Sunspots_Mechanismhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/258508471_The_Sunspots_Mechanism
    Yousif M E (2011a) The Solar Flare Mechanism, Personal website. http://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/SpacePhysics/The_Sunspots_Mechanism.pdfhttp://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/SpacePhysics/The_...nspots_Mechanism.pdf https://www.researchgate.net/publication/215870630_The_Solar_Flare_Mechanismhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/215870630_The_Solar_Flare_Mechanism
    Yousif M E (2012)  Solar or Interplanetary External Magnetic Field, Personal website. http://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/SpacePhysics/Solar_or_Interplanetary_External_Magnetic_Field.pdfhttp://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/SpacePhysics/Sola...l_Magnetic_Field.pdf
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236853622_Solar_or_Interplanetary_External_Magnetic_Fieldhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/236853622_Solar_or_...ernal_Magnetic_Field
    Yousif M E (2007) What is Beneath the Sunspots؟ Personal website. http://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/SpacePhysics/What_is_Beneath_the_Sunspots.pdfhttp://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/SpacePhysics/What...ath_the_Sunspots.pdf
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235257197_What_is_Beneath_the_Sunspotshttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/235257197_What_is_Beneath_the_Sunspots
    Yousif, M. E. (2017) The Faraday Effect Explained, OSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP) e-ISSN: 2278-4861.Volume 9, Issue 5 Ver. II, PP 74-84 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320004068_The_Faraday_Effect_Explainedhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/320004068_The_Faraday_Effect_Explained
    Yousif M E (2018b) “Newton‟s Gravitation Law is Wrong!” IOSR J. of Appl Phys (IOSR-JAP), e-ISSN: 2278-4861.Volume 10, Issue 4 Ver. I, 34-38, DOI: 10.9790/4861 - 100401 3438. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326393684_Newtonhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/326393684_Newton's_...itation_Law_is_Wrong
    Yousif M E (2018c) “The Hydrostatic Force (FH) of Gravity (The Atmospheric Force of Gravity)” IOSR J. of Appl Phys (IOSR-JAP), e-ISSN: 2278-4861.Volume 10, Issue 4 Ver. II, 45-53, DOI: 10.9790/4861-1004024552. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327013261_The_Hydrostatic_Force_F_H_of_Gravity_The_Atmospheric_Force_of_Gravityhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/327013261_The_Hydro...ric_Force_of_Gravity
    Yousif M E, “The Sources of the Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: 1- The Dipole Moments of the Sun and Earth,” Unpublished.
    Chu J. (2020) Origins of Earth’s magnetic field remain a mystery, MIT News office. http://news.mit.edu/2020/origins-earth-magnetic-field-mystery-0408
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    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_racism
    James Watson Had a Chance to Salvage His Reputation on Race. He Made Things Worse, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/01/science/watson-dna-genetics-race.html
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome
    Elena A. Erosheva, Sheridan Grant, Mei-Ching Chen, Mark D. Lindner, Richard K. Nakamura and Carole J. Lee, (2020) NIH peer review: Criterion scores completely account for racial disparities in overall impact scores, Science Advances, Vol 6, No 23, eaaz4868, DOI:10.1126/sciadv.aaz4868
    https://m.facebook.com/story.php؟story_fbid=716819502471943andid=389970251823538https://m.facebook.com/story.php؟story_fbid=716819502471943andid=389970251823538
    https://www.rev.com/blog/transcripts/reverend-al-sharpton-eu...oyd-memorial-service
    Yousif M E (2007) EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD PROPULSION SYSTEM (ExMF-PS), Personal website. http://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/New_Energy/Propulsion/ExMF-PS.pdfhttp://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/New_Energy/Propulsion/ExMF-PS.pdf
































                  

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