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Articles and ViewsA Slave Trader Al-Zubair Pasha cannot be a representative of the Sudanese People’s Streets
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A Slave Trader Al-Zubair Pasha cannot be a representative of the Sudanese People’s Streets

08-30-2021, 00:30 AM
Mahmoud A. Suleiman
<aMahmoud A. Suleiman
Registered: 01-13-2014
Total Posts: 184





A Slave Trader Al-Zubair Pasha cannot be a representative of the Sudanese People’s Streets

    00:30 AM August, 30 2021

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    تاجر الرقيق الزبير باشا لا يمكن أن يكون ممثلا لشوارع الشعب السوداني
    Written by Mahmoud A. Suleiman
    Needless to mention, as they say, it is a remaining stain on the forehead of the people of the free, revolutionary and democratic Sudan; furthermore, it is disgusting, yet we see one of the main streets in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, bearing the name of Zubair Pasha Bahama, who was a slave trader. Indeed, it represents one of the persistent negative images of the Sudanese people who made the Glorious December 2018. As it is clear that a situation that does not reflect the current positions of the revolutionary Sudanese people. As we know that the name Al-Zubair Pasha Rahma and Al-Zubair Pasha Street remains a great shame upon the Sudanese revolutionary heritage. Zubair Rahma is in one of the main streets in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum. It remains a disgrace to the face of the revolutionary Sudanese people who resisted dictatorships and overthrew the ruling military regimes since the October 21, 1964, April 1985 revolution and last but not least, the Glorious December 19, 2018 revolution that brought down the brutal dictatorial regime under the leadership of the deposed fugitive from international justice, who committed the heinous crimes of war, crimes against humanity and genocide against the Sudanese citizens in the Darfur region of Sudan. Needless to say as they say, however, it is disgusting to see that one of the main streets in the Sudanese capital Khartoum bears the name of Zubair Pasha Bahama who was a slave trader. Indeed, it is one of the persistent negative images of the Sudanese people who made the glorious December 2018 revolution; a situation that does not reflect the current positions of the revolutionary Sudanese people. As we know that the name Al-Zubair Pasha Rahma and Al-Zubair Pasha Street is written in one of the main streets in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum. It remains a disgrace to the free, revolutionary Sudanese people who resisted dictatorships and overthrew the ruling military regimes since the Glorious October 21, 1964 and April 1985 popular Revolutions. And last but not least, the Glorious December 19, 2018 Revolution that brought down the brutal dictatorial regime under the leadership of the ousted fugitive from international justice, who committed war crimes, crimes against humanity and crimes of genocide against the Sudanese citizens in the Darfur region of WESTERN Sudan. As the recent history tells us that Al-Zubayr Rahma aka al-Zubair Rahma Pasha Mansur was a slave trader who was born in 1830 and died in 1913 According to the documentation from Google. https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/؟tab=rmandogbl#inbox/FMfcgzGk...gSVXGmkWKKKngSHGqMJH
    The Revolutionary Sudanese People Need not to see the Accursed Name of the Zubeir Pasha Rahma the Slave Trader to remain as a name for one of the Streets of the Capital Khartoum.
    By the way, it is noteworthy to for the Sudanese people to remember or to be reminded of the fact that the Date April 16 1862 in the United States of America (USA) was the date that Led to Abolition of Slave Trade. On April 16, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed an act abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia, an important step in the long road toward full emancipation and enfranchisement for African Americans.



    Who was Al-Zubayr Rahma Mansur Pasha؟
    https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/؟tab=rmandogbl#inbox/FMfcgzGk...gSVXGmkWKKKngSHGqMJH
    
Al-Zubayr Rahma Mansur Pasha (Arabic: الزبير رحمة منصور‎; 1830 – January 1913), also known as Sebehr Rahma or Rahama Zobeir,[1] was a slave trader in the late 19th century. He later became a pasha and Sudanese governor. https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/؟tab=rmandogbl#inbox/FMfcgzGk...gSVXGmkWKKKngSHGqMJH
    

Al-Zubayr Rahma Mansur Pasha
His reputation as a nemesis of General Charles Gordon meant he was bestowed a near-mythic status in the United Kingdom, where he was referred to as "the richest and worst", a "Slaver King" "who [had] chained lions as part of his escort".[2][3]
Background Edit
Born in 1830 as Al-Zubayr Rahma Mansur, he came from the Gemaab section of the Ja'Alin, an Arab tribe indigenous to Northern Sudan.
He began his large-scale business in 1856, when he left Khartoum with a small army, to set up a network of trading forts known as zaribas, focusing his efforts on slave trading and ivory sales. At its height, his trading empire, backed by a personal army, controlled much of the Bahr el Ghazal as well as what are today parts of Chad and the Central African Republic.
In 1871, at the height of his power, Rahma was visited at his headquarters in Deim Zubeir by Georg Schweinfurth, who described the slave trader's court as "little less than princely".[4] Isma'il Pasha of Egypt desired control over the region, but Rahma defeated a mercenary army sent against him. Instead in 1873 Isma'il added the region to his empire by acknowledging Rahma's power and granting him the title of Governor over Bahr el Ghazal.[5]
Eventually Rahma controlled 30 zaribas, and earned the titles of bey and Pasha, after allying himself, and his lieutenant Rabih az-Zubayr, with the khedive Ismail Pasha briefly during the invasion of Darfur, where he led the southern forces. He was referred to as "the Black Pasha", and ultimately wished to become Governor General.[1]
Opposition to Gordon Edit
In 1877, General Gordon arrived as the newly appointed Governor of the Sudan, and sought to suppress the slave trade. Rahma brought his grievances to Cairo, asking for the Governorship of the newly conquered Darfur, but was rejected. Egyptian authorities also prohibited his return to Sudan, but allowed him to travel to Constantinople at the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War.[6]
That year, Gordon wrote back home "I have to contend with many vested interests, with fanaticism, with the abolition...with a large semi-independent province lately under Sebehr, the Black Pasha, at Bahr Gazelle".[1]
Rahma's 22-year-old[7] son Suleiman also fought against General Gordon from a stronghold, nicknamed The Cave of Adullam, located outside Shaka.[1] Gordon briefly considered offering Suleiman the position of Governor of Dara in an attempt to occupy him with peaceful plans. Instead, he chose to have El Nour, one of Suleiman's chiefs, report on activity within the group and in turn be offered the Governorship himself. Through this, he learned that Suleiman was still receiving letters from Rahma, whose correspondence always included the cryptic phrase "Take care of Abdoul Razoul".[1]
Detained in Egypt, his son takes command
Edit Prior to his 1878 departure to Cairo, where he intended to bribe other pashas with approximately £100,000 to recognize his sovereignty,[3] Rahma had gathered his chiefs under a tree between Shaka and Obeid where they agreed that if the plan failed, they would go "to arms! to the road!". He was detained by Egyptian forces for his attempts at bribery and refused permission to return to the Sudan. He messaged General Gordon, offering £25,000 annually to the Khedive, and to restore order within the Sudan, if only he would be allowed to return. Gordon declined the offer, and Rahma sent a message to his chiefs that they should "obey the orders given under the tree", which resulted in Gordon being met by near-anarchy upon his return to Khartoum.[1]
Intent on dealing with Suleiman while his father was still imprisoned, General Gordon arranged several times to meet peacefully with the young man now leading his father's forces. Referring to him as a "cub", Gordon took an almost fatherly approach towards him,[1] and explained at his camp that he was aware of what revolts the slavers had been provoking, and he was now offering an ultimatum – either Suleiman announce his surrender of the Cave of Adullam or he would attack with an overwhelming force. Feeling sick, and begging time to think on the matter, Suleiman returned to the cave where his forces rumored that Gordon had served the group poisoned coffee.
Shortly afterward, Suleiman sent Gordon confirmation of the surrender and began making his way northwards towards other stations. While in the city of Shaka, he sent a letter referring to himself as Gordon's "son" and asking for a position in the government. Gordon responded that he would rather die, than grant any title to the rebel leader unless he had traveled to Cairo and sworn allegiance to the Khedive.[1]
Gordon wrote a few days later, "Suleiman no longer hopes to conquer...he may try to go up to other stations inland, but I do not expect it will last long; a retreating commander is rarely in a good temper, and he will soon disgust his people."[1]
Angered, Suleiman rallied 6,000 of his men in large raids, which were quickly dispelled at Gordon's command by the troops of Yussuf Pasha and Romolo Gessi.[8][9] Gessi, together with Taha Mahomet, had earlier been credited with sacking Dem Sebehr, a reputed stronghold of the slaving clan.[10]
In early September, while traveling through Shaka, Gordon was surprised to be extended an invitation to spend two days in Suleiman's house. He accepted, but spent the following days again rejecting Suleiman's pleas for a title of government, but consoled the young chief by giving him a rifle and teaching him its proper use.[1] Eventually, Suleiman was captured and executed under the command of Romolo Gessi (on Gordon's orders).[1]
Later role Edit
On 18 February 1884, Gordon offered the imprisoned Rahma leadership of the entire Sudan, in addition to his freedom if he would help the British keep the forces of Muhammad Ahmad at bay. The following month, Gordon astonished Europe by recommending Rahma to be named his successor as Governor of Sudan.
Sie Reginald Wingate, who knew him personally, declared to British society that Rahma was a "far-seeing, thoughtful man of iron will, a born ruler of men"[11] Eventually, Queen Victoria, Sir Evelyn Baring, William Ewart Gladstone and Nubar Pasha in Cairo, all agreed to allow Rahma the title, but the order was rescinded by the British government, upset with Rahma's slave-raiding practises.[7]
Nevertheless, he was put in charge of all the Negro forces, as well as sharing command of Arab forces with Hussein Pasha.[8]
In March 1885, he was removed from command and imprisoned at Gibraltar, when British forces suspected that he might have negotiated fealty to Ahmad, the "false prophet", based on alleged correspondence between them.[8]


Zubayr on his deathbed in 1913


Ziber Basha Street in Khartoum, 2018
In August 1887 he was allowed to return to Cairo, and after the 1899 reconquest of the Sudan was permitted to settle in his native country. He established himself on his estates at Geili, some 30 miles north of Khartoum.
In retirement Zubayr wrote his memoirs, which were translated into English as Black Ivory: Or, the Story of El Zubeir Pasha, Slaver and Sultan, as Told by Himself.
He died peacefully[12] in January 1913 in his home village Geili.[13]
A street in Downtown Khartoum is still named after Zubayr, and the town of Uyujuku in South Sudan is still commonly known as Deim Zubeir.
In popular culture Edit
References Edit
Further reading Edit
mobile=1" alt="" title="" width="1" height="1" style="border: none; position: absolute;" />

Walter Anthony Rodney who was a prominent Guyanese historian, political activist and academic Born: 23 March 1942, Georgetown, Guyana
    Spouse: Patricia Rodney (m. 1965–1980)
    Assassinated: 13 June 1980, Georgetown, Guyana
    Party: Working People's Alliance
    Children: Asha Rodney, Shaka Rodney, Kanini Rodney
    Education: Queen's College, Guyana, SOAS University of London, University of the West Indiesand was assassinated in 1980, has been quoted as saying:
    “Many guilty consciences have been created by the slave trade. Europeans know that they carried on the slave trade, and Africans are aware that the trade would have been impossible if certain Africans did not cooperate with slave ships. To ease their guilty consciences, Europeans try to throw the major responsibility for the slave trade on to the Africans. One major author on the slave trade (appropriately titled Sins of Our Fathers) explained how many white people urged him to state that the trade was the responsibility of African chiefs, and that Europeans merely turned up to buy captives- as though without European demand there would have been captives sitting on the beach by the millions! Issues such as those are not the principal concern of this study, but they can be correctly approached only after understanding that Europe became the center of a world-wide system and that it was European capitalism which set slavery and the Atlantic slave trade in motion. Pg. 82”
― Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africahttps://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/slave-tradehttps://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/slave-trade
    https://www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/40215-how-europe-underdeveloped-africahttps://www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/40215-how-europe-underdeveloped-africa


    Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman is an author, columnist and a blogger. His blog is http://thussudan.wordpress.com/http://thussudan.wordpress.com/
                  

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