Location of Al-Quds
Al-Quds city is situated at latitude of 46-31 north and longitude of 14-35 east.
Its area is estimated at one Kilometer inside the barriers. It lies at strategic and important place in the central of the ridges of Palestinian hills.
A number of hills such as Safad, Al-Nasera, Janeen, Napuls, Ram-allah, Bethlehem and Al-khalil surround and link the Palestinian mountainous town (Al-Quds)
It is located 720-780 meters above the sea level. Its lands are rockets and little high, as it is surrounded by some little –deep valleys, as Gahanem valley in east, Al- Japanien valley in west, and Al-rapapa valley in the south. Also the city is surrounded by some mountains as Jabal Al-Zaiton (Mount of olive) in East, Mount of Prophet Samoul in West, Mount of Al-Masharef in north and Mount of Al- Mukabar in south.
At ancient times, Al-Quds city was a desert surrounded by valleys in its three directions, the east, south and west. At the north and west north side it is open and surrounded by mountains, in which the city had been built.
On Mount of Morya (Mukhtar) Al- Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock were built, its highest is 770 meter. In Mount of Okar the Al-Qehama Church was built and Mount of Nebreta near to Al-Sahra Gate. Mount of Sahieon which known as Mount of David in the western south of the old Al-Quds and it is surrounded by strong wall in a shape of square with a high estimated at 40 feet, and it had 34 towers and the barrier has 7 Gates.
It is surrounded by the following mountains:
Mount of Al-Mukhtar
Mount of Al-Tour or Jabal Al-Zaiton (Mount of Olives), where it is believed that the Christ has raised up to the sky
Mount of Al-Mashrief, Mount of Samweil, and Hill of Al-Assour
Markets of Al-Quds
Al-Gataninen market is close to Al- Masjid- Al-Aqsa in the west sideand it is the most organized and beautiful market in the city.
There are other markets facing Al mehrab Gate ; Al-Khalil Gate which was built by the Romans and Market of Al-Attarien which is located in the West side
In the city there are some famous quarters such as Al-Magarba, Al-Asharaf, and Al- Alam, Al-Salateen , Al-Risha, Beni AL-Harith and Al-Dawia.
The well-known mosques are: -
The Holy Masjid of Al-Aqsa, is situated in the central of the Dome of the –Rock.
Al-Magarba Mosque, lies behind Al- Masjid Al –Aqsa.
Mosque of The Prophet David .
In side the mosques there are important cemeteries such as:
1. The grave of Prophet Musa in east of the Holy Baiet al-Maqdis
2. Cemetery of the Prophet David , Zakeriea and Yahiea ( Peace Be Upon Them) in the famous church of “ Al-Gesmaniea” east of Baiet-al-Maqdis
3. Cemetery of Maryem (peace be upon her ) in “ Al-Gesmaniea” church inside the Mount of AL-Tour.
Cemetery of Al- Sahra in Al-Quds city , in north side, where the Muslems buried their deads .
Cemetery of Al-Rahma Gate , located near AL- Masjied Al- Aqusa wall.
Al-shuhada Cemetery- Mamla Graveyard., it is the most biggest cemetery in the of west of Al-Quds., in which Al-Silsila Dome , the Dome of the prophet , Dome of Al-Rasas and Dome of Al-Miraj.
Population of Al-Quds :-
Studies point to the demographic change of the population groups who lived in the historical land of Palestine before and after the declaration of the Israeli State in 1948, where the number of Jewish is estimated at 8% in 1914 , according to the estimation of the Ottoman State at that time. In 1922 the Jewish community rate amounted to 11.1% of the total number of population. Then the numbers began to increase during the period of British Mandatory and due to immigration waves the number jumped to 31% of the total number of population .
The following table shows the growth rate of the Palestinian population and the rate of the Arab community compared with the Jewish community during 1914-1948:
The table indicates the increase in the number of the Jews , compared with the decrease in the number of Arabs .The rate of normal increase of the population reached to 63%. While the number of the Jewish immigration counted to 37%, a fact that effected the demographic structure in Palestine.
The demographic change in 1990-2006:-
Following the war of 1967 and the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza stripe, about 460.000 of the Palestinian people were expelled or deported up to 1979 and the results of the census groups of the Palestinian Statistic’s Bureau in Damascus pointed out that the total number of the Palestinian refugees who migrated from 1948 to 1979 were 3973360 in the year 2002.
The number raised to 4.5 million refugees in 2005 according to AONROA reports.
The number in another estimation reached 5 million refugees .
The Palestinian Statistic Central Bureau published expectations of the demographic balance between Palestinian people and the Jews on the land of the Palestine State ,
The table shows that the Jewish people are estimated as the majority in 1990, but they became equal in number with the Palestinians in 2006. The main reason of the Palestinians increase refers to the normal increase and the increase of the Jews depended on the immigrations.
It is expected that the Jews will be minority in the coming years, as the demographic balance will be in favour of the Palestinians.
The main demographic change in the Israeli community began after the war of 1967 and war of October of 1973.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union the doors of immigration were opened for the Jews which is described as consider the most foreign effects in the Israeli community , besides the effects of the economic and cultural globalization,the Uprising “ Intefada” in 1987 and the second one in 2000, and the peace process and its developments .
Israel and Fears of Demography:-
The increase of Arabs of Israel in the recent years is representing at 2.4 % compared with the Jewish citizens because of the high rate of fertility among the Palestinians women, afact that raised anxiety among observers .
In a study conducted by Prof, (Dla Fargola ), he pointed out that the Jewish people who represent the majority between the river of Jordan and the Dead Sea are in real risk .
The rate of Jews in Israel is expected to reach %47 in 2020 and 37% in 2050.
The results of the Israel Statistic Bureau for the year of 2004, indicate that the Jews will represent the minority in the region in less than ten years only.
Population of the Palestinian territories:-
The number of Palestinians reached to 2762005 persons in 2005, according to the statistics issued by Palestinian statistics Central Bureau.
Historical stages of Al-Quds:
Al-Quds is one of the oldest cities on earth and the antiquities left behind by its original Jebusite inhabitants, who built it around 2500 BC, they belonged to a Canaanite tribe of the early Arabs having immigrated from the Arabian Peninsula, now bear witness to the Arab origins of this city 5,000 years ago.
Around the year 579 BC, the city of Al-Quds had fallen to Nebuchadnezzar, the Chalddean King, and was destroyed. A few relics from this period had been found, especially around the south-eastern area, comprising a number of stone benches having been formed from the backfill resulting from the debris of the city.
Around the year 332 BC, Alexander (III) of Macedon (Alexander the Great) was able to seize control over the east Mediterranean region, and from the mixture of the two (east and west) civilizations emerged the roots of a new civilization that was called Hellenism.
Then the Roman period witnessed the fall of Al-Quds to the Roman conqueror Pompei in the year 63 BC, and thereby opening a new page in the history of this city. Then, the Romans had installed, during the period 37-40 BC, King Herod over Palestine.
In the year 66 CE, a revolt broke out in Palestine against the Roman reign, which revolt was crushed by Titus in the year 70 CE.
The Byzantine period started with King Constantine the Great recognizing Christianity as the official religion of the Roman State in the year 324 CE. He had built his new capital, Constantinople, on a village situated on the Bosphorus Strait known by the name of Byzantium. Constantine’s mother, Helena, visited Al-Quds and ordered the construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Al-Quds, the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, and the Church of Bisharah (Annunciation) in Nazareth.
In the Arab Islamic era Muslim Arabs conquered the city of Al-Quds in the reign of wise Caliph Omar bin Al-Khattâb (15 A.H./638 A.D.). Caliph Omar (may Allah be pleased with him) took good care of the Christian and Jewish holy places. Likewise, he manifested no intolerance of their worship practices. With this Arabo-Islamic conquest, many Arabs settled in Al-Quds, which became an Arab and Islamic city.
Salâhuddîn Al-Ayyûbi (Saladin) liberated Al-Quds on October 2, 1187 A.D., putting an end to a period of about eighty-eight years of crusade rule over this city. Upon entering Al-Quds, Salâhuddîn Al-Ayyûbi allowed the crusaders to leave the city peacefully.
Arabism of Al-Quds:
The first foundation of Al-Quds had been by the Arabs, who reached to this place in a wave of movement from central the Arabian peninsula in 2300 B.C. The Archeologists asserted that Al-Quds inhabitants at that time were Arabs. Archaeological excavations proved existence of heritage of the Arabs in the city.
They pointed out that the archeological excavations and diggings (those citizen’s) have discovered Arab features dated back to 1800 B.C, and this means 800 years before appearance of the Hebrew people in it.
The old city lies at a hill and overlooking onto the deep valleys surrounding it by all sides.
It was situated along the old road linking Palestine with Egypt and Naplus and Al-Khalil and the road linking Jerico with the Mediterranean coast.
The American Archeologist W.F Olberiat pointed in his book on Palestine Archeology, which was published in London 1967, to remains dated back to 10,000 years, that matched completely with the skeleton and head figure of the Hamite and Samite tribes. Also was proved that the region of the Arabian peninsula was the human store, from which organized immigrations towards the north and particularly to the region of the Fertile Crescent.
European archeologists pointed that the tribes who mentioned in the holy book “Al- towara” were Arab and had migrated to Palestine in the eleven century B.C. The Arab researcher Gawad Ali asserted in his book (Arab History before Islam) that those Arab tribes lived in central and south Palestine before the migration of Hebrew people.
The waves of the human movements in that region in the old era had the Arabic features as proved by the discovered equipment and tools of food and daily- life.
According to these information, the Arabs were present in Al-Quds more than 1000-3000 years before appearance of Hebrews in it. This is besides that the entrance of Arab peacefully in Al-Quds in 637 A.D was not the first time as they were the builders and protectors of the city.
Written evidence of Al-Quds was found in Egyptian Pharohnic texts dating to 1991 B.C. They showed that Al-Quds was a capital for a Kingdom ruled by an Arab governor.
On his part, Palestinian archeology expert Dr. Yousief Al- Natshea, declared that all Israeli excavations in Al-Quds and around Masjied al—Aqsa failed to find any evidence for the temple destroyed by the Romans. Israel continued its searching, but all they found were Arab, Islamic and Christian remains.
The Israelis attempts to change the cultural character of the holy city raised global worries. UNESCO listed the old Al-Quds and its walls on the top record of the endangered archeologist areas in 1972, launching an international call to protect the cultural characters of the holy city in 1987 because of the Israel’s aggressive acts to get rid of the Arab characters.
The Arabic characters of the city founded in long time ago and continuing now in the eastern Al-Quds.
In addition to the old archeology ,about 120 historical locations ,described as a very important values and its building - dated back to the middle and modern eras.
The Arab supremacy on the holy city continued till 1099 A.D , then it had occupied by the European armies during the crusade- campaigns.
After 88 years the Arabs recaptured Al-Quds and the city restored gradually its Arab identity. Following the hero Salah Al-deen , his older son assumed the responsibility of recovery and rehabilitation of war-effects.
The Important Christian places in Al-Quds
There are many holly places for Christians in Al-Quds, including the following :-
It concerns all Christian sectors except Protestant sector. It was built by Helena the mother of Emperor Castantine 335. The church was burnt by Persians, when they conquered Al-Quds in 614.When Caliph Omer Ibn Al-Khattab conquered the holly city, he did not destroy it, he refused to pray in it because he feared that Muslems will change it to mosque in the future.
The church was amended frequently especially in Castantine’s era (1048), and when the Christian occupied it in (1099), they gathered the scattered temples, and changed to a great church in Palestine.
Darb Al- Alam (the way of pains):
It is a way believed through which Jesus was going, carrying his cross, it formed from 14 stages, it had begun from Jewish monks school where the Romanian governor issued his decision to crucify the Jesus, and towards the west to the Al-Wad, and Agabat Al-Mufti through the way which linked Al-Wad region with Khan Al-Zayyton in order to reach the holly grave in Nativity Church.
Mary Chruch (Marym Church).
The church lies in Al-Gadroun valley in a place between Salwan, Mount of Al-Zayyton and Al-Sabat Gate where the church contains some graves such as Maryyam Al-Batoul and her parents and Youssuf Al-Njjar. It was built between 450-457.
Henna Saint church
Henna Saint church lies near Al-Asbat Gate where Jesus came in this situation with one of his miracle. The church was burnt during the Persian invasion of Palestine in 614. The Christians built it again and it transformed to school in era of Salahudin Al-Ayoubi, then the French received it from Sultan Abdul-hameed Al-Ottamani in 1855 and in which they constructed a school.
The church is located the area between Salwan, Jebel A-Tour (Mount Tour) and Al-Asbat Gate. It was built by Al- Latein in 1924, in the place where the Jesus was captured.
Al – Alyya Church (Jewish monastery)
The monastery lies on Jewish mountain summit, near Al-Khalial Gate. Some Christians believe that it a place where Jesus and his followers ate their last supper.
It was built on Jabal Al-Zayytoun (Mount of Olives) in the place from which Jesus believed ascended to heaven.
Meanwhile, the religious properties of Copts in Al-Quds are determined as follows:-
1) Sultan monastery where there is Al-Malak church.
2) Marantonunous monastery northeast Nativity Church.
3) Margirgis monastery- Mowarna quarter.
4) Mary Church at Jabal AL-Zayytoun
5) Temple of Jabal Al-Zayytoun.
6) Mario Yohanna church – out of Nativity Church
7) Mikhail Al-Malak Church.
The Jewish have depended on their relating with Al-Quds to the myth which says that this town was built by King David, then King Solomon constructed God temple, the most sacred for the whole Jewish. But after 32 years of the occupation of the town and 150 years from the beginning of archeological excavation in the town, no one find or discovered any evidence that refer to the temple or to any Jewish trace in the town.
Al-Quds and Islamic Era:
First Islamic Era (636-1072 AD):-
Caliph Omer Ibn–Khatab entered Al-Quds in 636 after victory of the Islamic army under the famous Islamic commander Abu Obyyda Aamir Ibn Al-Jrah. The town had taken its Islamic appearance. During this period, the town witnessed scientific progress in different fields. Muslims gave great concern to the town. One of the most important Islamic antiquities in Al-Quds of that time is Al-Sakhra mosque (the Dome of the Rock), which was built Abdulmalik Ibn Murowan in 682. After this era the town witnessed a period of instability due to the military conflicts which rose between Abassyion, Fatimeen and Al-gramita, and then Al-Quds came under the rule of Al-Salagha in 1071 AD.
Al-Quds during Crusade campaigns:
The Crusaders captured Al-Quds in 1099 after five centuries of Islamic rule due to power conflicts between Al-Salagigh and Fatimeen and among Al-Salagigh themselves.
The Crusaders killed some 70 thousands Moslems after occupying the city and violated the Islamic holly places. In that time, a Latin kingdom rose in Al-Quds, ruled by a Catholic King, a matter that angered the Orthodox Christians.
Second Islamic Era:
Salahul-ddin Al-Ayoubi was able to restore Al-Quds from the Crusaders in 1187 after Hattain battle. He had treated its people very well, and took off the cross from Gubat Al- Sakhra (the Dom of the Rock), and he looked after the town and worked hard to protect it from enemies attacks.
Crusaders for the second time
The Crusaders had succeeded in controlling the town after the death of Salah elddin. It remained under their control for eleven years till it was restored finally by King Najm elddin Ayoub in 1244.
Al-Quds faced the Magolian invasion in 1243-1244, but Al-Mamalik conquered them in Aain Jalut battle in 1209, then it had came under their rule till 1517.
Ottomanian army, led by Al-Sultan Saleem, entered Palestine after Maraj Dabig battle in (1615- 1616). Since that period Palestine had become part of Ottomanian Empire. Al-Sultan Suliman Al-Ganouni rebuilt the wall around the town and the Dome of the Rock. During the period 1831 – 1840 Palestine became part of the Egyptian state, which was established by Mohamed Ali. It returned to Ottoman rule once again till the first world war in which Ottoman Turkish were defeated and driven out of Palestine.
The British Occupation (1917-1948) :
Al-Quds had fallen at the hands of the British army in 8-9/12/1917 after the declaration which announced by British General Al-Linbi. The League of Nations gave Britain the right of mandate on Palestine, which made Al-Quds the capital of Palestine (1920-1948).
Since that time the town entered a new era, which was characterized by the increase in numbers of Jewish immigrants especially after The Balfour Declaration in 1917.
Al-Quds problem transformed to the United Nations after the Second World WAR(WWII) the international organization issued its decision in 29 November 1957 through which Al-Quds crisis has taken its internationalization.
Internationalization Of Al-Quds :
Following a radio statement by British General Al-Anbi in 1917, the Nations League granted Britain mandatory right over Palestine capital, Al -Quds become under British Mandate in (1920 – 1948). And From that time the city entered a new era. The promotion feature of which were increasing numbers of Jewish immigrants particularly Before Daclaratiuon in 1917.
The issue of Al-Qods was conveyed to the United Nation after the world war II. UN issued its resolution on internationalizing of Al-Qud on November 29, 1947.
On December 2, 1948, Israeli prime minister David Bin Gorion declared Western Al -Quds as a capital of Israeli new State. Eastern Al-Quds submitted to Jordanian sovereignty until the Defeat in June 1967 which resulted in the attachment of Al-Quds as a whole to the power of Israeli occupation.
The occupation authorities attempted to burn Al-Aqsa Mosque in 21,8,1969, digging tunnel under the Sacred city and destructed some important antiquities and some cemeteries and Islamic and Christian shrines.
In 28,1,1976 , a judge of Israeli conciliation court issued a decree permitted Jewish to pray in Sacred Al-Quds Mosque.
Al-Quds in Palestinian – Israeli Peace talks:
In spite of the continuous attempts to reach to political solutions of the partition of Al-Quds since 1967, unfortunately the problem of Al-Quds remained constant in every political solution for the Arab- Israeli conflict.
After the second Gulf war in 1991 and escalation of Palestinian Intifada (uprising) since 1987 against Israeli occupation, the United States of America initiated convocation of peace conference in Middle East with the aim to settle the Palestinian question. The conference was held in Madrid, Spanish Capital, in 1991 in presence of Palestinian party.
After the bilateral and multi negotiations resulting of the conference, the Palestinian party and five Israeli partie reached to an accord.
The accord was named as “Declaration of principles”, in 1993. The declaration was followed by various agreements in 1993, 1995 and 1996.
In the beginning of 2000, efforts being exerted to hold the final talks and the negotiations continued for two weeks in Camp David in the United States of America. They officially announced that Al-Quds was the main obstacle in face to reach to any agreement between the two parties.
Madrid Peace Conference in 1991 :
The issue of Al-Quds was seriously discussed in bilateral and multilateral negotiations resulting from Madrid conference in 1991.
The Israeli authority insisted on issue of a certain position of the Al-Quds.
The United States pointed out to the guarantees to be presented to the Palestinians if the final determination of Al-Quds situation would be tackled in the negotiations.
Israel rejected participation of representatives from Eastern Al-Quds with the Palestinian delegation in early stages.
In Madrid conference, agreement on postponement of intrinsic issues relating to the settlements in the occupied territories, repatriation of refugees, security arrangements and borders.
Oslo Accords (13/9/1993)
The Israeli authorities and the Palestinians agreed upon the Declaration of Principles on postponement of discussion of the final position of Al-Quds.
Where Al-Quds excluded from the authority of Palestinian self- government council due to article (7) of the memo of understanding appended to the accord and in accordance with the article (4 &5) 6- the same accord.
Regarding the Palestinian Population of Al-Quds, the agreement in article (1), appendix(1) allowed them to hold election process concerning the self-government due to the complicated conditions.
So Israel fount it as an opportunity to continue practicing various measures of judization which created situation in favor of Israel before starting the final talks.
The Final Negotiations
In light of the different political developments of the Palestinian and Israeli sides, the mid of July ,2000, which witnessed a decisive attempt to urge the two parties to sign a framework agreement on the issue of Palestinian land occupied 1967 (West Bank, Al- Quds and Gaza Strip).
A summit was held between the Israeli prime minister Ihoda Barak and the chairman of PLO, Yassir Arafat, under auspices of the US president Bill Clinton , 'Camp David Summit'. But the two parties did not reach to a deal.
The Palestinian party announced that they rejected to concede sovereignty of Palestine over eastern Al- Quds.
The visit of Sharon to the yard of Al- Aqsa mosque in 28/9/2000 invoked feelings of the Islamic world. It triggered the Intifadah (uprising in Palestine).
During the ‘intifadah (uprising) many of Palestinians were martyred including men, woman and children.
The martyrs of the Palestinian leaderships included Al-Shiekh Ahmed Yassin, the founder of Hamas, Dr. Abdel –Aziz Al-Ranitissi and the child Mohamed Al-Dorra.
As a conclusion, within the outstanding balances of forces and the Intifada, against the Israeli occupation the final negotiations were subjected to the bases of Israeli security, its envisages to peace and its readiness to give the Palestinians some of their religious, political and demographic rights concerning Al- Quds.
ATTEMPTS OF JUDAIZITION AND
OBLITERATION OF IDENTITU OF AL-QUDS
The occupied Arab territories suffered the Jewish aggressive measures against cultural, civilization and religious heritage with the aim to obliterate and disfigure features and character of Palestine and its people and to complete the scheme of judaization of Al-Quds.
Al-Quds with its holy places and features is representing a challenge for the Jewish scheme and the Israeli authorities made the following aggressions and hostilities:
• The Israeli occupion authorities after occupied the old Al-Quds had stolen cultural, religious and archeological heritage and transferred the unique manuscripts to the Israeli museum.
• Israel had dug a tunnel under Al-Aqsa Mosque, a matter which threaten to destroy it and considers a blatant violation of the sanctity of Al-Aqsa mosque, the first kibla of Muslims and the third of the two the holy mosques and land of al asra wal me'raj.
• Israeli leader in guidance of the religious men and scholars of archeology identified the objectives of the diggings in Al-Quds as follows:
The archeological excavations of the western and southern walls of Al-Haram Al-Sharif, located to 485 meters in order to discover the wailing wall.
Destroy and demolish all Islamic buildings such as institutions, mosques, markets and houses surrounding area of diggings.
confiscate Al –Haram AL-Sharif and construct the Temple and that the diggings failed to prove remains of the temple or a city of Solomon era.
In 15/7/1968, a number of groups of archeological scholars in Israel and abroad begun the first stage of the diggings in forty sites under auspices of Israeli archeology department , the big diggings made by Bejamin Mazar( the Hebrew university) under name of society excavations in temple mount and the digging reached up to 70 meters under southern wall of Al-Haram Al-Sharif and buildings of Islamic museum and minaret.
The second stage of the diggings completed to 80 meters of wall of Al-Haram in 1969, where the first stage ended at north of (AlMagarba Gate) and went beneath a number of Islamic buildings of Zawiya.
The third stage started in 1980 and began from the old building of sharia court to Al-Haram Al-Sahrif and the fourth and fifth stage started in 1973-1974 in a place behind the southern wall and located 80 meters beneath of courtyard of Al-Aqsa Mosque and Omran mosque.
The six stage started in the early of 1979 in mid of the eastern wall of the city and wall of Al-Haram Al-Sharief and the seventh phase aimed to increase Al-Burag area.
The Israeli plan which started in 1977, included the neighboring Arab lands and about 200 properties were demolished in years of 1970 and 1977.
The excavations and tunneling work aimed clearly at demolishing and destroying residential, commercial, religious and urban buildings and deporting its people, posing a dangerous threat to a number of the historical sites and the Christian and Islamic antiquities as well as confiscation and demolishing of the Waqf (endowments) buildings near Aqsa Mosque in the west and south.
• Occupation of Moroccan quarter near Al-Haram Al-Sharif and established a military center.
• Confiscation of Tiknez school and Zawiya and cemeteries of Al-Rahma Gate and Al-yousifia near Al-Haram and considered a part of history of Al-Quds.
• The Israeli army and extremist organizations and corporations staged religious demonstrations in Al-Haram courtyard and entrance of Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock to insult the Muslims in their prayers and violated sanctity of the holy places.
• Deep excavations and tunneling under Al-Aqsa mosque.
• Burring of Al-Aqsa Mosque in August, 21, 1969, representing example of Israeli aggression in violating sanctity of the holy places and cultural properties in the occupied territories, a matter which is directed against feelings of any person who respects the heritage and holy sites .
• The Jewish extremists have stolen the religious antiquities of the Nativity Church (the oldest church in Al-Quds and the world).
• The Israeli police entered the abbey of Copts and stolen its properties and attacked its priests in 1970.
• The extremist Jews and Israeli soldiers have burned some of Christian centers and institutions in Al-Quds and soiled most Muslims’ holy places such as Al-Haram A-Ibrahemi in Al-Khalil city.
The toughest criticism to the Israeli authorities in violating features and status of the holy city were made by engineer of architecture, kosher, who worked at Al-Quds planning department and due to some political and commercial reasons he resigned in 1972.
a) For completion of obliteration and changing of historical character and status of the city, the Israeli authorities resorted to change the Arabic names of the city’s streets by (Hebrew) Israeli ones.
b) The occupation authorities adopted a series of organized measures such as practicing terrorism to evacuate Al-Quds of its people and it considers one of the direct means used by the Israeli military authorities since the date of the occupation of Al-Quds in 1967.
c) The occupation authorities adopted policy of destroying and demolishing Arab properties as a process to evacuate Al-Quds of its inhabitants through using economic pressure as indirect means to deport the population of Al-Qods.
d) *It had taken a number of measures targeting liquidation of Arab economy and tying it to Israeli economy and exchanged the Jordanian currency with Israeli one, separating Al-Quds from its surrounding villages and cities.
e) The occupation authorities also adopted a policy of usurping Arab lands and premises in an attempt to force inhabitants to flee Al-Quds.
f) The occupation authorities in usurping Arab lands and properties relied on a law of the mandate government of the year 1943 (lands act - ownership of lands for public interest for the year 1943) and on the so-called public services such as hospitals, schools, public parks and dams a large areas of lands were appropriated.
g) The Israeli authorities adopted a specific means in confiscating Arab lands. Firstly it prohibits construction of buildings in the area surrounds it with wires for security procedures and warning the residents not to enter the area and then begin the process of settlement and in this process the Israeli authorities chose the area that renders strategic services for Israelis.
h) The occupation authorities took over all schools and cancelled the Jordanian educational curriculums and textbooks and replaced by educational curriculums applied in the Arab schools in the occupied areas since 1948.
i) The Israeli authorities also cancelled the Arab inspection office and asked the staff of the educational bureaus to join the Israeli educational departments affiliated to the Israeli ministry of education and municipality of Al-Quds and due to refusal of the Arab educational department to cooperate with the Israeli authorities, the schools opened forcibly and new cadres of unqualified teachers provided and the authorities tried to put the curriculums and financial sources of the native schools under its supervision.
j) The Israeli Knesset endorsed the law of Jerusalem on July 31, 1980, which stipulated the following:
1. Jerusalem is the united capital of Israel.
2. It is site to a number of key Israeli government buildings including the Knesset, the Israeli supreme court and the houses of the president and prime minister and this law became part of the Israeli constitution and by passing this law the process of judaization made a new step for annexation of Al-Quds to Israel.
Following the aggression of the year 1967, the Israel committed to the principle of not to return to borders of June, 19, 1967 and its security pretexts mixed with religious and economic allegations and for sustaining the regional expansion it started to create intensive real settlements in some of Arab occupied areas.
The issue of settlements in Al-Quds and surrounding areas has taken a key concern in 1967 and the Israeli authorities unanimously have the same opinion of sticking to Al-Quds and that the settlements process aim to judaize Al-Quds in order to become the capital of Israel.
The Israeli authorities brought new 25,000 settlers to Al-Quds and from that date the Israeli authorities made great measures for re-planning Al-Quds such as :
• Surrounding the walls of the old city with big park.
• Demolishing all old and poor quarters.
• Establishing a commercial center in the centre of the city over an area of 2700 square meters despite Arab protests and complaints that the Israeli authorities had carried out its plans in changing the identity of Al-Quds.
Al-Quds is a sacred city for all Muslims. The member states of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) established Al-Quds committee at a recommendation of Islamic conference of foreign ministers, held in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia on 12-15 July 1975. The committee’s chairmanship was given to his Majesty King Al-Hassan II of Morocco. Its objectives are as follows:-
1. Study situation in Al-Quds and follow-up implementation of the resolutions adopted by the foreign ministers of Islamic countries .
2. (b) Follow-up the resolutions adopted by other international organizations in the international conferences and to contact other organizations to assist in protection of Al-Quds and to offer to member states and the concerned organizations proposals on taking appropriate steps to secure implementation of resolutions on facing the new developments.
The committee since its establishment issued many resolutions and crucial recommendations for backing the issues of Palestine and Al-Quds town.
The committee made the following recommendations:-
• In its first session, the committee called upon the Islamic states to contact UN Security Council member states to brief them on the dangerous situation in Al-Quds Al-Asharif and the Palestinian and Arab occupied territories and the effect of continuation of the Israeli practices against peace in the area and the world .
• The committee also called upon the UN Security Council to take practical measures to secure the national rights of the Palestinian people and to cease ongoing aggression in the city of Al-Quds Al-Sharif and in other occupied Palestinian and Arab territories.
• The committee decided to send a high level delegation to visit the Vatican and other international Christian centres, so as to brief them on Al-Quds Al-Sharif and the dangerous situation in the occupied Palestinian and Arab territories and work to gain their support for these issues.
• The committee called upon the Islamic states to contact the countries of Latin America and the non-aligned movement to gain support for issue of Al-Quds and the Palestinian and Arab rights and to take crucial stances such as severing their diplomatic and economic ties with countries that decide to transfer their embassies to Al-Quds and to stop the archeological excavations and measures of changing the identity of Al-Quds city and implementation of punishments stipulated in the charter of the UNESCO. It urged the Islamic Development Bank to extend facilities and financial loans to the Palestinian institutions.
• In its second session in 1980, the committee expressed appreciation to the French stand , which the French president, Giscard d'Estaing expressed during a tour to a number of Arab countries on the Palestinian right of self-determination.
• The committee affirmed commitment of the Islamic states to the UN Security Council resolution on settlements and Al-Quds Al-Sharif and considered it as an international legitimate will and shall be carried out and expressed thanks to the UN Security Council member states for adoption of the resolution that regarding separating the Israeli settlements in Al-Quds and in all occupied Arab territories and considered the resolution as a big victory for the Palestinian cause.
• The committee expressed regret over the American statement after the issuance of UN Security Council resolution on future of Al-Quds and settlements in the Palestinian and Arab occupied territories.
• The committee asked the African member countries of the OIC to exert efforts which make the African countries not to restore its relations with Israel in any manner until the realization of a just and permanent solution of the Palestinian question based on the firm national rights of the Palestinian people and practice their rights to the self-determination and establishment of their own state on their national soil and considered providing any political, military, financial or economic support to Israel as a participation and encouragement to Israel to continue its aggression against sacred religious places and its policy of expansion represented in annexation and settlements in the Palestinian and Arab territories .
• The committee asked the UN General Assembly to convene a special session on Al-Quds and the Palestinian question and special symposium on Al-Quds Al-Sharif in Paris and similar symposia in world capitals and discussing possibility of finance and assign groups of experts and intellectual men in collaboration with the general secretariat in working out document pertinent to Al-Quds , affirming its Arabism and identifying the achievements and victories of the Palestinian revolution at Islamic and international arenas and expressed thanks to the Pope of the Vatican for his address before the UN rejecting annexation of Al-Quds to the Jewish state.
• The final communiqué of Al-Quds committee in its extraordinary session in 1980 that the session was held in a crucial juncture in which the Israeli occupied troops escalated their terrorist acts against the Palestinian people in order to implement the judaization of the holiest city and that the Israeli Knesset enacted law to annex the city of Al-Quds al-sharif to the Jewish state and declared Al-Quds Al-Sharif as an eternal capital of Israel.
• The committee called upon the Islamic and Arab countries to break their political and economic relations with states that deals with the Israeli decision of annexation of Al-Quds.
• It formed a committee to carry out contacts with the Western countries to call upon Israeli to withdraw immediately and without conditions from the Palestinian and Arab occupied territories, including Al-Quds and to voice their condemnation to the Israeli agressions and take practical measures in this domain.
• The committee requested the European countries that extends facilities to the Jewish who emigrated to the occupied Palestine, to halt providing facilities because immigration contributes to boosting settlements in the Palestinian and Arab occupied territories, including Al-Quds ,and encourage Israeli aggression against the Palestinian people.
• The committee called on the Non-Align Movement countries to break their diplomatic ties with Israel and implement economic sanctions against Israel.
• It also called upon all countries of the international community to shoulder their responsibility in confronting defiance of Israel to the international resolutions by taking practical measures to end the Israeli aggression and support the Palestinian and Arab struggle.
• The committee urged carrying out intensive contacts with the Vatican and other Christian world to take positive stance against the Israeli decision of annexation of Al-Quds.
• It expressed support to the Middle East peace process and to the implementation of the agreements signed in that framework between the parties concerned along with all the commitments and pledges made on the basis of the principles of the Madrid conference, in accordance with the Un resolutions, especially Security Council Resolutions Nos. 242, 338 and 425, as well as the "land for peace" formula which calls for Israel's immediate, total and unconditional withdrawal from all the occupied Palestinian and Arab territories, including Al-Quds Al-Sharif, the Syrian Golan back to the June 4, 1967 line and occupied Lebanese territories in accordance with Security Council Resolution 425. It further stressed the need for Israel to honor
• the commitments it made during the negotiations and resume talks on the Syrian track from where they had ended.
The committee made the following recommendations:
1. called on the Security Council to ensure the implementation of its resolutions on the protection of the status of Al-Quds, lay down mechanisms for the implementation of its resolution No.1073 (1996) and take the necessary steps to ensure the follow up by the Security Council concerning the implementation of the content of the presidential statement issued by the Security Council on July 13,1998, including adoption of appropriate decisions and measures in compliance with the UN charter, in view of the fact that the steps taken by Israel in Al-Quds constituted a violation of the basic principle for peace in the Middle East as well as a threat to international peace and security and an act of aggression.
2. Requested the international community, especially the sponsors of the peace process, the permanent members of the UN Security Council, the European Union and non-aligned countries to take a firm stand in confronting the Israeli siege of Al-Quds Al-Sharif and halt all the measures, practices and unilateral decisions aimed at judaizing the city, besieging it and isolating it from its Palestinian environment, and to endeavor for the lifting of the siege.
3. The committee urged all countries to comply with Security Council Resolution 478 (1980) calling on them to refrain from moving their diplomatic missions to the city of Al-Quds.
4. Urged those Islamic countries which had taken steps to normalize relations with Israel in the context of the peace process to reconsider such relations with Israel and, to close their missions and offices until Israel complied with UN resolutions and carried out the agreements, pledges and commitments reached by the parties to the peace process.
5. Called on the Security Council to revive the international supervision and control committee entrusted with preventing settlement activities in Al-Quds and the other occupied Palestinian and Arab territories, in accordance with Resolution 446.
6. The committee urged all states that extend economic and financial assistance to Israel, especially the United States of America, EU countries and international donor institutions and funds to halt their assistance which is used by Israel to carry out its colonial settlement schemes and designs in the occupied Palestinian and Arab territories as well as the Syrian Golan.
7. Called upon all the countries to recognize the state of Palestine upon its proclamation on the land of Palestine pursuant to international law; it highly valued the support of international community in raising the status of representation of Palestine in the United Nations and considered it a step in this direction.
8. The committee urged the Islamic states to extend further support to the Palestinian national institutions and the Palestinian people with a view to enabling it to protect the Islamic and Christian sanctities, preserve the city of Al Quds Al-Sharif and its civilizational, historical and religious heritage, and to support its steadfastness and its resistance to the Israeli occupation and settlement schemes.
9. The committee called upon the member states, the Islamic financial institutions, banks and funds, as well as companies and individuals to extend generous assistance in support of Al-Quds Fund.
10. The committee urged the OIC member states to speed up the implementation of the Islamic conference resolutions inviting the member states to extend their voluntary contributions with the aim to boost the capital of Al -Quds fund and its Waqf, amounting to one million dollars each.
The final communiqué of the fourth session of Al-Quds Committee referred to the Israeli ongoing provocation in defying the resolutions of the UN Security Council and the international organizations and resolutions of the African Union and the Non-Aligned Movement, calling on Israel to withdraw from the Palestinian and Arab occupied areas, including Al-Quds Al-Sharif and enable the Palestinian people to practice their rights in return and self-determination and their rights to establish their independent state over their national . It referred to Israel’s continued defying of the sentiments of the Muslims and the international public opinion by continuing to take measures aiming at judaization of the Arab occupied territories, including Al-Quds Al-Sharif and evacuating it from its population and subjecting them to the policy of official and nonofficial terrorism.
The committee endorsed a comprehensive Islamic action plan to face the Israeli defiance, liberating Al-Quds Al-Sharif and restoring the Palestinian and Arab occupied territories, boost and realize the rights of the Palestinian people and to submit the plan to the next OIC conference.
Al-Quds committee in its fifth session decided to carry out contacts with the European states, Japan, Canada , Australia and New Zealand to explain the Islamic stand in order to convince them with recognition of the Palestinian people’s rights in return and self-determination and establishment of their independent state.
It also decided carrying out contacts with the American administration and inform them of the rejection of the Islamic countries of the policy adopted by it supporting and standing besides Israel at all levels.
The committee called on the Vatican to condemn Israel of annexation of Al-Quds and continuing occupation of the Palestinian and Arab territories.
It decided carrying out contacts with the Non-Align Movement countries and the OAU states and the socialist countries to boost relations with them due to their backing to the Palestinian cause.
The committee urged carrying out the necessary contacts with the friendly countries to implement the resolution of Al- Quds committee aiming to issue a resolution from the UN General Assembly in order to freeze the membership of Israel if it does not implement resolutions of the UN regarding the Palestine question and the issue of the Middle East. The resolutions also included:-
• Launching an information campaign in Europe and United States of America to gain popular and official support for the cause of Al-Quds Al-Sharif.
• Implementing the resolution of the OIC in coordination with the Arab League countries pertinent to impose boycott against Israel.
• Called upon the European Community to halt its collective and bilateral economic relations with Israel.
Al-Quds Committee affirmed in its 6th session that the issue of liberation of Al-Quds and Palestine and the Arab occupied lands is issue of the Islamic Ummah and commitment to liberation of all Palestinian and Arab territories occupied following aggression of the 1967, including Al-Quds Al-Sharif and not relinquishing of any part of the territories.
Condemned Israel for its continued occupation of parts of southern Lebanon and the Lebanese western bikaa, and called upon the international community, especially the UN and all its organs to endeavour to implement Security Council Resolution No. 425 (1978) which provided for Israel's immediate and unconditional withdrawal from all the occupied Lebanese territories to the internationally recognized boundaries.
Demanding the international community to take all necessary measures to compel Israel to release all Lebanese prisoners and kidnapped individuals from Israeli prisons and those controlled by forces belonging to it in contravention of the provisions of the international law, the universal declaration of human rights, the fourth Geneva convention (1949) and the convention of the Hague (1907).
It urged OIC member states to approach the international organizations to take all measures with the government of Israel, the occupying authority, with the aim of enabling the international Red Cross and other humanitarian organizations to visit the prisoners detained in Al-Khiyam and Marjaioun camps on regular basis to examine their conditions and to ensure medical and humanitarian care for them and to allow-their relatives to visit them regularly.
Requested the secretary general to follow up the implementation of all the international resolutions pertaining to the Palestinian cause and the Middle East, in particular UN Security Council Resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973), 252 (1968), 267 (1969), 465 (1980), 476 (1980), 478 (1980), 1073 (1996) 1397 (2002), and 1515 (2003); and the UN General Assembly Resolution 194 on the return of Palestinian refugees, and the Arab initiative and the roadmap.
Holding Israel fully responsible for destroying the Middle East peace process on all tracks as a result of the Israeli government's intransigence, its reneging on the foundations of the peace process, especially UN Security Council Resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973) and the "land for peace" principle, and its failure to comply with the terms of the agreements concluded according to this principle;
Hailing the steadfastness of the Palestinian people and their valiant "intifada" (uprising) aimed at recovering their inalienable national rights.
The committee renewed its determination to continue its support and to mobilize all potentials for the restoration of the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people.
it also adopted resolutions stressing the need to carry out political and information campaigns and took practical measures for the implementation of those resolutions. In addition, it adopted the resolutions of the governing board of the Al-Quds Fund.
It expressed its grave concern on the massive transfer of Jews from the Soviet Union to Israel and their settlement in occupied Palestinian territories, emphasizing that the transfer of Jews from the Soviet Union and east European countries and their settlement in occupied Arab territories constituted a new factor of tension and had jeopardized the stability of the region.
It condemned Israel for the excavations around and beneath the blessed Al -Aqsa mosque and for willfully destroying cultural and heritage sites in Nablus and Al-khaleel (Hebron) in addition to inflicting heavy damage on the Nativity Church which embodies deep-rooted religious, cultural, and historical values.
It condemned Israel for plundering, removing and sabotaging cultural assets in numerous Palestinian cultural centers and museums; demanding the international community, the UNESCO and the world heritage commission to impose deterrent sanctions on Israel on grounds of the danger it constitutes to the treasures of world heritage.
It holded Israel fully responsible for the consequences of its aggression and practices against the Palestinian people, including the responsibility for paying compensation for the material and economic losses sustained by the infrastructure of towns, villages, refugee camps and Palestinian national economy.
The committee affirmed the principle of strengthening Islamic solidarity with the Palestinian people and their blessed Intifada (uprising), recognizing their cause as the foremost of all Islamic causes,
Recognizing that the boycott of Israel is an effective and legitimate method and a national sovereign right exercised by Islamic countries against Israel to protect their national interests and defend just Islamic causes,
The committee adopted the following principles:
1. Withdrawal of Israel from all the Arab territories occupied by it in 1967, including Al-Quds;
2. The dismantling of the settlements established by Israel in the Arab territories since 1967;
3. The guaranteeing of freedom of worship and performance of religious rites for all religions in the holy places;
4. The reaffirmation of the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination and to the exercise of their inalienable national rights;
5. Placing of the West Bank and the Gaza strip under the supervision of the United Nations for a transitional period not exceeding a few months;
6. The establishment of an independent Palestinian state with Al-Quds as its capital;
7. The establishment by the United Nations Security Council of guarantees of peace between all states of the region, including the independent Palestinian state;
8. Guaranteeing by the Security Council of the implementation of these principles.
The committee endorsed the trusteeship committee of the fund of Al-Quds Al-Sharif provided for under article 6 of the statute with the following membership:
1. Palestine (permanent member)
2. Kingdom of Morocco (permanent member)
3. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ( three years)
4. Islamic Republic of Iran ( three years)
5. Republic of Senegal ( three years)
It alled upon Al- Quds Fund to take steps to start discharging its duties as specified in its statute, including collection of donations and the possibility of issuing bonds in accordance with the provisions of Islamic law. Such a fund shall contribute to financing steadfastness operations in Al -Quds Al-Sharif.
Sudan and Al-Quds
Sudan has remained concerned with Al-Quds question for its religious historical concern and extending financial support and implementing resolutions of the OIC or Arab League regarding Palestine and the holiest city and that the Sudan dispatched commandos to the war of 1948 , and the Sudanese forces took part in war of 1967 and October 1973 and that the Sudan has done its religious and national tasks and hosted the Arab summit conference of the “Three Nos.”
His Majesty late King Faysal , King of Saudi Arabia asked in the special session on extending Arab financial support to face the effects of the 1967 War , requesting extending annual support for Sudan because it suffered great losses after the closure of Suez Canal. Sudan contributed to Al-Aqsa support fund since its foundation and deposited amount of $ 1,500,000 in the account of the fund to boost the available resources of the fund for backing the Palestinian people and easing suffering under the Israeli occupation.
Sudan also extended medical assistance for the call of Al-Aqsa high committee representing in dispatching a plane with drugs and medical appliances to Jordan besides support of 10 million dollars by Khartoum state to the call of Al-Aqsa, as well as the Sudanese Workers Federation Union extended support of one day salary to call of Al-Aqsa.
The Sudanese Women General Union extended support of 500,000 diners to call of Al-Aqsa .
In an expression of its support to the Palestinian people, Sudan erected in Africa Street in Khartoum a building resembling Al-Aqsa Mosque, alongside road leading to Khartoum airport .
The question of Al-Quds and its dimensions represented in (Al-Quds and Intifada (uprising) , refugees, settlements and development in the Palestinian territories) remained a basic issue for Sudan government and the Sudanese people and extending their full support to the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people in establishing their independent Palestinian state with Al-Quds Al-Sharif as its capital.
Sudan adhered to the support of the Palestinian question and all Islamic and Arab resolutions and the UN resolutions No.338 and 245 and supported the Palestinian right in the international forums.
Sudan also followed up peace talks in Madrid in 1991 and in Oslo and Washington.
The Intifidah ( uprising ) in 1987-1993, realized a political and international victory against Israel represented in beginning Palestinian –American dialogue a matter that led Israel to enter into peace process and put Israel in two options if it wanted real peace it should implement the UN Security Council Resolutions No. 242 and 338 in line with principle of land for peace or the Israelis wanted to retract from the peace process and working to undermine it.
Sudan firmly confronted the violation of sanctity of the Al-Aqsa Mosque the first kiblah and the third holiest place and followed up works of Al-Quds committee.
Sudan played important role in ending war between Palestinians and Jordanians in 1970. Ex-president of the Republic of Sudan, Jafaar Niemairi, chaired in assignment of the Arab League the mediation committee which succeeded to end the strife between the Palestinian factions and the Jordanian army and released leaders of the Palestinian resistance in Oman and protected President Yassir Arafat.
Sudan allowed the fighters of the Palestinian Liberation Organization to reside in Sudan after leaving Beirut.