Sudan is keen to enhance relations with all sister Arab countries, and calls for unification of Arab ranks, bridging gaps, consolidating links among the Arab countries to face the challenges. To achieve this end, Sudan works to promote the performance and reactivate the role of the Arab League.
The Sudanese diplomacy has exerted tremendous efforts with the view to unification and supporting the Arab issues, it participated in all activities of the Arab League, and it has focused on the Palestinian Problem as basic issue in its external policy.
Sudan has taken many an initiative to consolidate Arab solidarity. It was able to help convene an Arab League summit in which Egypt took part. That move came on the heel of Arab boycott imposed on Egypt after signing the Camp David Peace Accords with Israel. Sudan was also able to help mitigate the Lebanese crisis, which was considered one of the most important achievements of the Sudanese diplomacy, sending troops within the framework of the Arab league's deterrence forces, having already hosted the It were made when Sudan hosted the Palestinian fighters who were evacuated from Beirut.
Sudan has condemned the Israeli aggression on the Iraq nuclear plant, as well as the Iranian attack on Kuwait petroleum fields. It welcomed the Saudi initiative seeking a peaceful and justice solution for the Middle East question, concluded during Fez Summit meeting.
Moreover, Sudan has played a distinguished and active role through its participation in the eleventh summit of the Arab League, which was convened in Jordan, where the Arab leaders unanimously approved the joint political, and economic working strategies.
It is worth mentioning that Sudan diplomacy played an important role during Fez 11 Summit in September 1982, by restoring among Egypt and Arab countries.
Sudan supported the Arab cause, calling for unity among Arab countries, particularly after the transformation caused by the collapse of the Soviet Union that put an end to the old world order and hence the USA becoming the sole and Israel its political alliance.
Without unity Arabs cannot realize their aspired objectives for unity and solidarity. This is what Khartoum summit meeting will be working to achieve.
THE FIRST THEME
SUDAN SUPPORT THE PALESTINIAN ISSUE
For more than fifty years, history recorded that Sudan has witnessed strong stances, peoples and government, of supporting the Palestine issue, which began by the Graduates Congress in the forties when the Sudanese joined it, and became the first political and national forces in the Arab and Islamic world which paid attention to dangers that threat al-Quds in particular and Palestine and its people in general.
Sudan after independence in 1956 joined the Arab League, its Foreign Minister at that time Mubark Zaroug announced that Sudan would put all its resources and capabilities to return Palestine back.
At an early stage, Sudanese people continuously affirmed their relations with the Palestinian issue and their deep-rooted relationship with the Arabs and they have been exerting their souls to defense it, this shows their progressive awareness towards the importance of the Palestinian issue, and it came when the Graduates Congress decided to establish two committees, one for collecting financial support for the sake of Palestine, chaired by the former Mufti Ahmed Al-Syied, and it included outstanding personalities from the capital Khartoum and other Sudanese cities. The committee began its tasks and activities without difficulties because all people voluntary presented their contributions to success that mobilization.
That financial support was played a vital role in purchasing arms to revolutionists, bearing in mind that Palestine does not suffer from shortage in men and fighters.
The other committee was a military one chaired by Zahir Sorour who had opened a bureau in the Graduates Congress at Omdurman , when It announced for a voluntary joining to fight the Jews in Palestine , About seven thousands Sudanese people in short time enthusiastically joined the committee regarding that they were carrying out holy war.
The military troops moved from the Graduates Club at Omdurman towards Cairo, the Egyptian capital, where the former Arab League Secretary General, Abdul Wahab Aza’am, received them, besides a representative from the Egyptian army. The Sudanese troops which camped in al-Haksteep Base, Eastern of Cairo airport had carried out their training before they moved to the battle ground where, they bravely fought and caused frightened in the hearts of the Jews in spite of shortage in arm equipments.
The number of the Sudanese martyrs in the Palestinian war of 1948 amounted four officers, Bashir Abadi, Bushra Mohamed Khair, Ali Ramadan and Ali Mohajoub, besides forty soldiers from different ranks, and the Israelis able to capture Major Zahir Sorour, Ramadan Abdallah, Jebrial Idreis and Sied Ahmed Mohamed. The late President Abdel Nasir said to the late Sudanese Bar Association Head Abdallah al-Hassen that the Sudanese troops had made extraordinary heroisms, and stated that officer Bashir Abadi who rushed to rescue an Egyptian wounded officer while he was under a heavy shells, he was a martyr, while his Egyptian counterpart was rescued.
The concept of Jihad and voluntary fighting covered the souls of most Sudanese people who are considering the Palestine war as holy one for the sake of Paradise, and if the moving to Palestine was easy at that time, thousands of Sudanese had desire to enter it.
THREE NAYS OF KHARTOUM : -
When Khartoum hosted the Arab Summit in August 1967, which known as the summit of Three Nays, and the Arab presidents and kings took their historical decisions to support the Arab countries that their territories were occupied by the Israel including Egypt, Jordan and Syria.
The Sudanese delegation adhered that the Summit’s decisions should be prefaced by the Three Nays, they were ‘No settlement with Israel, No recognition by it, and No negotiation with it’. These words were written by the Chairman of the Sudanese delegation and the Prime Minister Mohamed Ahmed al-Mohajoub while the Chairman of the Summit was President Ismail al-Azhari. The Sudanese delegation insisted that there must be a context about the Palestinians rights on their lands and country.
The Summit of Khartoum made enmity towards Sudan from Israel supporting countries. Its importance did not only concentrate on its successful positive outcomes but also on its adherence on the Three Nays. which has remedied the hurts that resulted from the defeat of the Arabs in June War, by restoring the Arab self-confidence, removing the differences among Arab leaders, declaring the continuity of the resistance.
UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION No 24 2 :-
The UN Security Council issued its known Resolution 242, which written by the British Prime Minister Lord Kordwan , the resolution decided the withdrawing of Israel from the occupied territories. Sudan conserved on this resolution and required amending of some words by adding ‘The’ to withdrawing from the Arab territories which were occupied recently and it also conserved on the text that mentioned refugees problems and asserted on frank one ensures just compromise to the Palestinians citizens.
The Sudanese-Palestinian relations are deep-rooted since the Sudanese pilgrims’ caravans passed through the Palestine territories and al-Quds House towards the holy two cities of Mecca and al-Madina and in their return they pray in al-Agssa Mosque and close to it there was a piece of land Sulatan Ali Dinar had allocated to the Sudanese.
The Sudanese – Palestinian relations were considered the most distinguished bilateral relations and the Sudanese government continuously supports the Palestinian question through along history of struggling.
Sudan has supported all resolutions which backing up the Palestinian people in the international and regional conferences and forums, in spite of the economic and political situation it has offered possible support to the Palestinian people by signing a number of protocols in the economic, health, cultural and educational fields. It has also offered scholarships to the Palestinian students and it raised up the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) office level in Khartoum to embassy after it recognized the Palestine State in 1987.
Sudan also contributed in training police cadres in the Sudanese Academy for police, and a number of agreements were signed between the Palestine Authority and Sudan Government in various domains.
Sudan had a pioneering role in offering moral and material support for the sake of the Palestinian issue by organizing forums, making angrily marches which condemned the fierce deeds of the Zionists against the Palestinian people, and a number of voluntary and peoples organizations were established which concerning on Jihad affairs till the liberation of the al- Quds by preparing and equipping fighters and facilitating their ways to reach the fighting fronts.
The Higher Permanent Peoples Organization for liberation of Palestine was established in Sudan and was organized in the Islamic World which aiming to mobilize citizens, considering that the official efforts are not only enough for pushing up the Islamic right and liberating Al-Quds. Bearing in mind that Palestine issue is not only an Arab issue but, it’s the whole Muslims all over the world.
The objectives of the Higher Peoples Organization were getting benefits of mosques for making preprograms and forums for supporting the Palestinian issue, and one of its task was reviving peoples' boycott of the American and Israeli products.
The organization aimed by all these programmes to correct the wrong concepts, which made due to the Arab incapability and because the Islamic communities are suffering from weaknesses.
Sudan had well known stance, when it hosted the Palestinian troops after they had been got out from Lebanon during the Lebanon's civil war and invasion of the Israeli troops to sister Lebanon, beside, hosting a great number of refugees in Sudan, and it has warmly received the late Palestinian president in several times and discussed with him the Palestine's concerns and issues, also it received the late leader of the Islamic Palestinian Resistance (HAMAS) Sheikh Ahmed Yassen . In 1998.
Moreover, Sudan hosted the Palestinian organization with their different orientations, particularly many countries refused to host them and Hamas was in the top.
Sudan has recently hosted a higher-level delegation headed by the Chairman of the Political Bureau of Hamas, Khalid Meshaal in its lightening visit after Hamas have won the recent election, which carried out in Palestine. Hamas after that changed the political tactics in the Middle East, and the entire world, its envoys have started to tour the greatest countries and other ones.
According to that the region is expecting great changed after Hamas winning.
THE SECOND THEME
SUDAN ROLE IN SURPASSING
THE SETBACK IMPACTS
One of the major role which has being played by Sudan in supporting the Arab issues was represented in its keenness in realizing solidarity and unity among Arabs countries after June war 1967 after Israel defeat them. By its calling for holding the Arab summit of the Arab Presidents and Kings in Khartoum 1967 after Israel defeated the Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian troops and occupied their territories and it was capable to reach their capitals without obstacles as late President Abdel Nasser conveyed to President Ismail al- Zhari through telephone communication.
The Arab summit in August 1967 was the most successful one since 1946, which represented the first Arab summit in Anshass in Egypt, till the latest one, which held in March 2005. 1967 Summit was known as epic for its proficiency and capacity in making its agendas, which put by Sudanese genius. Sudan also intelligently called during October war for changing banning petroleum to pumping it as Arab acute arm for supporting steadfastness and confront, which lastly became progressive and prosperous tool for the Arab world.
HOW ARAB SUMMIT - AUGUST 1967 - WAS
PREPARED (THE EPIC)
It began by the meeting of the Arab Ministers of the Foreign Affairs in first August 1967, which reflected their seriousness in confronting the great defeat by Israel. Sudan delegation put defined agendas, first for handling the Arab differences and building confidence and brotherhood atmospheres for realization of the Arab solidarity and how to confront the enemy Israel and returning the occupied territories, besides the Palestinian issue.
They also discussed the role of the United Nations in condemnation and by taking necessary decisions for forcing the offensive troops to carry out full withdrawing from the Arab territories, as it happened after the Triple-aggression at Egypt in 1956 and the possibility of the Arab economic role, particularly, the petroleum which it could be used as weapon for removing the foreign military bases in the Arab countries.
The agendas of 1967 Summit were put in open and direct discussion from the Arab ministers of the foreign affairs after that they put important recommendations and they also put their confidence on Sudan to settle the dispute between the two great Arab countries Egypt and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on the matter of Yemen, While Jeddah supported the two kings of Yemen, Egypt supported the republicans.
The Sudanese leadership represented in Ismail al-Azhari and Mohamed Ahmed al-Mahjoub carried out efforts and communications to normalize relations between King Fisal Bin Abdel Aziz al-Saud and President Abdel Nasser. Inspite of their response to the Sudanese mediation but they both apologized to participate personally in the Summit for humanitarian considerations, with their full persuasion and support to the Sudanese leadership to hold the important summit ,but President Ismail al-Azhari able to persuade President Abdel Nasser to participate to brief the Arab leaders on the circumstances of the War, and its losses which enable the Arab leaders to resettle the situations. Ali al-Margani sent his son Ahmed al-Margani to convey a message to King Fisal bin Abdel Aziz exepressing his hope to participate in the summit, because the great leaders of Arabs have great responsibilities in the current situations. King Fasil immediately response and required from Ahmed al-Margani to inform his father that he would come and he would not refuse his request.
ARAB SUMMIT DEPENDS ON
PEOPLE AND THEIR AWARENESS
The government depended on its limited capacities and on the support of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait State, which contributed financially to decrease the great cost of the extraordinary summit of Khartoum. The government also depended on the support of the Sudanese people who put their properties such as houses and cars under the disposition of the organizers of the summit, people also decorated their houses fronts, streets, and playgrounds and they raised the pictures of the Arabs leaders and flags of the Arab countries all that happened voluntarily. The government didn’t need mobilizations and statements because the Sudanese people had political awareness by the situations in the Arab world in general and in Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Jordan in particular, and also for the importance of the convening the summit in that critical situation.
The day of arrival of the Arab leaders was an official holiday to enable all citizens to receive the Arab leaders and welcome them from Khartoum Airport till the Republican Palace. There was a committee formed for organization of journalists and news agencies tasks who came from all over the world to cover the summit works, their numbers amounted to 400 journalists. They found full necessity facilitations to carry out their tasks.
The fewest became the most because all were keen to succeed the summit. After that President al-Azhari announced the end of the session for supper, which was prepared in the Republican Palace in the honorable of the Arab Presidents and Kings.
When the Arab leaders had returned to their residences they found summary to what happened in the open and closed door sessions, besides coverage carried out by radios and the international agencies from their arrivals and great reception, all that were prepared by ambassadors and journalists.
SPEECH OF OPENNESS AND FACTS :-
The Arab leaders became one family in Khartoum, and they were surrounded by warmness and confidence, which reflected in their meetings and discussions. Also their speeches distinguished by openness and facts without conservations. King Hassein of Jordan narrated the Six Days War and losses by Israel aggression, saying that Jordan had not even the salaries of its civil workers.
Then President Abdel al-Nasser spoke in details about the war and its great effects to Egypt and its people.
THE SUMMIT CONVENTION
IN PARLIAMENT BUILDING :-
In the center of Khartoum at the parliament building the opening session of the Arab summit inaugurated in 29 August 1967 after the arrival of the Arab leaders who were received warmly for realization the aspirations of the Arab nations by the outcomes of the summit after it was defeated in June War 1967.
President Ismail al-Azhari chaired the session and addressed it in short speech, welcoming the Arab Presidents and Kings, stressing that all Arab hearts and eyes were looking at their meeting in their capital Khartoum, and the relapse of 5 June 1967 which would not strengthen the unity and determination of Arabs.
The summit worked in closed-door sessions for Presidents and Kings and chaired by the Head of the Sudan delegation, Mohamed Ahmed al- Mahjoub who briefed them shortly by the issues which the Arab ministers of foreign affairs agreed upon to be the summit agendas, they were as following:-
1. Coordinating efforts for removing the impacts of Israel aggression by carrying out military, economic and political tasks.
2. Clearing foreign military bases in the Arab countries.
3. Avoiding the setback causes in the future
Al Mahjoub stressed the importance of the Arab solidarity and unity to face the hazards in that critical time, saying that enemy Israel is targeted the human being, heritage and the history not only the land and the geography.
The summit had discussed the dangerous situation in Egypt and Jordan and due to the absent of Syrian president Nur al-Deen al Attasse, the summit listened to the Prime Minister Mohamed Ahmed al-Mahjoub who lastly visited Syria and witnessed the situation in land after Israel had occupied al- Joulan Heights.
DEFINING OF REQUIRED PRIORITIES
The Arab Presidents and Kings demanded from Sudan to carry out their tasks on behalf of the Arab countries and defining the priorities without slowness or delaying.
The Sudan delegation discussed on the sideline of the Summit the importance of handling the Yemen’s problem and reaching conciliation between President Jamal Abdel aL-Nasser and King Fisal Bin Abdel Aziz. They held meeting at the house of Mohamed Ahmed al-Mahjoub in Khartoum, and they agreed on the points which were put by Sudan, for stopping war and bi-interventions from the two sides in Yemen affairs, withdrawing the Egyptian troops which amounted 60 thousand soldiers from Yemen, saying its natural place was in Egypt to defend its people and land, and added the Yemeni issues settled by leaving the Yemenis to decide by themselves, what they want and desire. So, Sudan could persuade President Abdallah al- Shalal to abandon governance and transfer to Egypt as a prelude to sovereignty council to be chosen by Yemeni chiefs.
The surprised announcement of conciliation came in an international press conference. The Yemen file was folded up and Sudan promised to supervise its implementations to achieve the required stability in Yemen. So Khartoum summit of 1967 was considered a successful one.
The next issue was how to use the Arab petroleum as weapon for the benefit of the Arab issue and as support for its solidarity to face the enemy of the Arab nation.
SUDAN ROLES IN ENDING BLACK
SEPTEMBER EVENTS (1970):-
After 1967 defeat, the Palestinians went with their leaders to Jordan, and began to train and arm the youth by making armed militias to protect the Palestinian civilians.
Black September indications were raised up after Israel shelled Oman by artilleries. The attempt of assassinating King Husssein was announced before that in an official Jordanian statement in September 1970.
The Central Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) responded in the same day and denounced the correctness of the Jordanian statement, affirming that it was a prelude towards a great sedition for realization the Israeli and the American imperialistic objectives by clearing the Palestinian armed revolutionary, which based in Jordan.
In 7 September 1970 the Palestinian Peoples Liberation Front hijacked three planes and exploded them in al-Zarga Airport. And in 16 September 1970 the Jordanian arms attacked the Palestinian forces in Jordan. The result that there were some causalities in the two parties which known by Black September Events. The victims number amounted to ten thousand.
The Chairman of the Executive Committee of PLO Yassir Arafat tried to settle the crisis and called for an extraordinary meeting of the Arab Summit to study the current situations in Jordan.
The Arab leaders tried to cease Arab bleeding by sending President Nameri accompanied with Saad Abdullah al-Sabah for rescuing the life of President Yassir Arafat after Black September Events. President Nameri had gone to Oman under the shell of artilleries and came back with President Arafat without the knowledge of King Hussein who determined to kill him. That action had been covered by all medias.
After the Arab mediation, the Palestinian resistance decided in the next year to get outside of Jordan and transferred to Lebanon.
By transferring of the PLO to Lebanon the revolutionist Arafat was continuing the armed struggle by carrying out training and arranging ranks among the Palestinians in the refugee camps, where some armed Palestinians carried out explosive operations, hijacking planes and killing, the most known one which happened in Munich(Germany) during the Olympic Championships by killing eleven Israeli sportsmen.
THE THIRD THEME
SUDAN EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE
Sudan attitudes towards the Arab nations issues are characterized by stabilization, clearness, defending Arab rights, avoidance of parting, and promotion of solidarity, Arab unity and peace .
Since independence in 1956 Sudan has continued to support Arab issues at all assemblies whether regional or international, and has contributed effectively in maintaining Arab unity and this was exemplified by its role in 1967 setback in unifying the Arabs. While the Khartoum Summit held in the same year succeeded in bridging the gab between the Arabs and recommended the striking Three Nays to continue the Arabic struggle against Israel and to regain the Arab occupied lands, this was reflected in October war 1973 six years after the setback.
SUDAN ROLE IN OCTOBER WAR 1973 :-
Sudan has continued to support Arab nation issues and to call for unity, where the Middle East and Palestinian issues constituted to be a central course in the Sudan foreign policy and the associated activities within the framework of the joint Arabic work plan at the Arab league and its specialized organizations. Sudan supported Egypt because of its strategic position in the Arab world therefore it took part in the October liberation War, that support was in harmony with Egypt and Syrian efforts to enhance the Arab unity and integration, moreover when the Arabs won October 1973 war, Sudanese people celebrated that victory.
When the oil Arab exported countries declared using of petroleum in the conflict with the Israeli enemy by reducing production 5% monthly, the Sudanese papers published these news in their headlines, showed the Sudan solidarity with Arab brothers, in November 4 the same year the Arab countries petroleum ministers met in Kuwait and decided to raise the oil reduction 25% in addition to 5% till the withdrawal of Israel from the Arab occupied lands and the Palestinian people obtain their legitimate rights.
SUDAN EFFORTS TO RESOLIDATE
ARABS AFTER CAMP DAVID:-
At the prelude of Camp David meetings Sudan called the Arab countries to study its results, and not to take passion attitude lead to deepening the Arab conflicts. The Sudanese paper al-Ayam in 14 November 1977 issue stated, “Egypt moved and is moving towards the peace according to an accurate political strategy and intelligent tactic plans “.
Pointing out to Egypt view that there was interrelation between the two Camp David Agreements and that Egypt did not intend to formulate oriented peace agreement without taking in consideration comprehensive settlement for conflict with Israel in which the Palestine rights constitute the core. Moreover Sudan headed the Arab Reconciliation Committee after the abortive al-Quds Initiative
Baghdad Summit Conference, 2-5 November, attended by all Arab states except Egypt, was fruitful and alleviated embarrassment felt by some Arab states including Sudan. In that Summit Sudan was represented by its ambassador in Egypt.
After the Peace Agreement, March 1978, President Nimeri toured some Arab capitals in line with the plan set by the Solidarity Committee that was held in Khartoum 22 April 1978, in attempt to iron Arab unity and to pave the road for an Arab summit. President Nimeri first visited Syria then Egypt , 3 March 1978, Consequently President Sadat agreed to hold the proposed summit to resolve Arab differences and to restore solidarity. Upon Nimeri visit to Syria President Hafiz al-Assad supported Arab solidarity slogan.
President Nimeri paid a visit to a number of Arab states including Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Lybia. He also met Somali President Barri in Cairo in May 1978. President Sadat appreciated President Nimeri efforts.
Sudan al-Sahafa paper, 10 May 1978 issue reported that President Nimeri efforts were making progress inspite of the difficulty of the task.
The paper went on to say within two days statement, disclosing normalization of relations between Egypt and some Arab countries, may be issued.
Later on Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Gulf states were also toured thus.
Thus Sudan did its best so that Arab states could adopt dialogue as a tool to solve their problems although that tool seemed to be beyond reach.
Sudan started movements to achieve three objectives set by the Arab Solidarity Committee. They included :-
a) Normalization of relations between Egypt on one part and Syria Iraq , Algeria Libya, South Yemen and Palestine Liberation Movement on the other part. It is worthy to note that these relations were broken since Tripoli Conference, December 1977.
b) Termination of the offensive propaganda.
c) Convention of an Arab summit to formulate a strategy that all Arab states should abide to so that they could deal with Arab-Israel conflict.
These three objectives were the agenda in Nemeri talks with all Arab leaders. Those talks alleviated stagnation in Arab relations and proved that hard work and not sentiments could make the difference.
On 6 June 1978, Sheish Jabir al-Ahamed al-Sabah supported Nimeri efforts to achieve Arab solidarity and that was upon the visit paid by Nimeri to Kuwait.
Sudan al-Sahafa newspaper reported during the convention of the Arab Solidarity Committee, that Mr. Mahmoud Riyad, the Secretary General of the Arab League said, “ the Committee appreciated the role played by President Nimeri to achieve Arab solidarity and unity.
Sudan exerted great efforts to realize Arab consolidation and unity, thus the triple unity notion between Sudan, Egypt and Libya came out in 1970. After that the Sudanese Egyptian Integration notion was taking shape during the visit paid by President Nimeri to liberated Sina after October War, then the political methodology and economic integration between Egypt and Sudan was approved on 11 February 1974, followed by the signing of the integration charter between Sduan and Egypt on 12 October 1982 in Khartoum by Presidents Mubarak and Nimeri . On 23rd October 1982 the two presidents established the Higher Council for Integration and its institutions and Abu Bakr Othman Salih was chosen to be the Secretary General.
Despite of the difficulties encountered integration operation , Sudan and Egypt set example to be followed in Arab integration.
SUDAN ROLES IN ENDING BLACK
SEPTEMBER EVENTS (1970):-
After 1967 defeat, the Palestinians went with their leaders to Jordan, and began to train and arm the youth by making armed militias to protect the Palestinian civilians.
Black September indications were raised up after Israel shelled Oman by artilleries. After the attempt of assassinating King Husssein was announced in an official Jordanian statement in September 1970, The Central Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) responded in the same day and denied the correctness of the Jordanian statement, affirming that it was a prelude towards a great sedition help in achieving the Israeli and American imperialistic objectives by removing the Palestinian armed revolution, which based in Jordan.
In 7 September 1970 the Palestinian Peoples Liberation Front hijacked three planes and exploded them in al-Zarga Airport. And in 16 September 1970 the Jordanian arms attacked the Palestinian forces in Jordan. This clashes which known by Black September Events were resulted in numerous casualties and victims in the two parties. The victims numbers amounted to tens of thousands.
The Chairman of the Executive Committee of PLO Yassir Arafat tried to settle the crisis and called for an extraordinary meeting of the Arab Summit to study the current situations in Jordan.
The Arab leaders tried to cease Arab bleeding by sending President Nemeri accompanied with Saad Abdullah al-Sabah for rescuing the life of the President Yassir Arafat after Black September Events. President Nameri had gone to Oman under the shell of artilleries and came back with President Arafat without the knowledge of King Hussein who determined to kill him. That action had been covered by all medias.
After the Arab mediation including the Sudanese one, the Palestinian resistance decided in the next year to get outside of Jordan and transferred to Lebanon.
By transferring of the PLO to Lebanon the revolutionist Arafat was continuing the armed struggle by carrying out training and arranging ranks among the Palestinians in the refugee camps, where some armed Palestinians carried out explosive operations, hijacking planes and killing, the most known one which happened in Munich (Germany) during the Olympic Championships by killing eleven Israeli sportsmen.
THE FOURTH THEME
THE IMPACT OF THE FIRST AND SECOND GULF WARS OVER THE ARABIC RELATIONSHIPS
THE FIRST GULF WAR :-
The Arabic and Islamic World remain facing a lot of crisis and conspiracies to stay incapable development and to fulfill its burdens and whereby Israel the strategic ally of the western colonialism ensures the security and continues to press the Arabic nation, this is the reason why the western colonialism renews its face and always fabricates crisis and wars between the Arab and Muslim brothers where it badly used ethnicity and fanaticism as a mean to erupt wars and turmoil.
The West works hardly to plant the seeds of turmoil between Iraq and Iran the two Muslim countries, and war broke out in August of the year 1982.
Sudan was trying at that time to assemble the Arabs and to enhance solidarity between the Arabic states and to advocate and unite the Arabs and restoring peace. Sudan presented an initiative for a peaceful resolution between Iraq and Iran and called for debate and for peace achieving.
Despite of Iraq's request to execute The Agreement of The Arabic Joint Defence , yet Sudan exerted huge efforts to stop war which was only in the favor of western colonialism and the Zionist state.
The Gulf War in general is regarded as one of the international Zion encircled the Arab and Islamic nation that bearing the burden of delivering the message to free humanity from materialistic slavery to a balanced life.
THE SHADOWS OF THE SECOND GULF WAR:-
As soon as the first Gulf war between Iraq and Iran erupted, another war broke out through western conspiracy following the Iraqi invasion to Kuwait.
The Second Gulf War laid dark shadows over the Arabic relationships from one side and the Sudanese-Arabic relationship on the other hand. Sudan's relations with his Arab brothers remained his pride and to his sequent governments which always tried to enhance and to strengthen the bonds of brotherhood and Arabic solidarity. Despite that Sudan's state was obvious by refusing the foreign interference in the Arabic region and expressing his opinion of confirming the Arabic- Arabic resolution. Yet the western media machine disfigure that state and envisioned it as a bias to Iraq against Kuwait Sudan was categorized as one of the opposition countries where Kuwait froze its relations with a number of Arabic countries including Sudan after the invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 that lasted for 7 months resulting in the breakup of the second Gulf War.
Sudan is still trying to explain its initial and clear trend in this matter in spite of conditions and circumstances at that time did not allow to express its situation in the appropriate way. And after the relief that occurred to the Sudanese relationships with a number of Arabic countries, it started seriously to restore its relations with Kuwait after 8 years of rupture. Sudan endeavored through its official and popular diplomacy to reveal the facts and clarify its situation and to extend trust bridges until at last it succeeded in breaking the ice and restored its relations with Kuwait. At that time, Dr. Mustafa Osman Ismail, the foreign minister paid a visit to the state of Kuwait in 29th May 1998 in Sudan's attempt to bring closer the different views where it succeeded in restoring the trust bridges between itself and Kuwait.
The Sheikh Sabah El Ahmed El Sabah, The Kuwaiti Foreign Minister declared after he met Dr. Mustafa Osman Ismail, "our current conditions dictate that the world should now get closer to one another specially the conditions of Isreali obstinacy and this is what push us not to cripple the Arabic gathering."
He also mentioned that there is no more what is called the opposition countries. He said that Kuwait relationships with the countries called the opposition countries was not diplomatically broke off but there was rather embassies without ambassadors and he confirmed that this will not last for long time and expressed his welcome to restore the Sudanese-Kuwait relationships as it was before where the diplomatic relations between Sudan and Kuwait remained during the rupture at the d'affaires .
In 26 July 1998 and during Dr. Mustafa Osman Ismail second visit to Kuwait, the two foreign ministers of the two countries agreed to re open the Sudanese embassy in Kuwait. The Sudanese- Kuwaiti relations witnessed considerable improvements since that time where in 22 January 1999, the Sudanese embassy was re opened in Kuwait and the Sudanese flag was raised over it.
What Kuwait did not realize was that during the political rupture period, Sudan's relations with any Arabic country were not on the expense of the Sudanese-Kuwaiti relationships where Kuwait supported Sudan that had a considerable share in the Kuwaiti development due to that the Sudanese-Kuwaiti relations was rooted and extended through decades where in the May era, Kuwait constructed a large number of establishments in Sudan like Kenana Sugar Factory and El Sabah Hospital in Juba and other projects.
In July 1999, Sheikh Gabir El Ahmed El sabah, prince of Kuwait received a written letter from president El Bashir delivered by Dr. Mustafa Osman Ismail, The Foreign Minister in which El Bashir expressed his relief towards the normalization of relations between the two countries confirming that Sudan is still endeavoring to extend the bridges of friendship, brotherhood and Arabic solidarity.
Kuwait initiated in 1988 and during the crisis of floods to provide humanitarian aid to Sudan where it built an airlift to relief the floods misfortune people. Sudan also participated in the Kuwaiti development by sending experts and technical support to Kuwait.
The Second Gulf War ended and the United States of America harvested its loots through planting turmoil and separation between the Arab brothers to stay between them and their hopes of unification and development where inadvertence it was capable of dominating the Arabic world and capturing its powerful weapons which is petroleum. This was the reason for Sudan's clear trend against the foreign intervention in the Arabic world.
As soon as The Second Gulf War ended, the United States of America fabricated a new crisis which is Iraq's ownership of mass-destruction weapons and this aimed to colonize the Arabic countries and to make use of its wealth and destroy its infrastructure under fighting terrorism, Liberalizations and democracy slogan, while the hidden target was insuring security and peace for Israel which was planted in the heart of the Arabic world. The Arabic world was harmed by this war results and the political disputes and conspiracies inflicted from abroad to execute a western special agenda. Sudan was also, badly harmed by this rupture that obstructed renaissance and rehabilitation.
THE FIFTH THEME
SUDAN CONTRIBUTION IN TREATING
Sudan had exerted successive efforts in collaboration with his brothers due to postponing the war during the seventh of the past century between the Lebanese brothers and to mend their relations with each other.
The Lebanese populace ended a great suffering in this civil war which nearly teared the Lebanese unity.
Sudan had the honor to participate in Arab deterrence forces which were decided by the Arabs countries to be sent to Lebanon in persistent efforts to stop the civil war, where Sudan participated by a bridge of his armed forces and contributed effectively with the other Arab forces to stop the Arabic bleeding blood in Lebanon.
Sudan efforts continued to contribute in solving Lebanon issues in the frame work of supporting Arab issues, and due to the tension in Lebanon and Syrian relations after the incident of assassinating the Lebanese prime minister Rafiq El Hariry, Sudan presented an initiative to narrow the gab of point of views between Lebanon and Syria, President of the Republic Omer Hassan Ahmed El Bashir delegated his Foreign Affairs Consultant Dr. Mustafa Osman Ismail to Lebanon and Syria where he met with the Lebanese President Amiel Lahoud and delivered a message from President El Bashir included the endeavors concerning easing the convulsion between Lebanon and Syria.
The initiative which try to facilitate knowing the facts of assassinating the past prime minister Ratia El Hariri with keeping the professional aspects in the investigation and not to exploit the commission work to pass other agendas target Syria and removing the coolness in Lebanese Syrian relations for the good of the two countries.
Dr. Mustafa Osman Ismail the President Consultant of Foreign Affairs and his envoy to Lebanon revealed that he carried messages to the Lebanese officials from Bashar El Asad the Syrian President expressed the Syrian fears of using the Rafiq assassination case by non Lebanese parties against Damascus ,and Dr. Mustafa met with the Prime Minister Foad El Saniora in the same track.
The Lebanese President Lahoud expressed his welcomes of the late Sudanese endeavored which aimed at narrowing the gab in point of views and clearing the atmospheres between Lebanon and Syria before the coming Arab summit in March 2006 at Khartoum and President Lahoud emphasized for President Al Bashir envoy that Lebanon persist in revealing the circumstances of assassinating the Prime Minister Rafiq El Hariri and Lebanon cooperated with the International Investigation Commission, while the Lebanese judiciary continued to carry out its duties in this issue.
Lahoud pointed to that Lebanon is keen about knowing the facts parallel to this his keenness not to use this awful crime to insult the Lebanese national unity and in targeting the security and stability and to serve acts that harm Lebanon and serve its enemies, he emphasized that the importance of continuing the relations between Lebanon and Syria based on brotherhood and cooperation. He added that Lebanon shall not accept to be a passage to pass policies that threaten Arab nations and countries, and their security and interests and that to keep the goods of the two brothers nations and countries on one side, and enhance the Arabic solidarity in this acute phase of the region history which is full of challenges and hazards on the other side.
The Lebanese President sent with the Sudanese Presidential delegate a verbal message to the President El Bashir thanked him for his initiative and for his concern that he showed about the Lebanese issue, stressing on the work to provide the positive atmospheres which fulfill the success for the awaited Arab Summit in Sudan the coming March.
On its side the Lebanese media and press commented on the Sudanese initiative that it described as it came to cleanse the Arab atmosphere generally and the Lebanese and Syrian relations in particular. Specifically that it met a great deal of welcoming and positive responses among the public and official Lebanese levels that it included good offices and a real intention to put an end for the convulsion between the two countries and open the space forward for the coming Arab summit free of complications and problems.
Dr. Mustafa stressed that the Sudanese exerted efforts found broad Arabic welcome that it flows in mitigating the tension existed in the region as a whole, and these efforts came from our feelings that the national security as a whole can’t be divided either it was in Sudan or Lebanon or Syria.
THE SIX THEME
SUDAN’S ROLE IN ACHIEVING
Sudan continued support to the Somalian cause as it renewed its commitment to boost efforts for achieving peace in Somalia.
In June 1993, when the UN peace-keeping forces entered Mogadishu under the pretext of securing a safe passage to food relief , fighting broke out claiming the life of a number of Somalian people and UN peace-keeping force elements.
Following this woeful incident, Sudan called on Islamic states and third world countries, notably Pakistan, to withdraw their forces from Somalia.
President al-Bashir described the events in Mogadishu as a conspiracy against the Somalian people, indicating that Islamic nations and third world countries should not take part in it.
Al- Bashir added that the American intervention in Somalia was directly undertaken after the Somalian people had opted Islamic Sharia to be a system for their government .
Sudan continued to support the Somalian question until public protest was alarmingly raised demanding the termination of the UN peace-keeping force mission.
Sudan also called on the alliance led by America against terrorism not to attack Somalia for groundless fears of harboring Islamic extremists, a matter which will only increase the civilians suffering .
In a regional conference held in Nairobi in February 2002 , Sudan called for ending a decade of war in Somalia, indicating that the Western alliance must give Somalia’s neighboring countries the chance to persuade Somalian factions to form a government of national unity.
Sudan also conducted many serious communications with a number of parties concerned with the Somalian issue.
In its capacity as head of the IGAD, Sudan called on the US and Western states to avoid taking any military action against Somalia.
In a statement issued in Khartoum in December 2002, Sudan appealed to the U.S. and the international community to co-operate with the Somalian government for the removal of all terrorist camps.
The statement also appealed to the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Arab League, the Organization of Islamic Conference, and the UN to back and support Somalia in the face of the woeful circumstances it undergoes.
The statement noted that the Somalian people are in need of peace, not war, the.
In this connection, Sudan announced its support to the Djiboutian initiative directed to the attainment of peace and stability in Somalia.
In another statement, Sudan expressed hope that this initiative could mark a beginning of Somalia’s re-emergence as a stable country.
In its statement, Sudan described the Djiboutian initiative as courageous, appreciating the role of the Djiboutian president Ismail Omer Gaily, and his country which took upon itself the hosting of the reconciliation conference.
In April 2001, Sudan decided to send a special envoy for peace to Somalia as part of its effort to achieve peace there. Sudan's envoy conducted many meetings with the Ethiopian officials , the meetings focused on working out a solution to the Somalian crisis and finding a way of establishing peace in the country.
The move by Sudan in favor of Somalia is intended to put into effect directives and resolutions of the IGAD eighth summit held in Khartoum in November 2000.
The move also aims mainly to find a solution to the Somalian crisis which has broken out since the downfall of President Siyad Barri’s regime in April 1991.
In the field of bilateral relations, Sudan signed many agreements with Somalia. In March 2003, the two countries signed an agreement of joint co-operation in the field of agriculture. Also in March 2005 Sudan signed another agreement with Somalia in the field of higher education and scientific research.
A security agreement was made between the two countries during the visit of the Somalian Interior Minister to Sudan in May 2003. The Somali Interior Minister appreciated the Sudan endeavors in the diplomatic and political fields to unify Somalian factions, and its support to Somal in the international and regional assemblies , and expressed the Somalian government thanks to Sudan for accepting the Somali students in the Sudanese universities and the military collage. Somal contributed in the programs of Khartoum capital for culture 2005 .
In January 2006, Sudan and Somalia signed in Khartoum a memo of understanding for joint co-operation in all fields. The State Minister at the Foreign Affairs Ministry , al-Sammani al-Wasiela explained that the memo was aproduct of the bilateral talks between the two countries Presidents on the margin of the African Union Summit in January .
Somalian Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdallah al- Sheikh Ismail Praised the Sudanese- Somalian relations , and added that the signing of the memo will boost relations between the two countries.
As part of their endeavour to establish peace in Somalia, Sudan and Uganda announced their agreement to deploy peace-keeping forces from both countries in the area, and other countries would partisipate in the second phase by logistic support equipments , urgent aids , army and police training in Somalia .
On the background of Sudan support to Somalia, Sudan envoy to the region paid a visit to Ethiopia in December 2001 to discuss with the joint committee of IGAD states the question of unifying the Somalian warring factions.
In January 2002, the 9th IGAD conference was held in Khartoum on the Somalian question.
Addressing the conference, President Omer al- Bashir announced Sudan's concern with the efforts exerted by the Somalian people for the welfare of their country.
Al -Bashir also announced Sudan's support for the realization of comprehensive national reconciliation in Somalia.
Sudan's envoy to Somalia had a meeting with the Secretary General of the African Union and explained to him the efforts exerted by Sudan to reach a peaceful solution to the Somalian problem.
The Sudanese envoy also delivered a message from the Minister of the Foreign Affairs Dr. Mustafa Othman Ismail to his Ethiopian counterpart dealing with the Somalian issue.
THE SEVENTH THEME
ARAB PARLIAMENTARY CONFERENCE –
FEBRUARY 2002-SUPPORTS ARAB ISSUES
The declaration of national support to the Palestinian intifada, and the condemnation of American policy favoring the siege of Palestinian people by Israel topped the agenda of the Arab Parliamentary Conference which held its sessions in Khartoum in February, 2002.
The Arab parliamentarians devoted their conference to discuss four main issues. The first one is their contribution to the Palestinian cause. The second issue is their contribution to organizing the joint Arab Parliament.
The third one is their contribution to controlling terrorism, and the fourth is their role in stopping the flow of Arab brain drain .
The conference called on considering the Arab Parliamentary Union the nucleus of the joint Arab parliament. It also affirmed its vehement support to organizing the joint Arab parliament by taking all the necessary political and legislative steps to achieve that national target. The conference issued 71 recommendations .
The conference further confirmed the revival of Arab solidarity to safeguard the joint Arabic interests and national security, in addition to the achievement of inter-Arab reconciliation.
The conference also expressed appreciation to the promotion of the Arab League and the system of joint Arab action.
On the Palestinian cause the Arab Parliamentarians expressed their absolute support to the Palestinian Intifada, as they condemned the war of terrorism and genocide launched by Israel against the Palestinians, and Sharon plans of compelsary immigration of Palestinians to Jordan . The Arab Parliamentarians also affirmed that any reconciliation must include complete and unconditional Isreali withdrawal from the all Arabic occupied lands .
Showing solidarity with Syria, the conference affirmed its unwavering support to help Syria restore the whole of Golan.
Regarding Lebanon, the conference called on Arab states to expedite their committed financial allocations earmarked for Lebanon to remove the effects of occupation.
The conference also appealed to the international humanitarian organizations and the U.N to step in for the release o the Lebanese detainees . Moreover it called for the formation of an international criminal court to prosecute the Zionist war criminals and force Israel to pay compensations to Lebanon for the damage incurred by its long occupation of Lebanese lands.
Regarding Iraq and Kuwait, the conference rejected Iraq division , and called for raising the siege from Iraq , and releasing of Kuwaiti captives
On the Libyan question, the Arab Parliamentary Union demanded that the embargo imposed on Libya be lifted permanently as it has completely fulfilled its commitments.
The conference also expressed its full solidarity with Sudan against all dangers targeting its civilization survival and wealth.
The conferees further stressed the sovereignty of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E) over its occupied islands, and called on Iran to accept the call of the U.A.E for a peaceful solution to the problem.
The conference welcomed the return of stability to Somalia and called on Arab governments to support Somalia to rebuild its institutions and sagging infrastructure.
The conference called on Spain to embark on direct negotiations with Morocco to settle the question of the two occupied towns.
On the question of terrorism, the conference adopted the call of President Mubarak to hold an international conference to combat this phenomenon and prevent the use of force against any Arab state.
SUDAN CHAIRMAN OF ARAB
The conference discussed the question of transferring chairmanship of the union from Algeria to another state. According to the union’s regulation, Arab states alternately assumed the biennial chairmanship of the union.
Sudan assumed chairmanship of the union at the request of the Syrian head of Parliament and other Arab delegations .
THE EGYPTIAN DELEGATION
MOST NOTICEABLE PARTICIPANT:-
The Egyptian delegation was the most noticeable participant in the general discussions of the conference as its members took a greater part of TV coverage. They also dominated front-page news in the local newspapers.
Statements , made by the Head of the Egyptian Parliament and the head of the Egyptian delegation Dr. Ahmed Fathi Suror , on the Egyptian–Sudanese relations had a far-reaching positive effect among the various political circles in Khartoum.
Suror emphasized that all suspended issues between the two sisterly countries had been settled and the tention period ended .
Dr. Suror also dealt with the Palestinian issue which was the first and basic item in the work schedule referring to Sharon, the Isreali Prime Minister speech about changing the Palestinian president Yasir Arafat where he considered his speech as deemed rejected completely and said that it was a strange behavior contradicting the International law because it is a direct intervention in the Palestinians internal affairs.
Dr. Suror called for a convention between the political and legal committee in the union and the constitutional courts heads in the Arabic countries to study the unifying of the Arabic legislations in the fields of childhood, environment and women as an introduction to unify the other legislations to activate the joint Arabic work. The Egyptian delegate focused on the search for a solution for the status-quo and the necessity to do that within a frame of a joint Arabic strategy that depend on the permanent co-ordination between all the current efforts and the importance of an effective Arabic move to push the United States of America to adopt a fair trend and to exercise pressures over Isreal and not only on the Palestinian Authority to insure the success of the security negotiations in the peace debates according to Mitchell Committee report and Tenait recommendations.
The Bi-Parliament Arabic Relations:-
1 - The Kingdom of Bahrain visit
from 30 January to February 2003:
In order to enhance the Arabic parliament relations and within Sudan heading of the Arabic Parliament Union, Mr. Ahmed Ibrahim al-Tahir, The head of the National Assembly and the Head of the Arabic Parliament Union paid a visit to the kingdom of Bahrain to congratulate its elected parliament, and both the Sudanese and Bahraini sides held a joint negotiations session attended by the Bahraini Council leadership with its two chambers of advisory (Shura) and parliamentarians where the Sudanese side expressed his happiness to what Bahrain witnesses of constitutional reforms that led to a constitutional kingdom and a new parliament status , from his side Bahrain also expressed its welcome for the parliament co-operation with Sudan and its desire to benefit from the well established Sudanese Parliament experience through the societies in addition to an exchange of visits, information and documents
2- The Sultanate of Oman visit 1-3 February 2003:-
Continuing his parliament activity as the Head of the Arabic Parliament Union, the Head of the National Assembly accompanied with a highly ranked delegation from the council visited the council in the Sultanate of Oman during the period of 1-3 February where the two sides held a joint parliamentary negotiation session that discussed the development of the parliament experience in Sudan and the Sultanate, where they both agreed to work together in order to enhance the relations with more visits and to exchange experts and experiences.
3 - An official visit to the Syrian Popular Assembly during
the period of 29-30/5/2003: -
A delegation of the National Assembly led by the Head of the Assembly visited the sister Syrian Arabic Republic in 29-30 May 2003 to congratulate the Syrian Popular Assembly for resuming its work after the general elections that took place in Syria lately.
4- An official visit to the National Assembly of the
United Arab Emirates State in July 2003:-
Mr. Ahmed Ibrahim El Tahir, the Head of the National Assembly accompanied by a delegation from the Council paid a visit to the United Arab Emirates State where he met with Mr. Saeed El Kindy, the Head of the Federal Assembly in the State of Emirates where an exchange of opinions and consultations in what concerns the future vision of the Arabic Parliament role in activating and developing the joint Arabic Parliament work took place in the meeting which was distinguished by its transparency, positiveness and cooperation. It was agreed upon the necessity of communication between the two countries in what serves the joint interests, and the Head of The National Assembly presented an invitation to his counterpart from Emirates to visit Sudan.
The Participation Of Sudan In Conferences And Meetings On The Level Of Specialized Circles Of The Arabic Parliaments: -
1) The 12th meeting of the executive committee of the Arabic Parliaments during the period from 18-28 December 2002.
2) A workshop to promote a model for the Arabic parliaments legislation organized by the General Trustee Association for the Arabic Parliament in cooperation with the UNDP in the Lebanese capital Beirut in the period between 3-6 February 2003.
3) Participation in the third Arabic meeting for the population and development committees in the Arabic councils, Egypt-Cairo during the period between 10-12/6/2003.
4) Participation in the exceptional meeting works of The Permanent Arabic Committee for Human Rights in the Arab League in the period 18-26/6/2003.