||The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) (Arabic: حركة العدل والمساواة, Ḥarakat al-ʿAdl wal-musāwāh ) is a Sudanese opposition group founded by Khalil Ibrahim, the group has been led since January 2012 by his brother Gibril Ibrahim, as Khalil was killed in December 2011. JEM's political agenda includes issues such as: radical and comprehensive constitutional reform to grant Sudan's regions a greater share of power in ruling the country (one point of this is a rotating presidency), the replacement of social injustice and political tyranny with justice and equality, and basic services for every Sudanese.|
The beginnings of the Justice and Equality Movement trace to the writers of the Black Book, a manuscript published in 2000 that details the structural inequality in the country; the JEM founder, Khalil Ibrahim, was one of the authors. JEM advocates replacing the dictatorship of Omar al-Bashir and the ruling Congress Party with a civil, democratic state that respects the rights of Sudan's various ethnic groups, women, and youth. The JEM further committed itself to these principles when it signed the New Dawn Charter in January 2013.
JEM possesses forces numbering around 35,000 and has the largest base and spread of support in Sudan among the groups opposed to the government of president Omar al-Bashir.[according to whom?] Rather than being based on only a few ethnic groups, the membership of the organization is ethnically diverse and has a leadership which includes both Black Africans and Arabs. Illustrating this diversity is the fact that some of the leadership of the group are members of President Bashir's tribe. JEM is part of the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), an alliance of groups opposed to the government in Khartoum that include the Sudan Liberation Movement(Abdul Wahed), the Sudan Liberation Movement (Minnawi), and the Sudan Liberation Movement - North.