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CURRENT AND FUTURE SITUATION OF ARAB WOMEN

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sudaneseonline.com
3/21/2006 7:10am


CURRENT AND FUTURE SITUATION
OF ARAB WOMEN


On March 2006 Khartoum will host the 18th session of the Arab summit conference. On this occasion the Sudan News Agency is pleased to introduce this informative file on (the current and future situation of Arab women) and to focus on the Arab women participation in all the spheres of life, showing their pioneering role in developing the Arab societies politically economically and socially.


DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to every Arab woman to all mothers and all those who struggled for their freedom, liberty equality and contributed in realizing the development of their societies
To all the Palestinian women who gave their souls and sacrificed their children for the cause of liberating their occupied homeland

INTRODUCTION

As discussions on issues of women situations in the Arab world tend to be serious ,and it is mostly affected by the diversity in lifestyles and the internal conditions in every Arab country, and as women are the backbone of their societies, and they are gifted with the responsibility to deliver the human person into the universe in peace , therefore their participation in every field of life is inevitable though it is a necessity .
Although Islam granted the woman a distinctive position and explained to her all her duties and obligations, still the situation of the Arab women needs exertion of more efforts to activate their role and improve their situation in the Arab societies.
The World is told that Arab women are weak, passive and always veiled, but most of the world specially the Westerners are unaware that Arab women enjoy political and social rights in many countries, and undoubtedly, many Arab countries are on their way to achieve gender equality, justice, liberty and more opportunities for women .The Arab world itself comprised of several nations (22 countries in all), with the status of women varying widely in all of and to improve the Arab women status, The Arab league is greatly concerned by the Arab woman situation for them the important role they play in developing the whole Arab region, accordingly , the Arab league has established the Arab woman Organization following the Cairo declaration emanating from the Arab woman summit held in November 2000 to enhance the Arab woman situation and to realize human and socio economic development and to fulfill the regional and national targets aiming at developing the women conditions .

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Some historians mentioned in their contemporary research works and in the results of their archaeological excavations that the torch of civilizations was lighted in the Sudan and the meroetic civilization showed that there is a great role-played by the meroetic people specially women.
The early Sudanese woman role continued through history and during the Christian era and the Fung Kingdom, where notables as Aisha al Fagih contributed during that era in education and teaching religion and Fatima bint Gabir who used to teach the quran
During the Turkish rule the Sudanese woman gained new knowledge and skills, though she continued the patriotic role such as the role-played by Mihara bint Aaboud and Rabha Alkinania who struggled against the foreign rule.
During the Mahadia the Sudanese woman contributed in the revolution in eastern and western Sudan such as Umkaltoum from the Taaisha tribe and Bint Makawi and Bint Missaimis and others.
As the national awareness of the people for the necessity of the secret work to face colonialism, modern women groups, and associations emerged to combat colonialism. After the independence the Sudanese woman participated in the elections and the political work and life in the Sudan where a number of the pioneers Sudanese ladies appeared.
Egypt:
Woman in Egypt resort to education as a weapon to face the social challenges and gain her rights .She also concentrated on the issue of having every right to work and be equal with men
In 1981 Egypt approved the agreement on eliminating all sorts of discrimination against women and president Mubark had appointed a 30 members committee to realize equality between men and women in the Egyptian society.
After the first quarter of the 20th century the first Egyptian Women Union was established in 1923
KUWAIT:
The Kuwaiti woman after the oil exploration and the development of Kuwait entered the field of education and work and proved her abilities in every sphere.
The state of Kuwait has realized development more than the other Gulf states and improved women situation and ensured gender equality, where the percentages of working women showed that women participated by 11% in the field of public work and some of the posts the Kuwaiti women occupied include a general manager, a university vice chancellor, a state minister and an ambassador.
LEBANON:
The Lebanese women movement goes back to 1880 when the first Women Association was established and was known as the Banafsagiya (violet). The women development Association was established in 1924 followed by a number of societies such as the Women Group in 1928 and the Lebanese Graduates Women association in 1952.
DJIBOUTI:
The law in Djibouti stipulates the equal rights of women and men.
These efforts are exerted in most of the Arab countries to improve and enhance the situation and conditions of the Arab women to lead abetter promising future life.
ARAB WOMEN POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
Arab women political participation is one of the most distinctive indicators of development in any society. When speaking about development by all concepts, it is important to mention the political and development participation of women through their role in the development and their efforts and positive effects in plans and projects in the political channels so, women participation is effective in the political activities and they couldnt be isolated as they represent more than half of the society.


The Sudanese woman obtained her political right very early as article no. (35) Of the Transitional Constitution for 1953 offered the women the right of election and the right to vote. Higher schools women graduates participated in the poll and election campaigns in rural and urban areas. In spite of women part in the struggle to gain the independence of the Sudan the Authority and situation of women somehow deteriorate after the independence. Women didnt participate in the political life efficiently, in the same way they participated in the liberation battle. The follow up of the Sudanese Participation in the political life showed that since independence and the first democracy government, which started in 1956 - 1958, women didnt participate in the institutions of the national government, particularly in the legislative organ.
During the democratic government 1964-1969, women organizations participated in the resistance against the military government. After the falling of the military rule after the October revolution in 1964, women participated in the parliamentary elections and the first woman entered the parliament in 1965 as a member of parliament for the graduates constituency. She realized great political and constitutional gains such as the right to vote in the parliament.
The second military government 1969-1985 witnessed a wider participation of women in higher organs and institutions of decision-making.
In the third term of democracy 1986-1989, women selection for the legislative organ was based on the free competition through the public elections. Despite the improvement of the political environment in regard to wider participation of women, their participations were still low. , It was estimated at 7% of the total representation in the legislative council where the total number of its members amounted to 301.
The National Salvation Revolution government paved the way for women participation in the leading jobs where it increased and 25 women were appointed in the legislative council (the National Congress) by 8.3% while women participation in the council of the state reached 20.4%.
The General Union for the Sudanese woman was established, comprising a great number of women. The Sudanese women political participation was weak despite the increase in the sphere of women education specially the higher education. Women participation in the executive and legislative organs still weak. The government nominated a number of women as ambassadors, and in 2000 the President of the Republic also nominated a number of them as consultants of women affairs.

In the KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA, there are two women as members of the Shaura Council, which is a national consultancy body including 90 members who are nominated by His Highness the Saudi King. In the summer of 2000, Princess El-Jawhara Bint Fahad Bin Mohamed Bin Abdurhman AL.Saoud was nominated as Under Secretary Assistant for education affairs. It is a senior government job to be filled by a woman in the history of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

In JORDAN, in spite of the fact that the woman right of election and right to vote were secured for along time by the Jordanian authority and approved by the national laws its real application was not realized in the council of members except after the return of the parliamentary life in 1984 which was stopped due to the occupation of the west Bank in 1967 and then reactivated during the 1980s of the last century.
Women participated for the first time in Jordan in the elections as voters, but they didnt try to fight the battle as a candidate until 1989. Then they participated in the elections carried out in 1993, 1997, and 2003. Despite this participation, woman candidates were few reaching the average of their participation is estimated at 7% of the total candidates in 2003 elections.
In PALESTINE, woman participated since last century in the battle for realizing independence through launching the battle and struggle against the occupier and her political participation started by forming various women groups and societies, which were considered as nuclear bodies for the political participation.
The Palestinian woman participated in the issues of life and her role in the society was crystallized in all forms of political fights for the achievement of the entity, which is the expulsion of the occupied force from the Palestinian land. The Palestinian woman expressed herself through strikes and memos presented to the world decision-making bodies, organs and institutions.
During the period from 1948-1967 women resistance became more effective by the establishment of the General Union of Woman as a public organization to play its targeted social and political role.
The political orientation of the Palestinian woman increased day after day to form the national resistance. The first women movement in the rural area was formed in 1978. In 1982, the number of women organizations affiliated to the Palestinian political parties reached 4.though women winning elections was a great achievement for the Palestine women movement.
In the UNITED ARAB EMIRATES, there are no law prohibit woman from filling vital governmental jobs, but a small number of them have actually filled these jobs. Until now no woman is appointed as a member in the Federal National Council, which includes 40 members, designated by the seven Emirates.
According to El-Shiekha Fatima Bint Mubark announcement in 1998 women would be trained to be nominated in the national council for the parliament as observers.
In TUNISIA, women participation in the legislative elections which was carried out in the 24th of October 2005 was estimated at 22.7% and they obtained 43 seats in the parliament from the total of 1000 candidates.
In SYRIA, women number in the higher governmental jobs was few; there are two ministers in the government, Najwa Gassab Hassan as a minister of culture and Ghada El-Gabi as a minister of labor and social affairs.
During the 1998 elections, 26 women were elected as members in the peoples council. Women in Syria represent half of the government employees, but most of them work in administrative jobs.
In EGYPT, women members of parliament in 1957 were estimated at 5.7% and this percentage has gradually increased to reach its peak in 1987, then it decreased to reach 5 women out of 444 members in the parliament in 1995 besides another 10 members selected by the Egyptian president .
In KUWAIT, Maasoma Mubark was nominated as a minister of planning and, she gained a seat in the Kuwaiti Council of Umma, (the parliament) becoming the first women member of parliament among objection of a number of the parliamentarians.
After the Kuwaiti parliament agreed upon giving women their political rights in electing and voting. Kuwaiti women need to wait until the coming constitutional elections in July 2007 and municipal elections in 2009.
In ALGERIA, for the first time the since the independent, 5 women were nominated as ministries, Kholaida Muntori as a minister of culture and communication this job wasnt given to any women since the independence.


In DJIBOUTI, women occupy small number of higher jobs of the state and private commercial foundation. Khacleja Ababa nominated as head of he higher court (she can be president of the republic temporary when the job is vacant).
This is considered as a higher governmental job to be filled by a woman.
New Djouboti president announced in May in 1999 the establishment of a ministry for women, family, and social affairs. Hawa Ahmed Yousif was appointed as its minister. She is the first woman in the history of Djibouti to be a minister. Workingwomen are estimated at 32.3% of the total working force in the country.
In the STATE OF QATAR, the government system is very much concerned with the political rights for the Qatari person. The higher council of family mentioned in the recommendation of the committee of the woman affairs affiliated to the council, submitted to the Emir of Qatar that the Qatari woman should be honored through participation in the membership of the committee of which will form the permanent constitution of the state.
Sheikha Joufairy the first Qatari woman to occupy a seat in the parliament .
The committee of the woman affairs has made a three-year plan aims at proposing arrangements and techniques to enable the women to participate in the political activities and work in the country specially in the councils of the boards of directors of the governmental institutions such as the planning council, Hamad medical foundation, General foundation of oil and Qatar company of tele communication.
Qatari women participated in the first in elections, which were the municipal council elections, as voters and candidates their participation was estimated at. 43.8% and 42.7% of them participated in the poll 6 women were candidates. One of the candidates gains 43.5% of voters in her constituency.

In 1996 women filled higher jobs in the state as in 1988 wife of the Emir headed the higher council of family, deputy of the council was nominated in the under secretary of ministry job, deputy of the ministry of education and higher education was nominated and two members wee in the board of directors of the national council for culture, heritage and arts council were nominated.
In BAHRAIN, participation of woman in the government has increased recently, but most of them work in the administrative and assistant jobs. Only small numbers of them were nominated in higher governmental jobs. No woman was nominated as Member of Parliament or as a minister. Only one-woman was appointed as an ambassador.
The council of shoura in Bahrain has 4 women members out of 40 members. Higher council for women in Bahrain was formed to present an advice to the government in women affairs. This council comprised 14 experts headed by Shiekha Sabeeks Bint Ibrahim AlKhalifa, wife of the Emir.
In LEBANON, since 1953 women obtained the right to vote and elect, in 1963 women ha become a member of parliament for the first time.
In MOROCCO , 2002 witnessed a remarkable development in the sphere of women participation in the political work .35 women were nominated as members of the Moroccan Parliament which included 325 seats in the parliamentarian elections which was carried out in the 27th of December in 2002 .
And this is considered the first time since the legislative elections in 1963 that women were elected and the number of women participation has increased by the addition of two members and in the last parliamentarian elections about 11% of the total number of women participated in the elections .Morocco witnessed the establishment of a ministry for women and family and childhood affairs which played a distinguished role in women participation in the country.
In SOMALIA, the civil war and the continuous absence of central government had a negative impact on the Somali women, women groups exerted great efforts to realize peace and rehabilitation in the country. They obtained 25 seats of the national transitional council.


ARAB WOMAN IN THE JUDICIARY
Sudan is the first Arab country which allowed women to occupy a Judiciary post in 1965. The Sudanese women participated in all the Judiciary activities and work. In 1998. 7.2% of the judges are women, 5 of them are judges in the higher court 6 of them are judges in the court of appeal.
In 1986, a law was issued, article No 23 stipulated that being a male wasnt necessary for nomination to the judiciary for the court of appeal and the public courts judges
The Moroccan women realized a great progress in the Arab world for about 518 Moroccan women participated in the judiciary field. 17% of the Judges in morocco are women; some of them are heads of administrative courts and the court of appeal.
Moroccan women also participated in the judiciary field by being heads of he council of state as a body of appeal and the security organs. The Moroccan women gained the societys consideration.
ARAB WOMAN AND PEACE
The role of the Sudanese woman in peace process It is realized that peace is the birth right of all humanity, therefore it realizes love and respect for human dignity.
As women are the most affected by war , the role of women organizations in the Sudan is to consolidate the peace process to achieve a just and sustainable peace .women peace activities in the Sudan aimed at conducting capacity building and conflict resolution training and empowerment at all levels and to provide the necessary skills to mainstream gender issue in peace building , to facilitate national and international workshops and seminars , participate in the international workshops dealing in the same line of peace to raise the awareness by peace process and cooperate with organizations that deal in peace building .

INTERVENTIONS FOR MORE AND EFFECTIVE
PARTICIPATION IN PEACE PROCESS
There are some interventions made by the concerned organization to consolidate the peace process and to implement the comprehensive peace agreement , they include the Encouragement of programmes of capacity building awareness rising on culture of peace and human rights, Revising the traditional and indigenous approaches to conflict resolution to create a structure that is accepted to all and to Increase women institutions.
The Sudanese woman has put herself in the top list of the African women and has actively participated in all the struggles in the Sudan and surpassed most of the other women in the sphere of realization of peace and participated in the process of social change and education and refuses violence and participated in conflict resolution
The Sudanese woman also participated in all the peace rounds of talks from 1992 through to 1998, and participated in pejing conference 1995 and Nairobi conference held by Carter peace center and in Naifasha round of negotiations.
Many of the society based organizations and the voluntary organizations participated in the peace activities through the nineties and the beginning of the new third millennium which helped in raising the awareness by peace and co-existence.
At the international and regional levels many Sudanese women were trained from both the north and south by the support of the UN organizations in the sphere of conflict resolution and building the culture of peace. The Federal African Woman network was established in 1998 under the auspices of the UNIFEM
ARAB WOMEN SOCIAL AND VOLUNTARY WORK
(Non Governmental Organization)
At the voluntary work level the Sudan is a member in the Arab Family Organization since 2003 established by late Aisha Bogorah the wife of the former Djibouti president Hassan Goleed
Historically in the Sudan the role of women organizations is very distinctive and among the famous first women organization established in the Sudan is the women club established in Wad Madani city in 1948 by the wives of the government employees and then there was the Cultured Girls Association established in Omdurman in 1947 working in the sphere of health and social awareness.
The Sudanese Women Union was established in 1952 as the first initiative to organize the Sudanese women movements for the preparation of the post independence era.
There is also the Sudanese Women Development Association established in 1953, the Sudanese Women Directive Association 1956, the Journalist Women Association 1964, Sudanese Women National Front 1964, and the Graduates Women Association 1965.
From the greatest National Organization currently active is the Sudanese Woman Union established in 1990. it is a voluntary national organization aiming at strengthening the spirit of unity among women and to conserve their rights and gains and endeavors to empower women through awareness and mobilization and capacity building through its institutions at all levels and in cooperation with the regional ,national and international organizations .
The main objectives of the Union are the social, economic, and political development of women. To reduce levels of illiteracy and to launch awareness campaigns in the spheres of religion, culture, and patriotic education and to care for the family and mother and child welfare .To participate in peace making and building , spread the culture of peace and make the woman participate in decision making and development of the basic environment and the union's resources in addition to launching initiatives to establish specialized associations and societies .
The Sudanese women Union is a national voluntary organization, officially registered at the Human Aid Commission and the Sudanese Council for voluntary organizations. It has 27000 branches
Widad babikir president of Sanad and Uz. Maha
Currently of the most important voluntary Association is SANAD CHARITY ASSOCIATION which is a non profit national organization established in March 2004 under the auspices of the president of its consultative council , her Excellency WIdad Babikir wife of the president of the Republic Field Marshal Omar Albashir it is registered in accordance with the voluntary work Act and it is an executive ,supportive and coordinative institution .It also provide aid and help to the other national organizations and the community based organizations and work in the sphere of the capacity building programmes and contribute in projects circulation among the donors .Sanad also holds awareness campaigns by the issues affecting the targeted groups and care for the peace building programme and represent an umbrella for the national organizations and endeavors to create twin ships companies between the foreign organizations and institutions and the national organizations in the similar
spheres .SANAD organization has realized many achievements in various spheres and its services included the states of greater Darfur by staging a supportive convoy loaded with 79 Tons of the school books and medical equipment household equipments and food .the organization also established a model village in Darfur at 45 million sd dinars and tow other villages will be constructed .

Uz. Maha Alshiekh the Executive Director of SANAD organization said all these achievements were carried on the first year of Sanad and that Sand has cooperation and partnership with other organizations such as the British Islamic Cooperation and the mobile clinic project and the mobile water container project and a training course with Nyala University the centre for peace studies .
In the sphere of capacity building she pointed out that the organization in the workshop of capacity building and development of resources and has many projects in the sphere of health and rehabilitation of health centers and the reproductive health projects and family development .In the sphere of education the organization has focused on girls education in the nomads areas and rehabilitation of the mosques .There are also a set up plan on the sphere of environmental conservation and rehabilitation and the provision of clean water .
Albir and Altawasul organization is also a Sudanese organization founded as a charity organization working on non - profit basis since 2000 and formally registered in 2004 .its main objectives are to assist in improving the real need and issues in the human rights of different Sudanese Women , to increase the participation of women in the public sphere ,to interact with any crucial issues ,to create links with the similar organizations locally and internationally .Its main field of work are the health sector and the social sector .
Qatar: In Qatar the Family Development Association was established in 1996 and regarded as the most important achievement for the Qatari woman to be established by women citizens and supported by her highness the wife of the Qatari prince.
DJIBOUTI : There is the National women union in DJIBOUTI
ARAB WOMEN AND EDUCATION
Arab women education represents one of the major factors to end discrimination between men and women, though the Arab women through education have truly realized gender equality and the targeted socio economic development.
Sudan
In the Sudan, girls education passed through different stages, starting by the Khalwa education and through to the systematic modern academic education, which started at a small school in the house of Sheikh Babikir Badri in Rufaa village. Through time the Sudanese woman was able to pave her way and climb the education ladder and the following facts are about women education in the Sudan:-
1. The greatest numbers of girls enrolled in education in the Sudan was registered after the Salvation Revolution where a great leap in the development of girl's education was realized.
2. girls continued to score high marks in the state exams
3. the salvation revolution has made a strategy to develop both girls and boys education where the average of girls enrolment in the basic education has increased from 43% in 1989 to 45% in 2002 with an increase in the high secondary schools from 44% to 53% during the 1989 to 2002 .
Meanwhile the number of girls in the higher education institutions almost doubled.

Statistics showing the percentage of females to males who graduated from the higher education institutions both private and government institutions are as explained in the following table.


In Qatar state the female education received great concern by the government and has increased where the numbers of females' enrolled in education has increased and the government has increased its expenditures in the budget of 1996/1997 to 23% from its total expenditures of the service institutions.
In Egypt, Dr Suhair Algalmawi was the first lady to graduate from the Egyptian University and she won an award from the linguistic forum in 1941.
In Lebanon the numbers of girls enrolled in schools in 1997 at the age group from 5-14 was 95% while women represent 38.1% from all the students in the colleges and the universities in the field of education and 24% in the field of human studies and 50.5% in the field of social studies and 36.9% from all the students in the field of physics and 52.5% in the field of medicine and 68.4% in other fields .Meanwhile the numbers of girls enrolled in the higher education institutions in 2001 amounted to 53.5% .
In Libya the government provide free education for both girls and boys
In Kuwait the higher education figures showed that the percentage of men students 7.7% while females' amounts to 12.4%.
In Algiers the numbers of boys enrolled in all levels of education amounts to 7435858 from them there are 3521237girls.
Though in Morocco the figures shows that about 69% from women and 63% of men are having the primary education certificate
Meanwhile the Syrian government has realized a real leap on the field of women education where the number of women in the education field is increasing from 33% in 1980 to 58% in 1998 and the women represent 57% from the Syrian teachers and they represent 39% from the university students.


SITUATION OF ARAB WORKING WOMAN
A new study revealed that the percentage of working women in the rab world in all the records amounted to 29% and that is considered the lowest in the world and statistics shows that the lowest participation of the Arab women is in the Arab countries with high income rate such as the Bahrain where the percentages amounted to 31% and Kuwait 23%, Oman 17%, Qatar 16% and Saudi Arabia and finally the United Arab Emirates 13%.
In the Sudan the women movement became active; aiming at developing the women situation where the Sudanese parliament in 1968 approved that the woman should be entitled to the same payment as men and also approved the pensions for women.
The international legislations approving the both the public and private sectors work are based on the principle of equality between men and women in regard to rights and duties obligations and guarantees regarding the work .
In Algeria all independent constitutions stipulate the woman right to work in all fields' .the law also stipulate payment.
In Morocco about 34% from the businesswomen administer their won work and one woman in every two owns at least 40% from the capital of the institution which she direct and a study showed that 66% from the women participated in the capital.
Women represent 35% from the total working force in Morocco in 1998 many of them work in the agricultural and service sector and many work in the private sector and one third of the doctors and one quarter of the teachers are from the graduated women.
In Qatar the most important issue is the government concern by the positive and active participation of women in the national economy such as the establishment of the Qatari investment company in April 1998 by direct support of her highness the spouse of the Qatari prince , the company is providing opportunities in front of the Qatari women to participate in the various financial investments in the country , meanwhile the financial institution in the state provide its services in the spheres of loans and credits to both men and women.

In Kuwait the women entered the field of work and the rate of her participation has increased from 31.7% in 1998 to 37.8 by the end of 2003.
In Syria the female percentages from the total working force amounts to 22.3% in 1995. In the public sector this percentage amounts to 37.7 % compared with 26.2% males .In the private sector the female working force represent 62.3% compared with 73.8 % from the male working force .Meanwhile woman participation in the different fields are as follows , 60% agriculture and 30% in the services sphere while 9.8% in the industrial field.
In Algeria the total number of women working in the government institutions in 1998 amount to 359952 that is 26% from the total working force. Now women represent 3.7% in the Judiciary, 56% in the mass media institutions and 47% in the education field of it 27% in higher education while 63, 05 % in the health field.
ARAB WOMAN AND HEALTH
According to the United Nations Reports and statistics issued in 2000, maternity mortality rates in the Arab countries amount to 26000 annually, representing 5% from the total of maternity mortality rates world wide. To solve this problem the Arab countries are obliged to adhere to implement the working programme agreed upon in the World Population conference in 1994 to decrease maternal mortality rate by 50% by the year 2015 to realize the millennium development goal.
The Sudan has witnessed distinguished changes in its health policies where a new health programmes were adopted to provide integrated services for women in the field of antenatal and postnatal care. An initiative under the title ( safe motherhood ) was adopted aiming at improving the whole health system and training and declaring the Sudan country for safe motherhood , to provide a midwife for every village to implement this programme , the numbers of midwives schools has increased from 26 to 38 schools .
In Kuwait , woman fertility rates has decreased to 4.15% in 2002 due to some development achievements specially in regard to woman , such as the increase in education and the women enrollment in it .
In Djibouti the infant mortality rate has dropped to reach 732 death cases in every 100,000, newly born babies and the United Nations Fund Population UNFP in cooperation with the government of Djibouti and some nongovernmental Organizations to implement some of the programme which aimed at providing medical services especially to women in both urban and rural areas.
It can be concluded that the health sector in the Arab world is dominated by women whose participation in the last few years amounts to 51.1 % while midwives represent 40% from the total workers in the health field which reflect their participation in the awareness campaigns especially in the field reproductive health.
MATERNITY AND CHILDHOOD HEALTH
Many Arab countries gave great concern to the legislations concerning women and the Sudan is one of them and affirmed that the family is the base of the society and this was affirmed in its constitutions and laws, where article 10 from the constitutions of the Republic of the Sudan stipulates that the family is the base of the society and the state shall protect families from falling apart. The 1972 constitution includes the same issue and also the 1998 one.
In Algeria the 1976 constitution considers the woman participation in the social construction and national development is a national duty and also stipulates equality between males and females and granted the woman the right to vote since 1962 in the same year the Algerian woman entered the parliament.
In Djibouti the government signed the agreement against all sorts of discrimination against women in December 1998.
In Morocco the new family regulation is the most important achievement in the sphere of reformation of women situation issued by the Moroccan Monarch Mohamed the sixth. IN 2003 and approved by the Moroccan parliamentary council in January 2004.

Members of the Arab Media Center
ARAB WOMEN AND MEDIA
Sudanese woman participated in the media movement in the country. Studies pointed that press was known in the Sudan since 1986, but women finger print in the press append clearly in the establish Bint El-Wadi magazine which was issued by Tekoi Sirkisyan who was edits in chef in 1946. The magazine theme was (wadi Giro before any thing).
Now, 609 journalist women are registered in the national council for press and publications. 76 journalist women have registered for the journalistic job. Registration and 11 ones are registered in the job by amounting 27.4% of the total number of them which is 2216 ones.
In the field of Radicand TV, women participated efficiently for more than 40 ears in the field of new, children and women programmers. In 1948, the pioneer women Omaima El-Tahawi predicated in children programmers, which were presented in the Radio. Amaym Adam wrote education women performance in this field continued by the activities of them Azeeza Mikki, Sudad Abdur-Rrahman, Fatima Mohmed Abdurahman, Nafeesa Ahmed El-Amain, Suaad El-Fatih El-Badwi, Raja Ahmed Jomaa, Sakeena Arabi, Liyla El-Magrabi, seham El-Magrabi, Bakheeta Ameen, Yousria Mohmed El-Hassan Amal Abass, Amal Seraj.

It to be noted that Sudanese media women didnt gain chance to be in the side of decision making despite their earlier participation in his field, however, it is to be noted that a woman filled a senior job which is general derider of Sudan new Agency which was filled by Niemat Mohmed Belal in 1998 Amal Abass as on editor in chief of El-Ray El-Akhbar newspaper which was established in 1999, Afaf Bukhari as an editor in chief of noon newspaper which was published in 1995, Faiza Shawkat as editor in chief of staff of Osrati Magazine and Salwa Hassan Saddig, women also filled the job of heads of sections.
In the Ministry of Information, 76% of the working forces are women; numbers of them are sheds of depart in months.
In Qatar, women participate in the prominent media in the country of express their opinion about the issue which is raised in the local level.
In Syria, women role and participation in media field is noticeable after Beijing conference for women in the level of the ministry on information and its institutions. Women participation in some of the ministrys initiations reached 50% of the total of the working force in this field.
Media also in Syria, concentrated in women issues solving besides her enlightenment and education especially in the field of reproductive health and family planning.
In the journalistic field, Syria general union for journalists reflected Beijing conference for women issues on the ground. Women also have been promoted to have a prominent place in the work of journalistic federation. Their number increased in unions conferences.
ARAB WOMEN IN DIPLOMATIC FIELD
The Sudanese woman entered the field of Diplomatic world in the early seventies as third secretary and now three women ambassadors are appointed among them ambassador Zeinab Mohamed Mahmoud and Agnis lukudo.
The national authority of the Lebanese woman affairs has reported that four out of 35 ambassadors in Lebanon are women since 2003 while the number of women ambassadors in the United Arab Emirates is 23 including extra ordinary and plenipotentiaries.
In Palestine there is only one woman ambassador abroad, and she is Leila Shaheid. Before promoting to this post in August 1993 she assumed several important jobs. In the 1970s Leila was the first female student at the Student's General Union of Palestine in France, and In 1989 she was appointed by the Executive Committee as the committee's representative in Ireland, Netherlands and Denmark till she was appointed as extra ordinary and plenipotentiary for her country to France.
The percentage of the Algerian woman participation in the diplomatic missions of their country was 9, 5% in 1994, and 11% in 2003.
FUTURE PROSPECTS OF ARAB WOMEN
The future prospect of the Arab woman aimed at realizing several goals represented in the following:
To propose policies, plans and programmes necessary for development of woman culturally, economically, socially and politically to participate in capacity building and society development along with improving the image of women in the society.
To participate in mapping out studies and research work to determine dimensions and issues related to woman, and suggest means for solving women problems in coordination with the concerned bodies.

To contribute in promoting skills and abilities of women and enlighten them by their rights and duties in the society through specialized programmes in coordination with the concerned authorities.
To suggest new legislations, plans and programmes related to the political, social, and career rights of women.
To suggest legislations, plans and programmes related to the rights of a woman vulnerable to violence, abuses, and maltreatment.
To suggest the establishment of societies and specialized women centers, and reactivate her role in coordination with the concerned authorities, besides expanding the scope of woman contributions in voluntary work and public service.
To participate in the domestic, regional and international conferences related to women, and suggest organizing of symposiums and lectures concerned by women affairs.
To uphold regional and international cooperation and encourage visits exchange among women affairs specialists.
To coordinate the activities of woman societies in the country.
Statistics showing the status of Arab woman and their Participations in the public life in the 1980s and 1990s.




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