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Arab league Challenges

سودانيزاونلاين.كوم
sudaneseonline.com
3/21/2006 7:03am

DEDICATION


To The Arab Nation: A Nation Which Has Always Been Up To Par With All Types Of Challenges


Introduction
WHY ARABS ARE UNDER CONTINUED CHALLENGE?

No region in the whole world has ever been under constant challenge as the Arab region. These challenges have continued to be a source of concern for the entire Arab countries that pursue an indefatigable quest for a resolution and a remedy to these challenges but these quests and efforts remained limited and in a way short sighted. Arab political, economic and security cooperation remains limited and efforts exerted by the Arab League are but equally limited as Arab have yet to agree on specific strategies in three domains: politics, economics and security. What is currently going on remains at the level of rhetoric. It remains at the level of talking about Arab food and water security, Arab economic security, Arab joint military security. It remains there. However every single Arab country is targeted by international imperialism and Zionism. The ideologists and scholars of Zionist and imperialist circles make every possible effort to renew, rename and reinvigorate the struggle: they would at one time describe it as a cultural struggle in which the Arab culture is pictured as being back-warded terrorist nation. But the correct argument should be the other way round: it was they who all along the history remained creating and fanning this Arab reality, depleting Arab resources, undermining Arab interest and aborting each and every initiative for liberation and freedom.
The cultural challenges alone are tremendous. The West, unilaterally or in-group, is for the abrogation of Arab and Islamic identity. The Arab and Islamic worlds are under constant pressure in which sophisticated and modern technologies are used. But we on our side have been dealing with those technologies and mechanism in a negative way that affects our children without our taking any move to face these challenges. These challenges are cloaked, dressed under the guise of globalization, freedoms and liberties, and a miss-used human rights principle.
What is needed from the Arab league and the Arab organizations is not to do something impossible, rather what is demanded is only to revitalize and invigorate the various available cadres they have under their hands to face these challenges and remedy the current situation in their drive for a brighter future of construction, development and rebuilding of the pillars for joint Arab action.
The Arabs have to begin with a minimum agreement on a comprehensive Arab reconciliation. This is a process that has to begin between the Arab governments and their people, then move up to the revival of the joint Arab action institutions that would invest Arab resources for the good of the region and its people via joint Arab investment serving the developmental and basic needs of the Arab man in the street.
The process should also lay down a specific timetabled plan of action that would push forward Arab industries top of which the transformational and military industries and build clear cut relationship with specific goals and joint interest with the international groups such as the Africa group, the Asian group, the Islamic groups, and the Asian groups.
Another element in this process would be to reject any foreign presence in the region whatever be the reasons cited or the justifications provided. An equally important element would be paying attention to the youth and their interest. Youth should also be made part of the questions of national interest in which they should be involved. Youth are the driving forces through which change could be effected. We should further more pay attention to the Arab media and try to provide all the resources that would help the Arab media reach their potential in a way they would stand shoulder to shoulder, using the same tools of our opponents: use the media to disseminate their ideas and ideologies as well as their successes. The Arab media should use a unified Arab message and use all international languages in handling issues of interest to man everywhere. There should also be abundant spending on scientific research.


Global Challenges
It is crucial for our region to stand up. But to stand up there has to be sound and studied planning in the political, economic and security domains. These could be done only through a unified Arab will and a joint Arab action without which the nation will face loss, falling apart and ultimately oblivion. A defeat that comes on the aftermath of facing a challenge is already a chance for survival and a sowing of seeds of revival and renaissance. This nation is a promised nation, with history and with a culture and potentials that have to know that submission and humiliating succumbing do not mean huge loss at present but they equally mean a future falling apart.
Mohamed Moro, the renowned scholar is of the view that the battle here is a comprehensive civilization battle that is it includes politics, economic, military, culture, and social fields. It also means the opponents are using all the political, military, economic, social, and cultural weapons at their disposal. And as long as they are waging an open war against us then we have to use the same tactic and the same means. And even if we concede to what they say that they are so powerful that we could not face them anywhere without being defeated, still we have to know that the conclusion they have reached was false. This is simply because giving in to such a huge power would not mean we should be spared from death, and obliteration. Succumbing would not spare our blood. On the contrary such a position would only inflict heavier losses and greater causalities on us compare to an open confrontation, unequal as it could be, because it would no doubt reduce the losses and shrink the defeats. Such a confrontation would give the seeds under the soil a chance to remain intact, to come out full, and blossom in a new future and a new chance ahead.
Moro is also of the view that the western civilization carry so many seeds of decay within it own womb. These are the seeds that have to be used and have to be invested in. then we have to wait and see the work of time on those weak points in the body of the western civilization that could lead to it collapsing from within. So to avoid this they need our culture and civilization. Take the example of man in the west that lacks this tiny balance between his needs and in h is relation with the group. This could be seen in the spread of psychological traumas, spread of crime, and other social ailments such as guy culture and abundant use of drugs and alcoholism to the extent that the lives of million s of people in Europe and the united states of American are under constant threat and danger. These are the elements that in the end could lead to the collapse of the whole western civilization from within. But if we add to this the ardent desire to achieve the maximum possible looting mean people would not be deterred from using extreme violence and with the increase of the lethal weapons that make the wheel of the military industry turn around the clock, a matter that in the end would make it prone for collapse or clash with each other.
If the second world war erupted because of the competition for resources and profits among the members of the European civilization and led to the death of over 62 million people mostly European, then how many would be killed in an all out war? We have to face by all political means and reject any subjugation to the looting and to the violation practices. This could be done through adoption of and building an independent economic system not annexed and not dependent on anyone but our own self, severing all rope of affiliation to the west. But we should also recommend the liquidation of all centers of cultural alienation and all forms of cultural infiltrations and we should depend on our own cultural and civilization values and lofty principles. We should face them by our own cultural values, our unity, and rejection of all forms of division and split that would be imposed on us. We have to face this by a comprehensive a full mobilization and a full out civilization confrontation. Here we have to take into consideration a very important point, which is the cultural challenge. This is the more3 important of all challenges because cultural infiltration destroys our lives from within and reduces our ability to confront and to stand up. It would undermine all the positive values that we have such as the values of Jihad, unity, and rejection and would make us incapable to stand in any confrontation in the political, military and economic domains and we have to watch out that so long as the war is culutr4al and comprehensive then it would not be rational to use the same values and the same strategies drawn by the west to fight them back however bright and effective they would seem. Because it would not be conceivable to use the weapons of your enemy for a war against him. You could not use the tactics of the enemies to fight him. What we should do is that we should use our own tactics driven from our won values and means and our own strategies, which would be carrying their germ of survival inside them and could, continue and persevere.
Some people propagate claims that we would not be able to face the west and America and that there is imbalance in power in their favor and that there was no need to confront the west because this would be a futile attempt and they continue, we better give up given the fact that the destructive power and might of the west has now increased as compared to the situation during the second world war.
Ustaz Munir Shafeeq summed up the situation in his book: Islam in the Battle of Civilization, the point of weakness of the western civilization as follows: -
1. The overall unbalanced development in the various fields, concentrating on the material aspect at the expense of the waning human and moral aspect a matter that would lead in the end to the demise of this culture. It looks like someone standing on one foot which however strong would be weak and would not be able to support the whole body
2. The gap between them and the majority of the world has widened a mater that would lead to strong confrontation. The unjust minority however strong they might be would in the end remain weak in face of the force of the majority who undergo the injustice. Opposing the right of the majority would in the end lead to the collapse of that civilization no matter how long it takes.
3. The internal decay is a distinctive feature of the western civilization be it at the level of individual or at the level of communities. The struggle to dominate and possess power and have authority and the conflict over the possession of wealth and power would lead in the end to internal decay.
4. Unleashing beastly desires and the spread of corruption and immoral conduct would lead this culture and this civilization into weakness that would make it unable to even make use of the material force it possesses a matter that could be a replica of the story of the roman soldier who was tied with chains for fear he might run away from the battle field. This was a tactic used despite the fact that the roman were so numerous with much better weapons and supplies.
And people might say that the western civilization could remedy its points of weakness and get rid of them and ultimately renovate itself. But this is a statement that reflect the ignorance of those who put it forewarned because the points of weakness are part and parcel of the very culture of the west and that it was not an ephemeral thing or a cause for outside effects. These points of weakness are pat of that civilization and essential part of its fiber and are impossible to get rid of. And if they west tries to get rid of those shortcoming then this would simply mean the west if getting rid of its own culture and civilization.

The fact that the west seeks to achieve the highest level of material strength with the view to control the rest of the world would means it would not hesitate to destroy and walk over any values or principles that would oppose reaching this objective. In other words this would mean this quest to achieve material superiority would mean overstepping all and every thing else that oppose its being achieved. This of course would lead to excelling in some specific areas and this is the point of strength of the west but it would also be the main reason for its collapse and its demise in other areas. These areas would include the cultural, moral, psychological, and humane domains and would in the end lead to internal and external struggle thus creating a point of weakness and the outbreak of struggle leading to the weakness of the center in these cultures. This would lead to the destruction of this culture and undermining that of the whole world in what would look like genocide. Another example if a racist regime tries to get rid of its racism then it would simply mean getting rid of itself because racism is the foundation on which the regime is based. Had it not been for the subjugation, exploiting, and use of effort of others such a regime would not exist at all and would not have scores all these signs of wealth and prosperity and it would not have been able to continue for one day after getting rid of its racist nature.
The Islamic Arab-versus West standoff
It is natural that there should be confrontation between the Arab Islamic civilization and that of the west. This is simply because it natural to have a confrontation between two civilizations because one stands for monotheism, freedom, justice and equality, non-racialism while the other represent immorality, oppression, violence, arrogance, injustice, racism and robbing nations of their resources.
It is also natural to have this confrontation because the Muslims are ordered by Allah the almighty to lead jihad in search of getting rid of violence, oppression and violence and injustice and racism that is getting rid of the practices and values that represent the west. This is also because those standing at the head of the western civilization see in Islam a great threat against their own interest in the Islamic civilization that call on people to revolt against those leaders and governors and religious men who lead the western culture into darkness.

The history of this clash started in the early days during the life of the prophet peace and blessing of Allah be upon him. During that time four confrontations took place one with the Romans and their allies, the other was in the area of Domat Al Jandal, the third around Mu’taa and in the strong hold of the Gudhaaa tribes and another one in the battle of Yarmook.
During the last day of the life of prophet Mohamed peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, the army of Usam Bin Zayed was ready to go the area of Sham and when the prophet fell ill, dispatching the army was delayed. And it was said that the prophet each time he recovered from the fever of his illness would recommend that the army of Osama be dispatched. When Khalifah Abu Baker took over he implemented that will of the prophet and dispatched the army despite the fact that the problems of renegades and the Riddah began to appear all over the Arab peninsula itself.
This would give us an idea about the early interest the prophet paid to this matter and his conception about the danger of the futr4eu confrontation with the western civilization and this might explain why the Khalifat was keen to dispatch the army in implementation of the will of the prophet peace and blessing of Allah be upon him. And this might be the reason why Khalifat Abu Bakr dispatched armies to Sham such as the army of Khalid Bin Saeed Ibin Alaas and that of Zi al-Killah al-Himairi and Ikrima ibin Abu Jahal Ibin Aghaba and the Khalifa prepared even four armies at one time:
First: the one under the leadership of Abu Obeida Ibin Al Jarah, who was dispatched to Hammas.
Second: the one under the leadership of Amr Ibn alaas, which was dispatched to Palestine.
Third: the one under the leadership of yazeed Ibin Mauya and was dispatched to Damascus.
Fourth: the one under the leadership of Shurhabeel Ibin Hassana and was sent to Jordan.
And in face of the huge massive Romanian troops, the four mu8slim army were brought together and then they were joined by Khalid Ibin Al Waleed who after receiving order moved from Iraq to sham or Syria where two huge battles took place those are the Ganadeen and Yarmook battles in the year 636 and they both ended with clear Muslim victory and the expulsion of the Romans from Syria.
During the reign of Khalifa Omar Ibin Khartab. Egypt was opened in 640 and Alexandria was opened 642 and then Libya was opened Burga and Tripoli was opened. And under the leadership of Khalifa Osman ibin Afan Tunisia was opened and the battles with the Byzantine continued in North Africa and then there was the invasion of Cyprus in 649 then the island of Arwad was taken over in 650 and the Rhodes island was taken over in 654 followed by the Byzantine emperor Constantine to once again control over the Mediterranean thus prepared a huge fleet for that enterprise but then the fleet was defeated and the emperor himself was almost captured at his was the battle known in Islamic history as the battle of Zat-Swari. This battle was considered a decisive one in the naval fight between the Muslims and the Byzantines.
On the occurrence of the Fitna or sedition the movement for more conquers came to a halt during the Umayyad state then during the Abyssinians Khalifat. And if we come to north African we find that the Islamic military campaigns that were started with Omar Ibin al -Ass in the year 23 hijri when Egypt was conquered and when Alexandria followed suit then after him came Abdullah bin Saad bin Abi Sara in the hijri year 27, then Rafi ibin Khadeej in the 45 hijri year followed by Ugba Ibin Nafie in the years 50-55 hijri then the Abul Muhajireein Dinar in the year s 55-62 who was able to bring the Berber tribes and use them in the conquers after they converted to Islam. Then once again Ugba Ibin Nafie who was able to reach the Atlantic shores and to purge the whole area of North African from the presence of the Romanian rule.
And history has recorded his famous saying that that” Allah bear witness that I have done my level best and has it not been for this sea I would have remained in the country fighting those who do not believe in you until there is no body who worship anything but You.”
Following this Zuhair Ibin Ghais was able to cement the pillars of the Islamic rule in the west then Hassan ibin Numan followed in the year 73-82 of the Hijri year. This was followed by Musa ibin Nasser who complete the conque4rs and cemented its pillars on the islands spreading in the Mediterranean such as Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Bailer islands. Then he prepared an army and dispatched it under the leadership of Mujahid Tareq Ibin Zayaid to Tajaha. Tareq who was himself a Berber led the army and crossed the Gibraltar into Andalusia and t hey reached up to Spain where they defeated the king of the Gothic and established an Islamic rule in Andalusia that continued for centuries from 711 up to the year 1492.
The various historic version said that when Musa Ibin Nadheer reached the Uras mountains in Spain he had wanted to cross behind reaching up to Europe and Constantinople however Khalifa Waleed Ibin Abdl Malik prevented him from doing so and if he had done the face of history would been different and the European defiance would have been ended for ever.
At any rate the Islamic advancement continued at the hand of the Berbers who themselves became Muslims and led the victory conquering southern France up and then Suhaim
Al Kablib continued his advance and reached up the river Rhone and to the town of Lyon. Then he moved inward and reached the town of Otton in the upper Rhone river area and then he took over the town of Bordeaux and he stopped after the battle of the Bulat al Shuhada in the year 732 in which the leader
Abdul Rahaman al Ghafiggi martyred and the Muslim advance stopped there and a counter European attack began and then the ensuing Muslim split and fighting.
This late development is criteria of the Muslim society, which is either, it has to carry out ifs message of Jihad and the liberation of people from dictators and tyrants and unjust rulers or it would witness split within that community. The Muslim community has either to lead a jihad or be split and disintegrated and despair would reign among its members.
With the halt of the Muslim conquers in Europe differences and conflicts among the Muslims erupted and the counter European aggression took over but Allah had brought somebody that would revive the Islamic upheaval and jihad and this was the murabiteen state who reunited Andalusia and inflicted heavy defeat over the Spanish in the Ein Zalaggah battle in the year 1086.
And the people of Maghreb continued to defend the presence of Islam in Andalusia all along the rule of the murabiteen to some extend during the rule of the Mushideen who inflicted heavy defeat on the Spanish in the battle of Alarak in the year 1195 and then the rule of the sectors took over and then they witnessed split and breakaways until they collapsed in the year 1493 and they remnants of the Muslims continued in Andalusia struggle and resisting afterwards for a whole century organizing revolutions after revolutions against the Spanish rule until the Spanish organized massacres and inspection trial, annihilating Muslims and removed all Muslim graveyards from Andalusia. But North Africa remained all along the history in a state of continued struggle with Europe.
The collaboration between the Andalusia's and the Aghaliba sate in Tunisia Crete was opened in the year 826 then this was followed by cicely and Malta and they even knocked at door of Rome itself which was at one time besieged and the Pope John XIII had no option but to negotiate with the Muslim to lift the siege against paying a tax of about twenty five thousand pieces of gold while at the same time the fleet was actively engaged in the Mediterranean to open a number of islands therein.
But in the fifteen century the Magrib was subjected to a number of European crusade campaign that intensified specially from Spain and Portugal in 1492 and had it not been for the arrival of the Othman fleet in the year 1510 the towns would be falling one after the other in the hands of the European crusaders. The Othman fleet was able to regain the town overrun and was also able to impose itself as a maritime power in western Mediterranean areas for quite long time to the extent of imposing taxes on all European trade activities across the sea.
The campaigns continued and history record over a hundred such campaign on Algeria including Spanish Portuguese, German, English, Italian, Belgium, Dutch and even Americans up to the stage ate Algeria was overtaken by the French colonization in the year 1830 then it was followed by Tunisia in 1881. However the resistance of the Magrib area to the colonization never waned. There were a number of revolt and revolution such as that led by Abdulgardir the Algerian, the Mugrani, Hadad, ibin Badess then the Algerian revolution of 1954 and Abdul Karim al Khatabbi and Allal Ald elFezzi in morocco and Abdul Aziz Thaalibi in Tunisia and Omar Mukhtar in Libya.
In the East struggle never stopped between Islam and Europe. After the liberation of Syria the Byzantine maneuvers in the Mediterranean continued and the Muslims recorded a number of victories, organizing raids on Asia minors then they tried to overrun Constantipolos and besieged it and then they moved away in the period 669-670 then they moved away from, it and then they came back and besieged it in what was known as the seven year war then a third time during the time of Suleiman ibin Abdul Malik and this continue form 717 up to 718.
The Arab regional system and
the current challenges
The Arab world has never witnessed a period of stability during its recent history. This is because after the long war it had to undergo during the successive war when it was only formulated and the defeats it witnessed during the twentieth century as part of the Othman empire, the era of colonization that took different names came into existence. Those names varied from colonization, condominium, to protectorate, to settlement thus opening a new page of struggle in the Middle-Eastern area.
The colonization era
To the exception of a few cases where the colonization was able to put down revolt, struggle continued all along the colonization era against colonial presence in this region and that war continued up until the countries of the region regained their independence and formed the modern Arab states, that is the current geopolitical era. This was the map that was drawn out on the basis of the competition among colonizers over the riches and over areas of influence in the region, thee was no other logic save that of crystallizing the influence of those colonizers.
This is why struggle surfaced immediately after the independence was gained. Thus the Arab disputes be they political or military, have become a trademark of the era that followed the independence.
The post-colonization era
The dispute and fedes which reflected the spirit of jealously and spirit of grudges, which was encouraged by the colonization, established by the former mentor states, those same states continue producing the same and fanning it ever since that time.
And this situation continued despite the efforts exerted by enlightened forces in the Arab world to change the system that is based on three main pillars namely effecting split in the geopolitical arena or regional split and affiliation to superpowers of strong foreign intervention in the region top of which the current presence of foreign forceful intervention represented in Israel.
The Arab system was since it’s coming into existence bearing eh germs of structural contradictions within its womb. These renewable contradictions seems to have no solution and had but to move towards total explosion. These contradictions could be summed as followed: contractions between the demand for a state sovereignty and that of cooperation for a regional development. There was also the fact of belonging to the overall Arab entity that had been shaped by long and continued struggle for independence but there is also the logic of exclusive state which by virtue of the jealously of the ruling elite was made the basis for building limited, local and ineffective nationalism.
The Arab League: -
The concerned Arab countries have tried to overcome those contradictions by establishing the Arab league. This body has double functions on the one hand it has to satisfy the feelings of belonging to the Arab nations which is the aspiration of the vase popular majority, but at the same time it has to preserve the absolute sovereignty of the member states. Not only that, but the league has to defend this sovereignty of its member states. Second it has to work as chock absorber for frication that are expected to occur between member states and avoid them if possible and it has at the same time to open up on the outer world in the form of partnership in interaction with the various regions such as the African region. This was to take the form of partnership with some economic, social, and cultural institutions with the view to create windows and establish body that would help with this cooperation. This was an attempt to reach a point consensus on joint concern and joint future in a world, which works and operate through specific mechanism. This was also meant to take those states a little bit over the close country state level that was proven to be a failure in facing the modern challenges and in achieving the desired developmental, Security and defense goals.
The September 2001 events which in a way reflect one of the results of the struggle and the unilateral international hegemony of the one state have come to me to crystallize the fact that the region is being targeted and to give the united states that seeks to occupy a leading position in the new world order that came after the collapse of the Berlin Wall and what it symbolizes, a semi-moral justification to impose its control on the Middle East and its resources and to put an end to any contest over the region.

So the struggle in this region would continue to be lined to war against terror or what the united states descries as the international war against terror that would for the first time be linked in the minds of the Arab and Islamic world with the claims of establishing a democracy or a so-called human rights principle or under the pretext of protecting interest and other claims that the American and other western mind would come up with, propagate and spread daily under a biased but effective international media.
And whatever be the outcome of the current war being waged by the untied states and Britain in the region in general and in Iraq in particular the raids that stated in March 2003 have set the foundation for a new and peculiar policy in the region.
This has and would continue to, set new war of positions and influence between these big states top of which the European Union and the United States of America.
But there is a logical question to be asked which is will the policy of foreign intervention succeed in finding resolution to problems that were not resolved by the regional system, that is will it be able to create the condition of stability and cooperation and economic development for the people of the region and their societies? Will the western superpowers who have shown contradictory positions with regards to style of resolving the problems coming our of the situation surrounding the Arab regional system, reach an understanding with regards to the working method in the region and the means of reinforcing stability there in and finding security for the people of the region or will the crisis remain open and lead to a cold war and then to a hot one which will this time take place inside the Arab soil?
The informational and international challenges
The most important challenge facing the Arab nation and each of its countries is that of scientific research and intellectual and academic production carried out by the various Arab scholars. Research is the backbone for any development. This is why we find that the new world order had worked to transfer the culture from the ancient world (the Arab) for example to the new world and it also engaged in explaining human history and humanitarian history in a way that would eliminate all other ancient civilizations which after laying their role have fallen out of the equation of history an equation that has become a complex point of the American policy because America is anew continent which was discovered only in the 1492 and which is the year the Muslim came out of Andalusia while the age of the Hebrew state in Palestine is 60 years. Therefore the west in general and Israel and America in particular worked to challenge the Arabs in the domain of scientific research in the various domain including the military and the general science domains and the effort of the west were doubled providing material and moral backing for research and encouragement for scholars. Against this we find that in the Arab world the expenditure on scientific research is very weak and does not exceed 4% of the gross national product of which 3% is spent on studies and 1% on non-innovative research while in the United States the spending stands at 8% and in Israel it stands at 5%. This challenge could be seen in the fact that now there are some 500 universities around the world placed in group A academically and scientifically of which 36 are American universities and five Israel universities and non of them is an Arab university.
We have like wise some 18,000 TV channels and satellites diffusing around the Arab world, thus one would wonder as to where we stand in face of this coming challenge? As to the Internet it is double in astronomical multiplication to the extent that you could not count the number of sites and scientific sites on the Internet.
Media challenge
The challenges in the domain of media and information are the greatest of all, because they are the most influential in today's world. It is one of the most important channels used by the big states to exercise pressure on the third world countries and to drive their point home in the cultural, ideological, intellectual, political, economic, and military domains. The media was used in a very clear manner in misleading the Arab world all along modern time as well as during the colonization time of the region during the past two centuries and even in the post colonization era.
The media was used to legitimize the existence of the first enemy of the Arab, which is Israel and also in justifying the sedition that comes out between the Arab states and to saw the seeds of differences amongst them. The misuse of the media was also clear during the time of war between Iran and Iraq and the first Gulf war and the last war against Iraq where America has tried to convince the Iraqi people that they have to be bombarded so that they would be liberated and freed. It was also used, the media that is, all along the time of colonization over Palestine and lastly in creating the problem of Darfur and in signaling it out and inflating it from a local question into a regional and an international problem that would threatens the world peace and security.
The question of terminology imposed and its use was one of the challenges that continued to irritate the Arab nation up to the point that the media has become one of the concerns of the Arab league in a bid to correct this situation. It is notice that the west and Israel have exercised much effort to cement the negative concepts on the region such as linking it to terrorism and others. This challenge could also be seen in the media discourse used in the various propagandas, explanatory, religious, legal and objective pragmatic types of media in explaining texts and in trying too create conceptual image for isolating and inflating some of the elements of this reality in the Arab world and this has led to the spread of terminologies used by the mass media in the various domains carrying and implying some dormant concepts behind them such as depicting and drawing stereotype image of the Arab and Muslim and the third world people as being terrorist, backwards and underdeveloped and at the same time projecting the west as being a case model to be copied and followed by other people and for this it introduced and infiltrated a number of terminologies that reveal a message. For example when the west speak about the era of discoveries this would give the impression that the whole world was in fact in a state of coma and absenteeism waiting for the western man to come up with the discovers and the Zionists point to themselves as being the vanguards and pioneers and vanguard and pioneers are the one who discover new horizons and lead the people of the back warded world into civilization. The wars in the west are known as the World Wars which were in fact wars in which the whole world did not take part and they also take of the new world order and the international law which are nothing but those of the west and even the human rights re meant basically to refer to right as seen by the west. The Zionists follow the same line and the same programs and plans and the Zionist organizations are mainly found and based in the west as there are no significant number of Jews in china or India or Japan and in most of the Asian countries to the except of a few number of individual in china and scores in Japan and may be couple of hundred in India.
The Jewish rights in Palestine means for them that they are the representatives of the western culture and civilization and that the rights of others are marginal and that the others are mere non-jewfish groups. And one of the terminology that spread across the world is the anti-Semitic which is reflective of the racial classify action which means the world is divided into areas and Semitics and the term has come to means halting all action and preventing the spread of information of statement or discourses or attempts of a genocide of Jewish and up to the standing against Israel in this oppressive policies against the Arab and prohibiting handling any of those topics.
This terminology meant to depict the Jews as a people whereas in fact they are in fact only groups and so describing them as being a one unit and as having a sacred history are all but terminologies presupposing that the Jews have one independent history of the whole human history and that therefore the history of the Jews groups should be explained away from the history of the human community in which they lived and that everything should be explained in the context of their own history. The Jews succeeded in using the terms and the religious expression on their names and their satanic entity in the political reference that aims at confusing the boundaries of every thing. They name their entity Knesset Yasrael and then Yashoof then they name it Israel which are all but religious terminologies that have nothing to do with political or social phenomenons. They also were able to spread the terminologies of holocaust and a lamia to the international media in general and in the Arab media in particular and alia is a religious terminology meaning to say the Promised Land.
The battle of terminologies and
the current challenges
In recent decades there is a spread of such terminologies as political and economic normalization with Israel and land for peace and the peace process and the Palestinian territories and six million Jews a reference to those killed in the genocide and that denying this figure would means apostasy as week as terns if recognizing Israel and of abandoning resistance and disarmament. Those terms were used intensively in a way that they appear as neutral on the face of but are in fact they mean to hide a whole Arab history and reality. And behind those terminologies there are references: are they from the untied nation or are they the vision of Israel for peace and the Zionist discourse has within this context tried to be evasive by attributing them to a number of quarters and also by depicting the Palestinian resistance as being terrorism and the Israel massacres against the Palestinian people as mere self defense by the Israelis.
On the other hand the Arab media and it political discourse towards those phenomenon is that it has swallowed the bait by describing conflict with Israel as being eternal and continued between the forces of good and the forces of evil this of course move the Zionist question from the world of human element and placing it as satanic question an therefore the conflict could never be settled.
The other question is that of generalization in using the normalization of the Israel policy system describing it as a democratic regime and what is that democracy that comes with groups of people under the banner of the British colonization and then use the land by forced expelling the local native inhabitants with the blessing and the backing of the west Arab political discourse stood helpless in explaining the phenomenon of the Zionist agency or the role of the Jewish lobby in assisting the Jews.
The Arab media is still confused as to what term they should used when citing Israel, which they sometime call the Zionist state and others as the Hebrew state.
The challenge of Arab water security:
The water security is a new term that is being used currently for the second decade in the Arab literature. It goes back to the Sycous-Bicou accord of the 1916 when the Zionist movement demand that they have a national homeland for the Jews as specified in the before promise with its borderline extending from the water borderline of the river of Jordanian the East up to the Golan highest in the north East and the Litalie river in Lebanon in the north and the overall goal was to control the Arab water sources.
And with the new economic social and political development importance of studying and doing a research on the Arab water security question came into the surface because it is much linked to the Arab food security and this one is considered one of the components of the Arab national security. Arab national security is of course under so many a challenges.
Thus the Arab European Studies Center took the initiative and organized its eighth international conference on Arab water security on the river of the river Nile with the view to study the file of the Arab water security and to come up with recommendations that would help in overcoming the challenges ahead.
The conference of the Arab water security that ended its deliberation in Cairo on the 23 of February 2000 after three days of deliberations and discussions is considered one of he series of events showing the international concern with water question and it is also considered a comprehensive conference with regards the issues it tacked and the climate in which it was organized leading to discussion and to deliberations:
• Discussion of Arab water security in the presence and with the participation of decision making in the Arab countries and those related to water both local and foreign
• It has not taken an official form a matter that allowed all and everybody to discuss in all frankness the various issues on the table
• It was not concentrated on sweet water but on all aspect of water including straits and regional waters etc
The Arab share in world water
The papers discussed have identified the dimensions of the Arab water crisis security and specified the volume of available water and that, which is in use at present and its sufficiency. The following facts were recorded:
 The volume of available water in the Arab world stand at 371.8 billion cubic meters of which 208.8 billion cubic meters are used and of which 3.6% are used for human consumption against 3.7% for industrial uses and the remainder for agricultural uses
 Shares of Arab countries vary with the Arab countries in the East possessing 40.9% against 23% for the Magreb states, and 31% for the countries of the rive Nile and 4.6% for the Arab peninsula countries.
 The surface water are the main sources of Arab water. The rain downfall produce some 2280 billion cubic meters annually of which 350 billion cubic meters are used as surface water and the remainder permeates in the soil and in addition to this some 7700 billion cubic meters of Arab sub terrain water is not in use yet.
 Desalination of water in the Arab water constitute some 605 of water desalination around the globe but it is very expenses and the Arab worlds is still in need of more desalination process
 Arab individual share of water is the lowest around the world and it stands at 3300 cubic meters a year in 1960 and at 1250 cubic meters in 2000 and it expected to good down to 650 cubic meters by the year 2025. This is due to the fact that Arab population which now stands at 250 million is increasing
 In the Magrib area: the water crisis there is of a technical nature because most of those countries do not use wave between 11% to 53% of their water resources because making use of the traditional renewable water resources cost much being rain water and sub terrain water
 In the Nile basin area: Egypt and Sudan have sufficient water but in Egypt a plan has been drawn to be implemented in the year 2017 aimed at increasing the resource of water from he various sources including desalination of water in Sinai and the red sea cost areas to meet the expansion in agriculture land reform there. The war in the south also has impeded the Jonglei canal project that could have save more and more water for both Egypt and the Sudan
 In the gulf area: in the Gulf and Yemen: the subterranean and desalinated water are the main sources for water and the agricultural sector uses some 85% of the water and the shortfall stands at one billion cubic meter and it is expected that the demand would increase in those countries to some 47 billion cubic meters but the available is about 21.5 billion cubic meters which means a serious water deficit in those countries in the future.
 In other Arab areas: for example Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Iraq has water crisis has other dimensions such as the technical one related to the natural and dry climatic condition in some of those countries and other dimensions are political which is related to the Turkish water polices in the Euphrates and Daigle rivers and other related to Israel and its attempt to control resources of water in the area.
Sixty percent of Arab waters come
from outside the Arab world
Although experts and scholars are not agreed on the challenges facing the Arab water security still thee is a great consensus as to the number of challenges that could be summed as follows:

a) Limitted renewable water resources and the drop in the share of Arab individuals
b) Joint water resources with non Arab countries constitute about 60% of all resources for Arab water
c) Israel ambitions to control Arab water resources to the extent that water represents one of the most important elements of the Israeli strategies.
d) The decline in water production as per unit due to the low capacity of water resources use
e) Deterioration of the quality of water because of pollution and misuse by man and for agricultural and industrial activities
f) Shortfall of Arab financial resources set aside for the development of water volume and the use of the available resources
g) Lack of awareness in the Arab world about the seriousness of the water crisis and the need to preserve and use to the best possible level the available water resources and their development
h) Having outlined these challenges it is important to draw up the possible means for standing up to those challenges which most of the papers have outlines and they come up with the following recommendations:
i) Draw a strategic Arab plan for achieving integration among the Arab countries in face of the questions related to the water security and that the Arab league should adopt an invitation for convening an Arab summit on water
j) Formation of a technical committee to mediate between Syria and Iraq for the resolution of the Euphrates and Daigle water sharing
k) Review of the past Arab studies and researches on water security in the Arab world and linking them to new Arab researches and linking all to applied domains
l) Give water question a priority and placing them high in the agenda of Arab interest
m) Drafting legal formula that underline and stress Arab right in water that comes from outside the borderlines of Arab countries
n) Concentrate on making useful utilization of the available water, reducing loss and increasing productivity
o) Drawing up a join Arab vision on issues related to water such as pricing, water bank, water selling and transfer of water to areas outside the international water basins of the rivers
p) Group contesting of any plans ambitions or aspiration that seek to deprive Arab from their rights in water or that seek to steal Arab waters
q) Encourage Arab investors in the domain of water and water services particularly the desalination industries
r) Management of Arab water through a comprehensive vision that take into account the environmental, the social, political, and economic dimensions and make use of he international expertise in this domain.
s) But despite the soundness of these recommendations it is important to stress that the Arab scientific readiness and preparedness to face those challenges is very low indeed. A proof of this is that non response to a call by the secretary general of the Arab league to hold such a summit since 1995 was never responded to and there is equally a lack of clear vision on the Arab scientific step that could be taken question of water at either the local national or international regional levels. But the overall outcome of the conferee could not be belittled at all. It could at least be considered as s scientific political step that seeks to underline the importance of the Arab water situation and it could also be considered a starting point for an Arab turkey dialogue on water.

ECONOMIC CHALLENGES
WEAKNESS OF INTER-ARAB TRADE EXCHANGE:
There are numerous doubts as to the possibility of the Arab countries overcoming the humble inter-Arab trade situation which does not exceed some 10 percent of the overall Arab trade whereas inter-Arab investment has no exceeded 50% of the Arab domestic gross product
Experts however hope that the coming period would witness full application of the greater Arab free zone area that was launched in 2005, and which calls for a decrease of 100 percent of customs between 17 Arab countries in a way that would constitute a significant percent within the world trade volume.
However attempts to go ahead with the greater Arab trade free zone would face some difficulties including the customs duties among the Arab countries and the conditions set by standard and metrology and the administrative restrictions and other monetary problems could add to the problems that could face this step.
Arab food security
One billion hectares of arable land for cultivation
The Arab world suffer from a food gap that stand between 11 to 13 billion us dollars which means a huge political burden for those importing food and linking Arab countries political will to foreign powers that would suck the blood of the Arab people and use their money in importing food and weapons.
It is even more important now to increase the investment of capital in investment development because of the nearing of the application of the GATT agreement and the consequences it would have on cancellation of food subsidies and therefore increase in the prices of Arab import of food. This would of course increase the burden of financial commitment on the Arab countries given the fact that Arab world imports its need from outside the Arab world.
The Arab imports some 45% of the grain need and 67% of their sugar consumption, 51% of their oil import and 305 of their milk consumption according to some statistics.

Now Sudan remains with the huge untapped potentials it has a sources for treasure for the Arab to make us of and the way to do this is through Arab economic integration. This is no longer a dream by a necessity brought by recent international development and the increase of the grip of the unilateral superpower (America) and it’s backing and siding with Israel.
And this is feasible if we take into account that Arab food gap has dropped from 21 billion us dollar in the nineteen eighties to half that figure today.
The secretary general of the Arab organization for agricultural development Abdul Rahaman Sahbani is of the view that the countries have the potential to overcome this gap with the huge agricultural resources they possess.
The official of the AOAD pointed out in the meeting of the organization held in Abu Dhabi 30 of April 2002 that giving priority to agricultural sector would contribute in the remedy of many of the problems facing the Arab countries such as poverty, unemployment which stand at between 10% to 20% that is over 18 million unemployed Arabs.
He said the elements needed for the development of this sector are available including the vast Arab land and the water and fishery resources as well as the huge forest and pastoral areas and the huge labor force. He pointed out to the presence of some 26 million employed Arab workers out of the total unemployed number of 84 million and that the area of the arable lands stand at about 65 million hectares in the year 2000 and that the contribution of the agricultural sector in Arab gross national product stand at about 80 billion us dollars out of the total of 705 billion dollars. And it is noticeable to state that the Arab share in agricultural investment is very weak compared with international investments in this domain, as the Arab investment stand at 7.8 billion dollars in the year 2000 that is a percentage of 1% compared to the international investment which stand at 780 billion us dollars in the agricultural domain.
Sixty four million arable hectares
available for the Arab
Sudan renewed its invitation during that conference of AOAD that it be the basket for Arab food security reviving a three-decade Arab dream.

Former minister for agriculture in Sudan Dr Majzoub Khalifah told the Arabs that Sudan has huge potential and that its overall area stands at 250.5 billion hectares and that of this the arable land stand at 84 million hectares and that the actual used area stand at only 19.3 million hectares up to the agricultural season of 2000-2001 that is one third of the cultivable land and that the unused land stands at 64.7 million hectares and this equals the overall Arab cultivated land which stand at 65 million hectares. In addition to this Sudan has some 24 billion hectares of grazing land and 64 million hectares of forests that could be used in paper and fire wood industries and others.
Added to this Sudan has water for irrigation. Sudan has abundant sources of water but it finds difficulties in making use of them such as the river Nile water, the tributaries of the river Nile such ass the white Nile the blue Nile and Atbara river in addition to other seasonal rivers beside the rains other water resources.
Sudan is also known for its diverse climate that could be from the desert up to the equatorial climate in the south and even the Mediterranean climate in the highest of western Sudan and this world mean that there is a diversity that could be used for agricultural production around the year.
And as the agriculture and animal resources complement each other, Sudan enjoys a huge animal resources standing at over 128 million heads divided between 37 million heads of cattle, 37 million heads of goats and 46 million head of sheep and 3 million heads of camels and some 4 million heads of horses and other similar animals.
Sudan is also now strongly involved in the oil production, extracting some 300,000 barrels a day and by the end of the year hopes to raise this to half a million barrels per day and it also has a river of an estimated 183.2 billion barrels bypassing the reserves in Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar and is only bypassed by the kingdom of Saudi Arabia according recent studies.
The food basket is ready:
All these resources make Sudan in position to become the world food basket and in position to achieved surplus in meat and other agricultural produce that could be exported to other non-Arab countries if its resources were used well as the minister said. The minister added that Sudan is only using 15 percent of the arable land but is still scoring a surplus for export.

Sudan produces some 6 million tons of grains that is 75% of which is millet, the other is sorghum, and it has a surplus of about one million tons of sorghum. It also produces sesame and groundnuts and cottonseeds, sunflower seeds and is currently producing its own oil needs and export the reminder. This in addition to the production of gum Arabic of which Sudan produces 85% of the world imports. Sudan also produces some 600,000 tones of sugar and consumes only about 500,000 tones that is, it is exporting about 100,000 tones of sugar annually.
Hurdles obstructing the achievement
of this dream
According to professor Ilaiwa professor of political science in Aswan University, there are a number of difficulties facing Sudan in its quest to achieve the Arab dream. These include the fact that Arab markets lack some new financial tools.
The challenge of globalization
Professor Mohamed Hashim Awad, the economics experts believes that despite the huge row made around the term globalization it never is a new phenomenon. He argued that it dates back to the times of the pharaoh, the Macedonians, the Caledonians, and the Roman empires and particularly at the time of the Islamic empire. He said under those empires the whole world that cover the Middle East, the far East and the Mediterranean areas was under the control of one empire at one time or another an that it was under the rule of one area be it Thebe, Babel, Rome or Baghdad and that they all were under one type of law or one grip of a centralized government. He said during these rule the free flow of good s and commodities was obstructed only by the rudimentary status of the means of transportation. He said the only new thing about globalization is that it was no spearheaded by the United States of America, which is part of a world that was not known at the time of those empires. He said what characterizes globalization now is the huge communication development and the development in the means of transports. He said the other element is that the untied states is leading a number of other states but at the same time its being led by another small state which is controlling its economies and its legislative bodies and is shaping its foreign policy and that this state is Israel the Zionist state.
1- The renaissance of globalization

The logic behind the advent of globalization was that aft the collapse of the communist system the late nineteen eighties the world had to give up the grip of the capitalist system being the best system humanity could reach and may be the best than man could ever reach and that it might represent the end of history that that is the history of system and political ideology as the American economist of Japanese origin Fukuyama stated. Also the collapse of the communist system made the United States the sole undisputed military might in the world. This made it think that the collapse of the communist system was not a victory for the capitalism but rather a victory for the American way of life, thus this way of life has to be copied and followed by others.
• The first phase of globalization: today's globalization which is being planned by the international Zionism and is being implemented by a superpower, the United States of America, actually began in the mid of the last century at the end of the Second World War when America imposed on the countries destroyed by war and he poor countries the establishment of the untied nation and the IMF and the WB on its soil to personify this political and economic hegemony and at the same time it granted its ally the veto power (those are England, France, Russia and China) within the security council in which all the powers of the general assembly were vested. Then America made use of the monetary system that it imposed to also make the US dollar against the gold issuing quantities of us dollar banknotes exceeding the quantity of gold the untied states possess, still making use of it to purchase world products and inundate the world poorest countries in debts. But this system witnessed a number of ups and downs leading the untied states to abandon converting us dollar into gold and this led to the collapse of the world financial system in the 1970 followed the October war in which the poor countries moved towards the OPEC and their generous assistance and in the interest low loans they provided but this made the untied state a marginalized power economically with the diminishing of the status of the WB and the IMF it used to inundate the markets of the developing nations and controlling their economy. This same crisis was renewed in the early 1980 when the prices of oil plummeted, a matter that made the United States and its allies re-impose their hegemony on the world developing and indebted countries.
• The second phase : inundating developing countries in debts and controlling their economy such as the case at the end of last centaury when such country like Egypt was covered with debts and was forced to transfer its debts into shares in the Suez canal then there was full economic control followed by military and at the end colonization. Today's developments are a replica of what took place at that time and today the system of debt equity swap is being applied. The same method used in the partitioning of Africa is today being applied but taking different military, economic, and political shape leading to similar results.

2- Tools of the modern globalization: globalization makes use of the international and national monetary institutions as means and tools to manage the international economy and therefore impose their own political agency and the hegemony remains in the hands of the big countries. One of the most important tools and channels used for such a purpose are the World Bank, the international monetary fund, the world trade organization and the transnational corporate and the financial markets. One of the most important features of current globalization is that the World Bank and the international monetary fund have diverted their capitals to the countries of the former Soviet Union the economy of which is being described as being in a state of transition towards a free economy.
Arab countries and globalization
Most of the Arab countries prey in the net of the IMF starting from the poorest in the early nineties up to the riches in the early seventies following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.
If we compare the Arab countries in the Middle East and north African to the countries of East Asia and pacific countries we will come to the conclusion that the Arab countries have a weaker economy in general and that despite the fact that the per capita income in those countries is double that of East Asia and the pacific that is 1260 us dollars against 820 in the year 1993, still the rate of growth in the period 1980-1993 was in the range of 2.2% against 7.8% for the countries of East Asia and the pacific and the rate of their export was minus 1% against 10.8% positive for he East Asia and pacific states. Therefore the ineptness of the Arab countries represented 58% of their gross national product and 97% of their export. And their reserve s have not surpassed 5 billion us dollars while in the debts of the East Asian and pacific countries represent 29% of the GDP and 91% of their export and their reserves stood at 171 billion us dollars.
Sudan in face of globalization:
According to professes Mohamed Hashim Awad Sudan remains a bridge linking Arab and African world and a microcosm of Africa with tribal, ethnic, cultural and religious diversity and that ever since its independence up to the 1970S’ Sudan did not witness a major civil war and that its economy remained stable with low rate of inflation and a high rate of growth that scored some 6.1% in the period 1970-1986. However he said after Sudan backed the Egyptian peace accords of Camp David, Arab countries pulled out t heir investment, and it had to resort to the IMF for loans. And in application of the policies and economic reforms demanded by the loan giver, the IMF the Sudanese economic growth slowed down and the a number of economic woes followed including an increase in the rate of unemployment and inflation going steadily from 28% to 185% in some years. The nineties saw the implementation of numerous economic reforms, with the government lifting its hegemony over the economic activities and privatizing most of the public sector institutions . It also moved towards achieving self reliance in food and other basic maters while at the same time not depending on foreign assistance but it worked to get the foreign investment in the domain of mining such minerals as gold, petrol and developing the basic structures. However the high cost of war and the cessation of foreign assistance and the provocation being made by superpowers and regional countries.
He said at this time the country was under the world type of effects of globalization, which a country like the Sudan had to face. He said all indications show that the globalization seek to empty Sudan of all its trained cadres and to maintain workers in the rural areas and in t he town in a state of abject poverty a mater that make it easy to use them as cheap labor for agricultural and mineral productions that would be exported.
He said the same is being applied now in other countries, exploiting the developing countries and making use of the privatization of the rural sectors to put their hands on the riches and resources of those countries so that they would return to what they used to be in at the first half of the century.
So these are the main elements of globalization which is being portrayed by its supporters as an international economic development and a seal on t he human civilization’s history. But its , regrettably, a return to the worst form of globalization which is that of slavery with the aim of weakening people and colonizing them economically, politically, culturally and socially using for this money, weapons, technology and propaganda.
Challenge of relations between the
Arab and Europe.
Arabs are being classified in their relations with Europe as Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean and accordingly the following could be noted:
• The European Mediterranean partnership is based on the denial of the full Arab identity for h countries of the East and south Mediterranean on the base that Arab countries are being divided on that understanding, having the Mediterranean as part of the partnership while discarding the other group. Europe also deals with the Mediterranean as full partner through their highest body in the EU while at the same time not dealing with the Arab league as a comprehensive Arab institution. T he league is absent and is not represented in t hat project of partnership. Whatever the case the Arab countries do not seem to have a unified policy vis-à-vis Europe for reasons related to the political differences and other differences among the Arab countries. While the Magrib countries see in this partnership economic profits while the countries of the East think relationship with Europe should be built on the positive role Europe should play in the Israel Arab conflict and that it should pressurize Israel into respecting and honoring United Nations resolutions and achieving a comprehensive and just settlement in the region.
Arab national security and the challenges it faces
The Arab joint defense agreement: appears to be like the lost paradise and an attempt to bring together Arab will. The agreement remains in the consciousness of the Arab ordinary man but it remains as a mere agreement and a dream that never came true unless concrete moves were taken. This step is badly needed today rather than tomorrow given the challenges the nation is facing now. And the beginning for this step might be in the initiative taken by the Arab league to create the Arab council for defense and security, which will be discussed in the Khartoum Arab league summit.
The organs related to the Arab collective security:
The joint defense agreement necessitates the establishment of new bodies within the context of the Arab league but that would not be part of the league’s main branches and these include:
1) The joint defense council and is formed of the Arab foreign ministers and the Arab defense ministers or their representatives
2) Military investment authority: it groups all the chiefs of staff of the Arab member states in the agreement
3) Permanent military commission which is entrusted to prepare the military plans for confronting any envisaged threat or any armed aggression and it tables suggestions as to the organization of the member states in the agreement and the minimum of troops each state should have and other military training activities and other information related to each states regarding its military capabilities and its potentials in the military efforts.
4) Joint Arab leadership
The Arab region has witnessed a number of war including wars with Israel from the war in 1948 , 1956, 1967, and 1973 and the ensuring war and internal or borderline conflicts and clashes. It also witnessed the fighting between the Jordanian army and the Palestinian resistance which were Arab versus Arab wars such as the Lebanese- Lebanese war that took place in April 1975 or the Israel invasion of the Lebanese territories in June 1982.
However those fighting did not threaten or undermine the Arab arena in a very serious manner and they were never a challenge to the Arab national security as was the Iraq Kuwait war in 1991 or the American war in Iraq in 2002. It is true that those wars in general were Arab setback but in a way they had helped bring closer the Arab ranks and crystallizing a joint Arab action in the interest of the whole Arab national security.
But the second gulf war had not only made the Arab shed Arab blood but it had equally shattered the little balance that was in place in a changing world and paved the way for driving Arabs into grouping and formation of alliances and division and split and falling apart.
Meaning of national security:
It might come to the mind that linking the word national to security would mean a type of or a national trend for explaining security matters and its elements. But national security is something totally different. It was a term to explain the security of one state or a number o state as the national security such as the American national security or the Arab national security for example and this is based on the joint element that unite the Arab security and make it a joint unit against challenges or toward hope and aspirations and ambitions.
It also no longer means the military forces, rather the national security means all the activities carried out by the state or a number of state that are grouped within its capabilities and energy to preserve its entity and its interest now and in the future taking into account the local and international changes. Thus it covers all the activities and all t he domains in the political, economic, social and scientific and technological domains and the state can be active in one of those domains to achieve its national security even though the military might is an element therein. Robert McNamara once said a state could not achieve its security until it achieved the minimum possible level of internal stability a matter that could not be achieved without achieving the minimum possible level of development saying that when preparing a budget one should not concentrate on the defense matters alone but most impotently the broad national security matters should be taken into account the national security is much more bigger than this concept because social injustice and poverty could ultimately lead to undermining out security and development does mean advancement in the various economic scientific political and military domains they are all linked to one another and the slow progress in one would mean halting progress in the other domains.
The experience of the former Soviet Union could be a very good example of what national security means. That state had all it needed in military deterrent and military might and all the modern technologies meant but what brought the soviet union onto its knees in 1991 was not a military invasion but rather an infiltration combining political, cultural, and economic combinations that accumulated and undermined and ultimately brought down the society union without any use of military force, rockets or explosions.
So what is needed for achieving national security include some of the following:-
a) Provision of a certain level of livelihood, progress and security for the citizens of the given state
b) facing the challenges that the state or the states face in light of the prevailing regional and international situation the second part could well be applied to the Arab situation as the Arab nation is constantly facing foreign challenges and threats and it could be said that no region in the world has encountered such numerous challenges as the Arab world have been experiencing and this could be attributed to the following:

• The strategic location of the Arab world
• The strategic importance of the region, having the largest oil reserve in the world, and providing the industrial and the developing countries with their ever-increasing need of oil.
• The Zionist occupation of Palestinian lands and the ambitions of the Zionist project of expansion and of expanding at the account and expense of Arab lands and Arab riches.
But great as they are, these challenges did not push the Arab for collective action. And exception made of some small project within the contest of the Arab league that came into being in 1945, and the organization Arab economic unity that was established within the league in addition to some agreement and accords such as the Arab joint defense agreement, the Arab arena lacked any significant joint action that could be up to par with the external challenges standing on its face. There was a great vacuum in the Arab national security and if some people are talking of some loopholes in the wall of the Arab national security, the we would venture to say that it would be more accurate to talk of the lack of a wall in the first place. The aspiration was to build a wall that would protect Arab national security but what has happened was the opposite way round, contrary to the premises and the aspirations and hope..

There was the outbreak of the Iraq-Kuwait crisis that came at the wrong time and the developments of that crisis into tragic drama in the Arab reality ending up into an armed military conflict known as the desert storm. That storm began in January 1991 as an airborne war and ended up with army on the ground in February 1991, but its deep effect and scares continue down deep, have never stopped yielding negative effects, and seems to continue doing so for years to come. Would continue doing so. It was a strategic depth in the eastern front for each of Syria and Jordan. And if we add to this the resources and the potential Iraq has then the Iraqi weight as a country-not as a ruling regime- would be clear in any expected or envisage confrontation with the Israeli entity.
When the regime of Saddam entered into a war against Kuwait it t he Iraqi army had some one million professional soldiers and some 250,000 reserves in addition to a huge military arsenal composed of :-
 5500 tanks
 3700 armored vehicles
 600 to 700 military planes
 200 helicopters
 250 surface to surface missiles of various types and size in addition to its other capabilities
And when the war came to an end officially, Iraq had already lost half of all that might and thus it has been neutralized from that front of confrontation with the Zionist entity leaving a huge imbalance in favor of the Zionist entity.
Iraq Out Of the Circle of Action and Influence
Iraq has always occupied a very strategic position in the Arab Iraqi conflict a mater that made it a front state with regard tot eh Zionist entity.
As to the Iraqi material loss they include stoppage of its oil export that is 3.5 million barrels priority to the invasion that is depriving it of 15 billion dollars annually, not to talk about the hundreds of billions of dollars the price of the infrastructures that were destroyed one after the other in the desert storm.

Kuwait
Now regardless of the Kuwaiti losses which are of social demographic nature the Kuwaitis themselves estimated their material loss for the rehabilitation at between 20 to 30 billion US dollars while the un mission specified the figure at about 23 billion us dollars including the petroleum exports halted between the date of the invasion and the date of the official ending of the war ( 8.5 billion dollars).
Kuwait also sustained losses with regards to t he cost of war that reached some 18.2 billion us dollars of which it paid in 1991 about 14 billion us dollars in addition to other commitments for the affected states such as Egypt and turkey in particular at a value of 3.7 billion us dollars of which it paid in 1991 1.6 billion dollars. Added to this are the indirect losses that could not be assessed in material figures.
Saudi Arabia
Given the fact that Saudi Arabia was in direct contact with the war and with the operation scenes, it also lost some 50 billion us dollars that is half of its national production. As to the Saudi commitment in the war they are put at 16.8 billion us dollars in addition to the assistance it provided to the affected countries that is about 4.6 billion dollars of which it paid in 1991 3.2 billion dollars.
The political collapse
The figures in billions of dollars reflect the volume of the economic catastrophe created by the war but that is only one face of it. The quibbling that followed, the grouping, the distancing, the split and the gap are all a reflection of the political collapse that followed in the Arab world.
The Iraq Iran war that took place in 1980 was a factor in dividing the Arab official scene into those backing and those opposing it and while the scene has not yet been cleared and the various edges of the problem created were about to be remedied, at that very time came the invasion of Kuwait in 1990 to only deepen the status of division and split and there we had two ranks one siding with Kuwait and another siding with Saddam. And a situation was created whereby the Arab league despite its relentless effort could not go anything, it failed to contain the crisis thus the Arab action, if any at the time, had received a sever blow and a complete paralysis leaving the scene for one international side to enter the region via the door of that crisis.
The untied states entered from the wide open doors brought by this crisis and thus it stated a new and a unique case in the old world order.
And given the fact that the Arab security interacts and influence and is being influence by the international development, thus the new world situation that dealt with the crisis in a new type of manner, thus it has to deal with a circle which is an essential element in the Arab security which the question of Palestinian which was forcefully brought into the scene and linked to the various crisis at the time.
And the Arabs went to Madrid for negotiation after the crisis they themselves created and in the absence of a unified security will and inability to understand the new world order and its plans in so far as scattering the efforts of the Arab nation is concerned while at the same time their hands were empty of any papers of pressure or barraging tactics –against the position of the Zionist entity that had all papers in hand. They simply went to Madrid divided and empty handed and they had to accept the outcome whatever it might be. They had no card to use for pressure or for bargaining. The repercussions of that crisis also gave the untied states of America the only superpower that has the right to draw up a new map for the region.
Madrid conference in its first and second phases was seeking to liquidate the Palestinian question but in its third phases it sought undermining the whole Arab national security in its fundamental elements, which are water, transportation, petroleum and development.
The challenges facing the Arab world are not confined to the Middle East region alone but they equally include the African continent where there is the complex situation of instability in the horn of African region, parallel to the red sea and the deep repercussions of this situation on Ethiopia, the most important source of the river Nile, and on southern Sudan.



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