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Civil and political rights International covenant on civil and political rights بقلم حمانيد الكرتى

05-20-2021, 01:48 PM
حماد سند الكرتى
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Civil and political rights International covenant on civil and political rights بقلم حمانيد الكرتى

    01:48 PM May, 20 2021

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    الحقيقة والمعرفة

    The charter of the UN 1945 proclaims that one of the reasons of the UN is to promote and encourage respect for human rights, and fundamental freedoms for all. All this call was first given concrete expression with officially of the universal declaration of human rights, by the UN general assembly in 1948. Adopted against the background of the feeling of great shocks and fear, of the second world war. The universal declaring for human rights was the first attempted by the international community to agree in a single document, on comprehensive catalogue of the rights of human person. The universal declaration set down two broad categories of human rights and freedoms: first civil and political rights. Second economic, social, and cultural rights.
    At the time of the adoption of the universal declaration of human rights, there was already broad agreement that human rights should be translated into legal form as treaty, which will be directly binding on the state that agreed to be bound by its terms and conditions.
    Alongside the two covenants are five further core UN human rights treaties:
    1- The international convention on the elimination of all form of discrimination 1965
    2- The convention on the elimination of all form of discrimination against women 1979
    3- The convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, or punishment 1984
    4- The convention on the rights of the child 1989, and
    5- The international convention on the protection of the rights of all migrants’ workers and members of their families
    The international covenant on civil and political rights and its protocol
    Although the text of the covenant was adopted in 1966, it took another ten years before formally entered into force on the 23 March 1976 for those states.
    Structures and contents of the covenant
    Part 1 and 2 overarching provisions.
    The first two parts comprising articles 1 to 5. Articles 1, which forms part1 guarantees the rights of self-determination.
    Part 2 comprises articles 2 through 5. Article 2 is one of the fundamental cornerstones of the covenant. It provides that a state party must respect and ensure the rights of the covenant to all persons within its jurisdiction with some exceptions such as the rights to vote. These rights extend not only to citizens but to all persons in the state’s territory and must be respected without discrimination.
    Article 3, of the covenant provides for the equal rights of men and women to the enjoyments of the covenant rights.
    Article 4, of the covenant recognizes that exceptional situations affecting a state party may make the guarantee of some rights difficult or impossible, at a practical level, for a temporary period.
    Article 5, a guarantee protective provisions stating that nothing in covenant confers the right to limit or destroy any of its provisional and that stat party whose domestic law provides greater protection than this contained in the covenant may not use that as an excuse to restrict or derogate from the fundamental rights contained in the covenant.
    Part 3: the substantive rights of the covenant: is the heart of the covenant. It lists the substantive rights and fundamental freedoms guaranteed by the treaty.
    Article 6 to 11 may regard as core provisions of the protection of the life, liberty and physical security of individuals. This provision also stipulates the narrow confines within which the death penalty may legitimately imposed in states parties where that penalty has not been abolished. Specific prohibitions are set out concerning torture, unauthorized medical experimentation, slavery and forced labor. The rights of person in the context of deprivation of liberty, commonly by arrest, and in detention are also covered here.
    Articles 12, and 13 deal with movement into, out of and within a state, with rules applicable to the expulsion of aliens.
    Article 14 to 16, deal with how person must be treated by the judiciary process. Article 14 guarantees the right to a fair trial in both civil and criminal case, a right of fundamental importance.
    Article 15 prohibits retrospective criminal punishment.
    Article 16, states simply that everyone has the right to be recognized as a person before the law.
    Article 17 to 22 set out fundamental freedoms to be enjoyed free of unjustified external interference. Article 17 address the rights to privacy. Article 18, freedom of thought and religion. Article 19, freedom of opinion and expression. Article 20 advocacy of war or of national, racial or religious hatred. Article 21, the right to peaceful assembly. Article 22, freedom of association including through trade union.
    Article 23-24 recognize the role of family and address the issues of the right of children and marriage. Article 26, right to equality before the law. Article 27, which guarantees persons belonging ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities, the rights in communities with other members of the group to enjoy and practice their own culture, religion or language.
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