Arab League, informal name of the League of Arab States, a voluntary association of independent countries whose peoples are mainly Arabic speaking. Its stated purposes are to strengthen ties among the member states, coordinate their policies, and promote their common interests.
Members of the Arab League
Algeria Bahrain Comoros Djibouti
Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait
Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco
Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia
Somalia Sudan Syria Tunisia
United Arab Emirates Yemen
The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tran Jordan (Jordan, as of 1950), and Yemen. Countries that later joined are: Algeria (1962), Bahrain (1971), Comoros (1993), Djibouti (1977), Kuwait (1961), Libya (1953), Mauritania (1973), Morocco (1958), Oman (1971), Qatar (1971), Somalia (1974), Southern Yemen (1967), Sudan (1956), Tunisia (1958), and the United Arab Emirates (1971). The Palestine Liberation Organization was admitted in 1976. Egypt's membership was suspended in 1979 after it signed a peace treaty with Israel; the league's headquarters was moved from Cairo, Egypt, to Tunis, Tunisia. In 1987 Arab leaders decided to renew diplomatic ties with Egypt. Egypt was readmitted to the league in 1989 and the league's headquarters was moved back to Cairo.
The Arab League is involved in political, economic, cultural, and social programs designed to promote the interests of member states. The Arab League has served as a forum for member states to coordinate their policy positions and deliberate on matters of common concern, settling some Arab disputes and limiting conflicts such as the Lebanese civil wars of 1958. The Arab League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of almost all landmark documents promoting economic integration among member states, such as the creation of the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter, which set out the principles for economic activities of the league. It has played an important role in shaping school curricula, and preserving manuscripts and Arab cultural heritage. The Arab League has launched literacy campaigns, and reproduced intellectual works, and translated modern technical terminology for the use of member states. It encourages measures against crime and drug abuse and deals with labor issues (particularly among the emigrant Arab workforce).
The Arab League has also fostered cultural exchanges between member states, encouraged youth and sports programs, helped to advance the role of women in Arab societies, and promoted child welfare activities.
The Egyptian government first proposed the Arab League in 1943. Egypt and some of the other Arab states wanted closer cooperation without the loss of self-rule that would result from total union. The original charter of the Arab League created a regional organization of sovereign states that was neither a union nor a federation. Among the goals the league set for itself were winning independence for all Arabs still under alien rule, and to prevent the Jewish minority in Palestine (then governed by the British) from creating a Jewish state. The members eventually formed a joint defense council, an economic council, and a permanent military command.
THE ALEXANDRIA PROTOCOL(7 OCTOBER 1944)
The undersigned, chiefs and members of Arab delegations at the Preliminary Committee of the General Arab Conference, the president of the preliminary committee H.E. mustafa al-nahhas pasha, egyptian prime minister and minister of Foreign Affairs; head of the Egyptian delegation;
H.E. Sa’dallah Al-Jabiri, Syrian Prime Minister and head of the Syrian delegation;
H.E. Jamil Mardam Bey, Minister of Foreign Affairs;
H.E. Dr. Nagib Al-Armanzani, Secretary General of the Presidency of the Syrian Republic;
H.E. M. Sabri Al-’Asali, deputy of Damascus;
H.E. Tawfiq Abul-Huda Pasha, Trans-Jordanian Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, head of the Trans-Jordanian delegation;
H.E. Sulayman Sukkar Bey, Financial Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
H.E. Hamdi Al-Bahjaji, Iraqi Prime Minister and head of the Iraqi delegation;
H.E. Arshad Al-’Umari, Minister of Foreign Affairs;
H.E. Nuri Al-Sa’id, former Iraqi Prime Minister;
H.E. Tahsin Al-’Askari, Iraqi Minister Plenipotentiary in Egypt;
H.E. Riyad Al-Sulh Bey, Lebanese Prime Minister and head of the Lebanese delegation; H.E. Salim Taqla Bey, Minister of Foreign Affairs; H.E. Musa Mubarak, Chief of the Presidential Cabinet;
H.E. Nagib Al-Hilali Pasha, Minister of Education;
H.E. Muhammad Sabri Aub-’Alam Pasha, Minister of Justice;
H.E. Muhammad Salah-al-Din Bey, Under Secretary of State of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Anxious to strengthen and consolidate the ties, which bind all Arab countries, and to direct them toward the welfare of the Arab world, to improve its conditions, insure its future, and realize its hopes and aspirations, And in response to Arab public opinion in all Arab countries Have met at Alexandria from Shawwal 8, 1363 (September 25, 1944) to Shawwal 20, 1363 (October 7, 1944) in the form of a Preliminary Committee of the General Arab Conference, and have agreed as follows:
1. LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES
A League will be formed of the independent Arab States, which consent to join the League. It will have a council, which will be known as the "Council of the League of Arab States" in which all participating states will be represented on an equal footing.
The object of the League will be to control the execution of the agreements which the above states will conclude; to hold periodic meetings which will strengthen the relations between those states; to coordinate their political plans so as to insure their cooperation, and protect their independence and sovereignty against every aggression by suitable means; and to supervise in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries.
The decisions of the Council will be binding on those who have accepted them except in cases where a disagreement arises between two member states of the League in which the two parties shall refer their dispute to the Council for solution. In this case the decision of the Council of the League will be binding.
In no case will resort to force to settle a dispute between any two-member states of the League be allowed. But every state shall be free to conclude with any other member state of the League, or other powers, special agreements which do not contradict the text or spirit of he present dispositions.
In no case will the adoption of a foreign policy which may be prejudicial to the policy of the League or an individual member state be allowed.
The Council will intervene in every dispute which may lead to war between a member state of the League and any other member state or power, so as to reconcile them.
A subcommittee will be formed of the members of the Preliminary Committee to prepare a draft of the statutes of the Council of the League and to examine the political questions which may be the object of agreement among Arab States.
2. COOPERATION IN ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, SOCIAL AND OTHER MATTERS
A. The Arab States represented on the Preliminary Committee shall closely cooperate in the following matters:
(1) Economic and financial matters, i.e., commercial exchange, customs, currency, agriculture, and industry.
(2) Communications, i.e., railways, roads, aviation, navigation, posts and telegraphs.
(3) Cultural matters.
(4) Questions of nationality, passports, visas, execution of judgments, extradition of criminals, etc.
(5) Social questions.
(6) Questions of public health.
a) A subcommittee of experts for each of the above subjects will be formed in which the states which have participated in the Preliminary Committee will be represented. This subcommittee will prepare draft regulations for cooperation in the above matters, describing the extent and means of that collaboration.
b) A committee for coordination and editing will be formed whose object will be to control the work of the other subcommittees, to coordinate that part of the work which is accomplished, and to prepare drafts of agreements which will be submitted to the various governments.
c) When all the subcommittees have accomplished their work the Preliminary Committee will meet to examine the work of the subcommittees as a preliminary step toward the holding of a General Arab Conference.
3. CONSOLIDATION OF THESE TIES IN THE FUTURE
While expressing its satisfaction at such a happy step, the Committee hopes that Arab States will be able in the future to consolidate that step by other steps, especially if post-war events should result in institutions which bind various Powers more closely together.
4. A SPECIAL RESOLUTION CONCERNING
The Arab States represented on the Preliminary Committee emphasize their respect of the independence and sovereignty of Lebanon in its present frontiers, which the governments of the !above States have already recognized in
Consequence of Lebanon's adoption of an independent policy, which the Government of that country announced in its program of October 7, 1943, unanimously approved by the Lebanese Chamber of Deputies.
5. A SPECIAL RESOLUTION CONCERNING
A. The Committee is of the opinion that Palestine constitutes an important part of the Arab World and that the rights of the Arabs in Palestine cannot be touched without prejudice to peace and stability in the Arab World.
The Committee also is of the opinion that the pledges binding the British Government and providing for the cessation of Jewish immigration, the preservation of Arab lands, and the achievement of independence for Palestine are permanent Arab rights whose prompt implementation would constitute a step toward the desired goal and toward the stabilization of peace and security.
The Committee declares its support of the cause of the Arabs of Palestine and its willingness to work for the achievement of their legitimate aim and the safeguarding of their just rights.
The Committee also declares that it is second to none in regretting the woes, which have been inflicted upon the Jews of Europe by European dictatorial states. But the question of these Jews should not be confused with Zionism, for there can be no greater injustice and aggression than solving the problem of the Jews of Europe by another injustice, i.e., by inflicting injustice on the Arabs of Palestine of various religions and denominations.
B. The special proposal concerning the participation of the Arab Governments and peoples in the "Arab National Fund" to safeguard the lands of the Arabs of Palestine shall be referred to the committee of financial and economic affairs to examine it from all its angles and to submit the result of that examination to the Preliminary Committee in its next meeting.
In faith of which this protocol has been signed at Faruq I University at Alexandria on Saturday, Shawwal 20, 1363 (October 7, 1944).
THE CHARTER OF THE ARAB LEAGUE
(22 MARCH 1945)
The League of Arab States is composed of the independent Arab states which have signed this Charter.
Any independent Arab state has the right to become a member of the League. If it desires to do so, it shall submit a request which will be deposited with the Permanent Secretariat General and submitted to the Council at the first meeting held after submission of the request.
The League has as its purpose the strengthening of the relations between the member-states, the coordination of their policies in order to achieve co-operation between them and to safeguard their independence and sovereignty; and a general concern with the affairs and interests of the Arab countries. It has also as its purpose the close co-operation of the member-states, with due regard to the Organisation and circumstances of each state, on the following matters:
A. Economic and financial affairs, including commercial relations, customs, currency and questions of agriculture an industry.
B. Communications; this includes railroads, roads, aviation, navigation, telegraphs and posts.
C. Cultural affairs.
D. Nationality, passports, visas, execution of judgments and extradition of criminals.
E. Social affairs.
F. Health affairs.
The League shall possess a Council composed of the representatives of the member-states of the League; each state shall have a single vote, irrespective of the number of its representatives.
It shall be the task of the Council to achieve the realisation of the objectives of the League and to supervise the execution of agreements which. The member-states have concluded on the questions enumerated in the preceding Article, or on any other questions.
It likewise shall be the Council task to decide upon the means by which the League is to co-operate with the international bodies to be created in the future in order to guarantee security and peace and regulate economic and social relations.
For each of the questions listed in Article II there shall be set up a special committee in which the member-states of the League shall be represented. These committees shall be charged with the task of laying down the principles and extent of co-operation. Such principles shall be formulated as draft agreements to be presented to the Council for examination preparatory to their submission to the aforesaid states.
Representatives of the other Arab countries may take part in the work of the aforesaid committees. The Council shall determine the conditions under which these representatives may be permitted to participate and the rules governing such representation.
Any resort to force in order to resolve disputes between two or more member-states of the League is prohibited. If there should arise among them a difference, which does not concern a state's independence, sovereignty, or territorial integrity, and if the parties to the dispute have recourse to the Council for the settlement of this difference, the decision of the Council shall then be enforceable and obligatory.
In such case, the states between which the difference has arisen shall not participate in the deliberations and decisions of the Council.
The Council shall mediate in all differences, which threaten to lead to war between two member-states, or a member-state and a third state, with a view to bringing about their reconciliation.
Decisions of arbitration and mediation shall be taken by majority vote.
In case of aggression or threat of aggression by one state against a member-state, the state, which has been attacked or threatened with aggression, may demand the immediate convocation of the Council.
The Council shall by unanimous decision determine the measures necessary to repulse the aggression. If the aggressor is a member-state, his vote shall not be counted in determining unanimity.
If, as a result of the attack, the government of the state attacked finds itself unable to communicate with the Council, the state's representative in the Council shall request the convocation of the Council for the purpose indicated in the foregoing paragraph. In the event that this representative is unable to communicate with the Council, any member-state of the League shall have the right to request the convocation of the Council.
Unanimous decisions of the Council shall be binding upon all member-states of the League; majority decisions shall be binding only upon those states, which have accepted them.
In either case the decisions of the Council shall be enforced in each member-state according to its respective laws.
Each member-state shall respect the systems of government established in the other member-states and regard them as exclusive concerns of those states. Each shall pledge to abstain from any action calculated to change established systems of government.
States of the League, which desire to establish closer co-operation and stronger bonds than are provided for by this Charter, may conclude agreements to that end.
Treaties and agreements already concluded or to be concluded in the future between a member-state and another state shall not be binding or restrictive upon other members.
The permanent seat of the League of Arab States is established in Cairo. The Council may, however, assemble at any other place it may designate.
The Council of the League shall convene in ordinary session twice a year, in March and in September. It shall convene in extraordinary session upon the request of two member-states of the League whenever the need arises.
The League shall have a permanent Secretariat-General, which shall consist of a Secretary-General, Assistant Secretaries and an appropriate number of officials.
The Council of the League shall appoint the Secretary-General by a majority of two thirds of the states of the League. The Secretary-General, with the approval of the Council, shall appoint the Assistant Secretaries and the principal officials of the League.
The Council of the League shall establish an administrative regulation for the functions of the Secretariat-General and matters relating to the staff.
The Secretary-General shall have the rank of Ambassador and the Assistant Secretaries that of Ministers Plenipotentiary.
The first Secretary-General of the League is named in an annex to this Charter.
The Secretary-General shall prepare the draft of the budget of the League and shall submit it to the Council for approval before the beginning of each fiscal year.
The Council shall fix the share of the expenses to be borne by each state of the League. This may be reconsidered if necessary.
The members of the Council of the League as well as the members of the committees and the officials who are to be designated in the administrative regulation shall enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunity when engaged in the exercise of their functions.
The buildings occupied by the organs of the League shall be inviolable.
The first meeting of the Council shall be convened at the invitation of the head of the Egyptian Government. Thereafter it shall be convened at the invitation of the Secretary-General.
The representatives of the member-states of the League shall alternately assume the presidency of the Council at each of its ordinary sessions.
Except in cases specifically indicated in this Charter, a majority vote of the Council shall be sufficient to make enforceable decisions on the following matters:
A. Matters relating to personnel.
B. Adoption of the budget of the League.
C. Establishment of the administrative regulations for the Council, the committees and the Secretariat General.
D. Decisions to adjourn the sessions.
Each member-state of the League shall deposit with the Secretariat-General one copy of treaty or agreement concluded or to be concluded in the future between itself and another member-state of the League or a third state.
If a member state contemplates withdrawal from the League. Shall inform the Council of its intention one year before such withdrawal is to go into effect.
The Council of the League may consider any state which fails to fulfill its obligations under the Charter as separated from the League, this to go into effect upon a unanimous decision of the states, not counting the state concerned.
This Charter may be amended with the consent of two thirds of the states belonging to the League, espec order to make firmer and stronger the ties between the member-states, to create an Arab Tribunal of Arbitration, and to regulate the relations of the League with any international bodies to be created in the future to guarantee security and peace.
Final action on the amendment cannot be taken prior Final action on an amendment. . hich the motion to the session following the session in which the motion was initiated.
If a state does not accept such an amendment it may withdraw at such time as the amendment goes into effect, without being bound by the provisions of the preceding Article.
This Charter and its annexes shall be ratified according to the basic laws in force among the High Contracting parties.
The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretariat-General of the Council and the Charter shall become operative as regards each ratifying state fifteen days after the Secretary-General has received the instruments of ratification from four states.
This Charter has been drawn up in Cairo in the Arabic language on this 8th day of Rabi’ II, thirteen hundred and sixty four H. (March 22, 1945), in one copy which shall be deposited in the safe keeping of the Secretariat-General.
An identical copy shall be delivered to each state of the League.
(1) Annex Regarding Palestine
Since the termination of the last great war the rule of the Ottoman Empire over the Arab countries, among them Palestine, which bad become detached from that Empire, has come to an end. She has come to be autonomous, not subordinate to any other state.
The Treaty of Lausanne proclaimed that her future was to be settled by the parties concerned.
However, even though she was as yet unable to control her own affairs, the Covenant of the League (of Nations) in 1919 made provision for a regime based upon recognition of her independence.
Her international existence and independence in the legal sense cannot, therefore, be questioned, any more than could the independence of the other Arab countries.
Although the outward manifestations of this independence have remained obscured for reasons beyond her control, this should not be allowed to interfere with her participation in the work of the Council of the League.
The states signatory to the Pact of the Arab League are therefore of the opinion that, considering the special circumstances of Palestine and until that country can effectively exercise its independence, the Council of the League should take charge of the selection of an Arab representative from Palestine to take part in its work.
(2) Annex Regarding Cooperation with Countries Which Are Not Members of the Council of the League
Whereas the member states of the League will have to deal in the Council as well as in the committees with matters which will benefit and affect the Arab world at large;
And whereas the Council has to take into account the aspirations of the Arab countries, which are not members of the Council and have to work toward their realization;
Now, therefore, it particularly behooves the states signatory to the Pact of the Arab League to enjoin the Council of the League, when considering the admission of those countries to participation in the committees referred to in the Pact, that it should spare no effort to learn their needs and understand their aspirations and hopes; and that it should work thenceforth for their best interests and the safeguarding of their future with all the political means at its disposal.
(3) Annex Regarding the Appointment of a Secretary-General of the League
The states signatory to this Pact have agreed to appoint His Excellency Abdul-Rabman 'Azzam Bey, to be Secretary-General of the League of Arab States.
This appointment is made for two years. The Council of the League shall hereafter determine the new regulations for the Secretary-General.
Cultural Treaty of the Arab League
(20 November 1946)
The States of the Arab League agree that each of them shall form a local organization whose functions shall be to consider matters concerning cultural cooperation between the Arab States. Each state will be free as to how it forms this organization.
The States of the Arab League agree to exchange teachers and professors between their educational institutions, according to the general and individual conditions as will be agreed to. The period of service of any teacher or professor who is a Government official and who will be delegated for this purpose, will be considered as service for his own Government, with the maintenance of his rights as regards his post, promotion, and pension.
The States of the Arab League agree to the exchange of students and scholars between their educational institutions, and their acceptance in suitable classes as far as accommodation will allow, in accordance with the regulations of those institutions.
In order to facilitate this, those States, while maintaining the basic educational principles adopted in their countries will work towards harmonizing their educational syllabi and certificates. This will be done by special agreement between those States.
Such facilities, as may be possible, will be given by each State to any other State, which wishes to construct hostels for its students.
The States of the Arab League will encourage cultural, scouting, and sports visits between the Arab countries, in areas, which the Governments allow, and the holding of cultural and educational meetings for students. Facilities will be given for this purpose, particularly in respect to traveling arrangements and the expenses of the journey.
The States of the Arab League agree on the reciprocal establishment of educational and scientific institutions in their various countries.
The States of the Arab League will cooperate in the revival of the intellectual and artistic legacy of the Arabs, safeguarding and propagating it, as well as making it available to those who seek it by all possible means.
In order to keep pace with the world's intellectual movements, the States of the Arab League will encourage and organize the translation of all foreign masterpieces, whether classical or modem. They will also encourage all intellectual output in the Arab countries by such means as the opening of institutes for scientific and literary research. They will organize competitions for authors, and will grant prizes to distinguished men of science, literature, and art.
All the States of the Arab League undertake to legislate for the protection of scientific, literary, and artistic authorship rights for all publications in all States of the Arab League.
The States of the Arab League will work for the standardization of scientific terms, by means of councils, congresses and joint committees, which they will set up, and by means of bulletins, which these organizations will issue. They will work to make the Arabic language convey all expressions of thought and modem science, and to make of it the language of instruction in all subjects and in all educational stages in the Arab countries.
The States of the Arab League will work for the consolidation of contacts between libraries and museums, whether scientific, historical or artistic, by such means as the exchange of publications, indexes, and duplicating antiquities, as well as by the exchange of technical officials and missions for excavations by agreements between them.
The States of the Arab League agree to consolidate relations and to facilitate cooperation between scientists, literary men, journalists, members of the professions, those connected with art, the stage, the cinema and broadcasting, where available, by organizing visits for them between one country and another and by encouraging cultural, scientific, and educational conferences for the purpose; also by placing room, laboratories and material in scientific institutions in every Arab country at the disposal of the learned of other countries to demonstrate scientific discoveries; also by the publication of periodical bulletins regarding books of scientific research published in all Arab countries. Each author or publisher must send to the "Cultural Committee" copies of his work for its library as well as for the principal libraries of each State.
The States of the Arab League agree to include in their educational syllabi, the history, geography and literature of the Arab countries, sufficiently to give a clear idea of the life of those countries and their civilization. They also agree upon the institution of an Arab library for students.
The States of the Arab League will work to acquaint their sons with the social, cultural, economic, and political conditions in an Arab countries, i.e. by means of broadcasts, the stage, cinema, and press, or by any other means, also by the institution of museums for Arab culture and civilization, as well as by assuring its success by holding occasional exhibitions for art and literature, and of public and scholastic festivals in the various Arab countries.
The States of the Arab League shall encourage the establishment of Arab social and cultural clubs in their respective countries.
The States of the Arab League will take all necessary measures to approximate their legislative trends and to unify as far as possible their laws; also to include the study of legislation of other Arab countries in their syllabi.
This Treaty shall be ratified by the signatory States, according to their constitutional regime, with a minimum of delay. The instruments of ratification shall be lodged in the Secretariat-General of the Arab League, which shall prepare a note of the receipt of each document and notify the other contracting States.
Arab countries are permitted to adhere to this Treaty by notifying the Secretary-General of the League, who will communicate the fact to the other contracting States.
This Treaty will come into force one month after the date of the receipt of the instruments of ratification from two States. It shall also come into force for the other States who participate, one month after the date of the deposit of the document of joining from these States.
Any signatory State of this Treaty is allowed to withdraw from it by giving notice to the Secretariat-General of the League. The notice will take effect six months from the date of its dispatch.
Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation
Treaty Between the States of the Arab League
(17 June 1950, 2 February 1951, and 16 February 1952)
THE Governments of:
THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN
THE SYRIAN REPUBLIC
THE KINGDOM OF IRAQ
THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
THE LEBANESE REPUBLIC
THE KINGDOM OF EGYPT
THE MOTAWAKILITE KINGDOM OF YEMEN
In view of the desire of the above-mentioned Governments to consolidate relations between the States of the Arab League; to maintain their independence and their mutual heritage; in accordance with the desire of their peoples, to cooperate for the realization of mutual defense and the maintenance of security and peace according to the principles of both the Arab League Pact and the United Nations Charter, together with the said Pacts; and to consolidate stability and security and provide means of welfare and development in the countries.
The following government delegates of . . ., having been duly accredited and fully authorized by their respective governments, approve the following:
The Contracting States, in an effort to maintain and stabilize peace and security, hereby confirm their desire to settle their international disputes by peaceful means, whether such disputes concern relations among themselves or with other Powers.
The Contracting States consider any (act of) armed aggression made against any one or more of them or their armed forces, to be directed against them all. Therefore, in accordance with the right of self-defense, individually and collectively, they undertake to go without delay to the aid of the State or States against which such an act of aggression is made, and immediately to take, individually and collectively, all steps available, including the use of armed force, to repel the aggression and restore security and peace. In conformity with Article 6 of the Arab League Pact and Article 51 of the United Nations Charter, the Arab League Council and U.N. Security Council shall be notified of such act of aggression and the means and procedure taken to check it.
At the invitation of any one of the signatories of this Treaty the Contracting States shall hold consultations whenever there are reasonable grounds for the belief that the territorial integrity, independence, or security of any one of the parties is threatened. In the event of the threat of war or the existence of an international emergency, the Contracting States shall immediately proceed to unify their plans and defensive measures, as the situation may demand.
The Contracting States, desiring to implement fully the above obligations and effectively carry them out, shall cooperate in consolidating and coordinating their armed forces, and shall participate according to their resources and needs in preparing individual and collective means of defense to repulse the. said armed aggression.
A Permanent Military Commission composed of representatives of the General Staffs of the armies of the Contracting States shall be formed to draw up plans of joint defense and their implementation. The duties of the Permanent Military Commission, which are set forth in, an Annex attached to this Treaty, include the drafting of necessary reports on the method of cooperation and participation mentioned in Article 4. The Permanent Military Commission shall submit to the joint Defense Council, provided hereunder in Article 6, reports dealing with questions within its province.
Joint Defense Council under the supervision of the Arab League Council shall be formed to deal with all matters concerning the implementation of the provisions of Articles 2, 3, 4, and 5 of this Treaty. The Permanent Military Commission referred to in Article 5 shall assist it in the performance of its task. The joint Defense Council shall consist of the Foreign Ministers and the Defense Ministers of the Contracting States or their representatives. Decisions taken by a two-thirds majority shall be binding on all the Contracting States.
The Contracting States, in order to fulfill the aims of this Treaty, and to bring about security and prosperity in the Arab countries, and in an effort to raise the standard of living in them, undertake to cooperate in the development of their economics and the exploitation of their natural resources; to facilitate the exchange of their respective agricultural and industrial products; and generally to organize and coordinate their economic activities and to conclude the necessary inter-Arab agreements to realize such aims.
An Economic Council consisting of the Ministers in charge of economic affairs, or their representatives if necessary, shall be formed by the Contracting States to submit recommendations for the realization of all such aims as are set forth in the previous article. The Council may, in the performance of its duties, seek the cooperation of the Committee for Financial and Economic Affairs referred to in Article 4 of the Arab League Pact.
The Annex to this Treaty shall be considered an integral and indivisible part of it.
The Contracting States undertake to conclude no international agreements, which may be contradictory to the provisions of this Treaty, nor to act, in their international relations, in a way, which may be contrary to the aims of this Treaty.
No provision of this Treaty shall in any way affect, or is intended to affect, any of the rights or obligations devolving upon the Contracting States from the United Nations Charter or the responsibilities borne by the United Nations Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security.
After a lapse of 1 0 years from the date of the ratification of this Treaty, any one of the Contracting States may withdraw from it, providing 12 months' notice is previously given to the Secretariat-General of the Arab League. The Secretariat-General of the League shall inform the other Contracting States of such notice.
This Treaty shall be ratified by each Contracting State according to the constitutional procedure of its own government. The Treaty shall come into force for the ratifying States 15 days after the receipt by the Secretariat-General of the instruments of ratification from at least four States. This Treaty is drafted in Arabic in Cairo on April 13, 1950. One signed copy shall be deposited with the Secretariat-General of the Arab League; equally authentic copies shall be transmitted to each of the Contracting States.
1. The Permanent Military Commission provided for in Article 5 of the joint Defense and Economic Cooperation Treaty between the States of the Arab League, shall undertake the following:
(a) in cooperation with the joint Defense Council, to prepare plans to deal with all anticipated dangers or armed aggression that may be launched against one or more of the Contracting States or their armed forces, such plans to be based on the principles determined by the joint Defense Council;
(b) to submit proposals for the organization of the forces of the Contracting States, stipulating the minimum force for each in accordance with military exigencies and the potentialities of each State;
(c) to submit proposals for increasing the effectiveness of the forces of the Contracting States in so far as their equipment, organization, and training are concerned; so that they may keep pace with modem military methods and development; and for the unification and coordination of all such forces;
(d) to submit proposals for the exploitation of natural, agricultural, industrial, and other resources of all Contracting States in favor of the inter-Arab military effort and joint defense;
(e) to organize the exchange of training missions between the Contracting States for the preparation of plans, participation in military exercises and maneuvers and the study of their results, recommendations for the improvement of methods to ensure close cooperation in the field, and for the general improvement of the forces of all the Contracting States;
(f) to prepare the necessary data on the resources and military potentialities of each of the Contracting States and the part to be played by the forces of each in the joint military effort;
(g) to discuss the facilities and various contributions which each of the Contracting States, in conformity with the provisions of this Treaty, might be asked to provide, during a state of war, on behalf of the armies of such other Contracting States as might be operating on its territory.
2. The Permanent Military Commission may form temporary or permanent subcommittees from among its own members to deal with any of the matters falling within its jurisdiction. It may also seek the advice of any experts whose views on certain questions are deemed necessary.
3. The Permanent Military Commission shall submit detailed reports on the results of its activities and studies to the joint Defense Council provided for in Article 6 of this Treaty, as well as an annual report giving full particulars of its work and studies during the year.
4. The Permanent Military Commission shall establish its headquarters in Cairo but may hold meetings in any other place the Commission may specify. The Commission shall elect its Chairman for two years; he may be reelected. Candidates for the Chairmanship shall hold at least the rank of a high commanding officer. Each member of the Commission must have as his original nationality that of the Contracting State he represents.
5. In the event of war, the supreme command of the joint forces shall be entrusted to the Contracting State possessing the largest military force taking actual part in field operations, unless, by unanimous agreement, the Commander-in-Chief is selected otherwise. A joint Staff shall assist the Commander-in-Chief in directing military operations.
CHRONOLOGY OF ARAB SUMMITS
1- The first Arab summit was in 1946 in Anshas (Egypt) because of the
Increasing Zionist danger in Palestine.
2- Beirut, November, 1956, voicing support to Egypt following the tripartite Aggression (Israel, France and Britain).
3- Cairo, January 1964 to discuss the Israeli projects to transfer the waters of the Jordan's river and its tributaries.
4- Alexandria, September 1964, declaration the foundation of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
5- Casablanca, September 1965 support for the Palestinian people.
6- Al-Khartoum, August, 1967 discussions on the results of the June 1967 war set back and voicing support to the Arab states bordering Israel.
7- Casablanca, December 1969, discussions of financial support for the "Confrontation states (Arab states fighting Israel)/ 8- Cairo, September, 1970 discussions on the fighting between the Jordanian Authorities and the Palestinian resistance.
8- Algiers, November 1973. Discussions on how to monitor the Arab- Israeli conflict after the October war.
9- Al-Rabat, October, 1974 declaration that the PLO is the sole and only representative of the Palestinian people and finding out means to support Inter- Arab economic relations.
10- Cairo, October 1976 discussions on the incidents taking place in Lebanon (The civil war).
11- Baghdad, November 1978 announcing rejection of the Camp David Agreements between Egypt and Israel.
12- Tunisia, November 1979, withstanding results of the peace agreement between Egypt and Israel and suspending Egypt's membership at the Arab league.
13- Amman, November 1980, discussing a strategy of common Arab work strategy.
14- Fez, November 1981 confronting the Israeli aggression against South
15- Fez, September 1982, discussing the Israeli invasion of Lebanon.
16- Rabat, August, 1985 discussing the consequences of the Iraqi- Iranian war.
18- Amman, November 1987 Arab reconciliation summit. The summit provides for returning Egypt back to the Arab ranks.
19- Algiers, June, 1988 the first Palestinian Intifada.
20- Casablanca, May, 1989 unifying Arab ranks and declaration of Egypt's return to the Arab League.
21- Baghdad, may 1990 discussions of the Soviet Jews increased migration to Israel
22- Cairo, August, 1990 the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.
23- Cairo, June 1996 discussing the results of the Israeli right wing in
Israel on the possibilities of peace settlement.
24- Cairo, October 2000 on support to al-Aqsa Intifada Tomader
Secretaries-General of the Arab League
1) Abdul-Razzaq Azzam 1945-52
2) Abdul-Khaleq Hassouna 1952-72
3) Mahmoud Riyadh 1972-79
4) Chedi Klibi 1979-90
DR. AHMAD ESMAT ABDUL-MAGUID 1991—
CURRENT SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES
AMRE M MOUSSA - SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES
1957: graduated. cairo university, ll.b. faculty of law.
1958: joined the ministry of foreign affairs of egypt.
1958-1972 : worked in several departments & egyptian missions including egypt’s u.n mission.
1974 - 1977 : advisor to the minister for foreign affairs of egypt..
1977 - 1981 , 1986-1990 : director, department of international organizations, ministry of foreign affairs of egypt.
1981 - 1983 : alternate permanent representative of egypt to the united nations in new york.
1983 - 1986 : ambassador to india.
1986 - 1990 : director, department of international organizations, ministry of foreign affairs of egypt.
1990 - 1991 : permanent representative of egypt to the united nations, new york.
1991 - 2001 : minister for foreign affairs of egypt.
2001 : secretary general of the league of arab states.
2003 : member of the united nations high -level panel on threats, challenges and change.
* he was awarded the grand cordon of the nile, egypt, and may 2001.
* order of the two niles, first class, sudan 2001.
* he was awarded high decorations from the following states:
ecuador - brazil-argentina-germany.
marital status: married - has a son & a daughter
Khartoum Arab Summit/ September 1,1967
Reasons behind convening the summit:
The defeat of June 5 1967 was so exorbitant and so painful on the Arab World as Israel succeeded within hours in occupying some of the lands Egypt, Syria, Jordan , and all Palestine lands were subjected and controlled by Israel and at that time it was [possible for Israel to reach even to the center of Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad and Beirut as the Arabs at that time were depending on slogans and orations. Moreover, the main Arab states were in state of confrontation and wars . These circumstances have motivated Khartoum to work hard to overstep such situations promptly and so it it proposed the initiative for Arab Kings and Heads of State in Khartoum and Sudanese delegations moved to Egypt, Jeddah, Damascus, Kuwait, Oman, Tunisia, Morocco Algeria, Beirut, Tripoli, Beirut and Baghdad. At that time, the reports of the importance of the initiative and the Sudanese role for an Arab meeting and call for a summit gathering all Arab Kings and Heads of state in Khartoum. The report depended on the fact that the Yemen war would abort any efforts and that if Jamal Abd-Elnasir attended, King Faisel would not come and if any of then did not attend other capital will refrain to come.
Arab Self- Determination and Existence
When all Arab Foreign Ministers meetings were held and no one was absent in August 1967, the situation was changed and masses of reporters and international agencies and press men came to the coverage of the Summit but purposely the came because they were expecting difference and crisis and exchange of accusations among the Arab leaders in the open and closed sessions beside the questions to be raised on the defeat of June 1967 which they considered as reasonable the failure of Khartoum Summit at the ministerial or the summit level .Fortunately, the Sudanese political address was so strong in term wording and contents as it aimed to warn of the real aftermath of the Israeli aggression and the Prime Minister Mohamed Ahmed Mahjoub
Stressed in his speech before the Foreign Ministers that what has happened in June is not only a geographical aggression on an Arab land but it was an aggression on our destiny and presence and that who think s or believes that the colonial Zionist invasion was ended by occupation of Palestine and neighboring Arab land is wrong as this step is only the start for anew colonial invasion targeting the human before the land, history before the geography and the presence from the roots. He called for the unity of the Arab stance and the joint Arab work regardless to the system of rule and the necessity of peaceful coexistence among the different Arab systems as the result of any military, economic or political defeat would not effect one system only as the victory would not be confined to one system only but for the whole nation. Contrary to the expectations of the foreign press, the negotiations of the Foreign Ministers were Characterized by objectivity and the recommendations stressed on the absolute unity for the Arab work, purification of atmospheres and to bear the responsibility to confront the Israeli aggression, to restore the occupied Arab lands a, to give the due concern to the Palestinian question and to utilize the Arab resources and economic potentialities as a weapon in the coming battle.
Political Mobilization and Financial Support for Arab Resistance
After the success of the Foreign Ministers Conference, Khartoum carried out intensive contacts with Arab Kings and head of states and in particular with Egypt, Jeddah, Kuwait, Oman, Algeria, Baghdad, Tripoli and the delegations delivered messages to the Arab capitals. The Arab Summit was convened on Aug.29 1967 at the premises of the old parliament in Khartoum and was attended by all Arab leaders except the Syrian president Nur Eddin Alatasi as Al-Baath Party has agreed the participation at the ministerial level rather than the summit and the Algerian president Huwari Bomedian who has just returned from a visit to Moscow. State Minister for Presidency Affairs Al-Bahi Al-Adgham represented Tunisia. President Ismael Al-Azhari, Speaker of the Supreme Council of State, said that the latest Arab defeat has strengthened the Arab will, unified the target for the victory, God willing. The deliberations were so fruitful and objective and in less than 20 minutes the Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Libya contributed by135 million GBP every three months to rebuild the Armed Forces in Egypt and Jordan, 95 million GBP for Egypt and 40 for Jordan. Sudan has succeeded to amend the recommendation of Arab Ministers of Petrol and Finance calling for “cutting” of oil supplies to the west to be directed for the benefit of Arab resistance. There were some trends for peaceful settlement with Israel but the majority called to restore the occupied land first and they adopted the Resolution of the three No( No reconciliation, no recognition and no negotiation with Israel) During Khartoum Summit reconciliation achieved between President Jamal Abd Alnasir and King Faisel Bin Abd Alaziz(Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) and withdrawal of Yemeni Forces and achievement of Yemni National reconciliation and Sudan has pledged to achieve these steps and has succeeded in that mission
Who was behind Success of Khartoum Summit?
All international agencies have recognized the success of the Summit and the solidarity and unity of the Arab leaders to confront the Israeli aggression and to provide the financial support to pump the Arab oil, to solve the Yemeni problem and to withdraw the fighting Arab forces. The Summit proved after two months of the defeat are now very strong. They appreciated the role of Sudan and for the good preparations in all axes of the Summit and the hosting of (400) journalists. They also praised the abilities of President Ismael Al-Azhari in managing the closed sessions and Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Mohamed Ahmed Mahout in determining points of agreement and the Minister of Finance Al-Sheriff Hussein Al-Hindi for succeeding to change the resolution of cutting oil to pumping oil. But in fact the main factor behind the success of the Summit is the awareness of Sudanese people who supported the Summit and the Arab issues.
Khartoum Arab Summit Resolutions; September 1, 1967
In September 1, 1967, the Sudanese Capital of Khartoum hosted the 6th summit of the League of Arab States, known as al-Khartoum Conference. The conference came out with the following resolutions:
1. The conference has affirmed the unity of Arab ranks, the unity of joint action and the need for coordination and for the elimination of all differences. The Kings, Presidents and representatives of the other Arab Heads of State at the conference have affirmed their countries' stand by and implementation of the Arab Solidarity Charter, which was signed at the third Arab summit conference in Casablanca.
2. The conference has agreed on the need to consolidate all efforts to eliminate the effects of the aggression on the basis that the occupied lands are Arab lands and that the burden of regaining these lands falls on all the Arab States.
3. The Arab Heads of State have agreed to unite their political efforts at the international and diplomatic level to eliminate the effects of the aggression and to ensure the withdrawal of the aggressive Israeli forces from the Arab lands which have been occupied since the aggression of June 5. This will be done within the framework of the main principles by which the Arab States abide, namely, no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiations with it, and insistence on the rights of the Palestinian people in their own country.
4. The conference of Arab Ministers of Finance, Economy and Oil recommended that suspension of oil pumping be used as a weapon in the battle. However, after thoroughly studying the matter, the summit conference has come to the conclusion that the oil pumping can itself be used as a positive weapon, since oil is an Arab resource which can be used to strengthen the economy of the Arab States directly affected by the aggression, so that these States will be able to stand firm in the battle. The conference has, therefore, decided to resume the pumping of oil, since oil is a positive Arab resource that can be used in the service of Arab goals. It can contribute to the efforts to enable those Arab States, which were exposed to the aggression and thereby lost economic resources to stand firm and eliminate the effects of the aggression. The oil-producing States have, in fact, participated in the efforts to enable the States affected by the aggression to stand firm in the face of any economic pressure.
5. The participants in the conference have approved the plan proposed by Kuwait to set up an Arab Economic and Social Development Fund on the basis of the recommendation of the Baghdad conference of Arab Ministers of Finance, Economy and Oil.
6. The participants have agreed on the need to adopt the necessary measures to strengthen military preparation to face all eventualities.
7. The conference has decided to expedite the elimination of foreign bases in the Arab States.
Joint Arab Companies
The Arab League has posed a number of joint Arab companies distributed among some Arab states to establish big projects or to contribute in the existing ones and to be based on modern technological and economic patterns to meet the needs of Arab market.
The projects established by the Arab Economic Unity Council are considered as the most remarkable achievements of the Council. The Council has established the following Arab holding Companies: -
1/ Arab Mining Company based in Oman-Jordan
2/ Arab Company for Development of Animal Wealth Damascus- Syria
3/ Arab Company for Industrial Development-Baghdad.
The Arab Economic Unity Council in its 73 session 2001, agreed to establish Arab Company for Trade and Marketing and Arab Company for Electronic Trade.
The Arab Bank for Development in Africa (BADEA)
The Bank is a financial institution funded by the Governments of the Member States of the League of Arab States, which signed the Establishing Agreement (18th. February, 1974). The Bank is an independent international institution enjoying full international legal status and complete autonomy in administrative and financial matters. The provisions of its Establishing Agreement and the principles of international law govern it.
The Bank was created for the purpose of strengthening economic, financial and technical cooperation between Arab and African countries, to make Arab-African solidarity a concrete reality and to base this co-operative venture on foundations of friendship and equality. To this end, the Bank was given a mandate to:
Assist in financing economic development in non-Arab African countries.
Stimulate the contribution of Arab capital to African development.
Help provide the technical assistance required for the development of Africa.
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
State of the United Arab Emirates
Kingdom of Bahrain
Republic of Tunisia
People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Republic of Sudan
Arab Republic of Syria
Republic of Iraq
Sultanate of Oman
State of Qatar
State of Kuwait
Republic of Lebanon
Great Arab Libyan People’s Socialist Jamahiriya
Arab Republic of Egypt
Kingdom of Morocco
Islamic Republic of Mauritania
State of Palestine
Financing Activity During 1975-2004
The Bank financing covered different sectors as follow; _
1/ Infra structure projects such as roads, air ports, railways, river and air transport, dams, bridges, communications, water supply, health sanitary, and public utilities as such sectors are vital ones and the basic core to push forwards the process of socio- economic development. The total amount allocated for this sector reached 1084.304 million dollars representing about 51.93% of the Bank net financing of this sector.
2/ Rural Development and Agriculture Sector: The total allocations for this sector amounted to 584.106 representing 27.97 of all commitments.
3/ Energy Sector: - The allocations for this sector amounted to 138.99million dollars representing nearly6.66%.
4/ Social Sector: - The contributions of the Bank in financing the social projects during this period amounted to 89.45 million dollars allocated for financing
24 projects in health, education project and the beneficiaries estimated at 4.55 millions. Moreover, the Bank supports the private sector and assist in reducing debts burden, alleviating poverty and unemployment rate, supporting participation of woman in development, extending technical aid as feasibility study, institutional support, enhancement and encouragement of African and Arab produced goods and encouragement of contribution of Arab capitals in investment.
ARAB ORGANIZATION FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT (AOAD)
ESTABLISHMENT AND FUNCTION
The Council of the League of Arab States approved the agreement establishing the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development (AOAD) on March 11, 1970, and operations began in 1972.
The Organization aims at achieving the following objectives: (1) developing natural and human resources in the agricultural sector, and improving the means and methods of exploiting these resources on scientific bases; (2) increasing agricultural productive efficiency and achieving agricultural integration between the Arab States and countries; (3) increasing agricultural production with a view to achieving a higher degree of self-sufficiency; (4) facilitating the exchange of agricultural products between the Arab States and countries; (5) enhancing the establishment of agricultural ventures and industries; (6) increasing the standards of living of the labor force engaged in the agricultural sector.
The Organization comprises all 21 Arab League members: Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Republic of Yemen. Membership is open to all Arab States and countries.
Arab League Educational Institutions in Sudan
KHARTOUM INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR ARABIC LANGUAGE
The Idea of establishing the institute emerged from the challenges the Government of Sudan had faced in teaching the Arabic Language for the citizens of the areas where local languages predominate (Inter-lingual zones).
The Government of Sudan initiated the idea for the Arab League Education, Culture and Science Organization (ALESCO) in 1972. The organization adopted the idea, but decided to expanded, therefore the institute was established to be a branch for it in teaching the Arabic language outside the Arab world, particularly in the Islamic countries where there is a growing desire for learning Arabic language together with the need for the competent and well-trained rabid language teacher.
The International Institute for Arabic Language was established in 1974 in accordance with an agreement between ALESCON and Sudan Government. Khartoum has been selected to be the base for the institute as a specialized scientific and technical institution that prepares competent Arabic language teachers. At first the institute was known as “Khartoum Institute for Non-Arabic Language Speakers”. It remained so till 1977 when it was renamed to be Khartoum International Institute for Arabic Language. The institute started actual activity on 4/10/1974.
The core objective of the institute is to prepare specialists in Arabic language from non-Arabic language speakers and setup and develop the necessary syllabuses and book for that. The objective then is to graduate competent graduates in: -
• Writing books, setting up syllabuses, and designing gradual level texts.
• Employing the different methodologies in teaching the Arabic language for non-Arabic language speakers.
This core objective was accompanied by different scientific activities that are represented in the following: -
Conducting scientific researches and studies.
Providing relevant educational and cultural services.
Deriving scientific means for writing non-Arabic languages in the Arabic letter (Arabic alphabets).
Issuing bilingual and monolingual dictionaries.
The institute awards the following scientific degrees: -
1. Master in Teaching Arabic Language for Non-Arabic Speakers.
2. High Diploma in Teaching Arabic Language for Non-Arabic Speakers.
3. Bachelor degree in Teaching Arabic Language for Non-Arabic Speakers.
Department for dissemination of Arabic language and Islamic Culture abroad:
Arabic language is a language of faith and a civilization. It is bottle pot of the Islamic religion. It was the contrivance of scientific thought at the most prominent eras of human renaissance and above all lese, is the language of diverse fertile culture and creative human arts which merged the different cultures of the Islamic peoples to form an international Islamic culture that its language is Arabic.
The organization, and since it s establishment, has been concerned with disseminating the Arabic language and Islamic culture via a specific strategy, based on the following major axis:
1) A spiritual axis to disseminate the Arabic language among the non-Arab Muslims to enable them makes access to the basic sources of their culture and religion.
2) A civilization axis to disseminate the Arabic language, enhance its position among world languages and at the regional and international forums, and reflect its capacity to absorb the scientific discoveries and technological applications together with its ability to lay down the bases of languages and cultures dialogue among the people of the world.
3) A national axis to disseminate the Arabic language, support the efforts of Arabicization in the Arab States of special conditions, and link the Arab citizens and their sons abroad with their culture and civilization.
Accordingly, the work fields were set according to the following priorities:
a. Disseminating the Arabic language and Islamic culture in the African and Asian countries of high Muslim population.
b. Disseminating the Arabic language and the Arab Islamic culture in the countries where there are Arab Islamic communities and Muslim minorities.
c. Disseminating the Arabic language and informing with the Arab Islamic culture at other parts of the world.
The organization was also concerned with establishing the organs and institutions for implementing those strategies, whereas it established Khartoum International Institute for Arabic Language to prepare and qualify competent teacher of Arabic language for non-Arabic language speakers.
In 1981, the International Organ for Developing the Arabic Language and Culture Abroad was established. The organ was entrusted with implementing those strategies.
The establishment of the Arabic Language Development Fund to provide funds for the Arabic language dissemination projects abroad followed that.
International University of Africa
Establishment and development: -
Sudan, by virtue of its geographical location and cultural history, has kept on receiving huge numbers of students from neighboring African countries.
In 1968, a group of scholars established the African Islamic Institute with a people’s effort. The institute started to receive African students at the secondary and high secondary school levels. However, this project stopped after two years only, and then the government revived it again, but in a broader base. Consequently, the government invited a number of Arab States to contribute to the project. Immediately, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Libya responded and then joined later by Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Morocco.
These states nominated their representatives to the center’s Board of Trustees and set up a statute that the Government of Sudan endorsed with a law approved by the founding states.
The government then allotted a piece of land on which to establish the center.
The construction of the center started in 1977 and was completed in 1986.
Since its establishment, hundreds of students graduated at the center and its base was expanded to assimilate students from over forty countries.
Then two university colleges were established within the center after which the cultural and social activities of the center emerged.
However, in 1411 Hijri, the Government of Sudan decided to promote the African Islamic Center to a university level to be the International University of Africa.
The newly established university included many scientific and applied colleges along with postgraduate studies and a greater number of students from many African countries.
The university also maintained good external relations with many regional and international educational institutions.
The newly established colleges and institutes within the university include the faculty of pure and applied sciences, the faculty of computer sciences, the faculty of medicines and public Health, faculty of economics and political and administrative studies, the African research and studies center, the African Islamic Center, Da’wa and community development center, institute of disaster and refugees, Dean Faculty of post-graduation studies, and female student center.
International University of Africa- the Islamic Center Far distance education
The African Islamic Center is working to expand the base of far distance education through awarding the International High School Certificate and open as much centers abroad as possible. Consequently, it is working to open a center for the international high school certificate at the Islamic Da’wa Institute at Nianj Province in Malaysia. It is also working to open a center in South Africa.
The center also works to
Dr. Ismail says coming Arab Summit incarnates Sudanese Afro-Arab identity
The Presidential Advisor, Dr. Mustafa Osman Isamil, said that Sudan's hosting to the coming Arab Summit in March, after convocation of the recent African Summit, comes as incarnation of the Sudanese Afro-Arab identity. Dr. Ismail said Sudan hosting to the Arab Summit reflects its Arab identity, which is not contradictory with its African affiliation. He explained that Sudan has contributed remarkably to the joint Arab work since it’s joining to Arab League's membership following its independence half century ago. Dr. Ismail said that Sudan's distinguished contribution to the joint Arab work was affirmed remarkably when Khartoum hosted the Arab Summit in 1967, which known as the summit of Three NOs, adding that this summit has remedied the hurts that resulted from the defeat of the Arabs in June War, restored to the Arab their self-confidence, removed the differences among Arab leaders, declared the continuity of the resistance and steadfastness by the front states and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The Presidential Advisor pointed out that Sudan's contribution at the Arab level remained in rapid progress during the War of Attrition and culminated after October War, which has bolstered the institutional Afro-Arab cooperation, through Khartoum's hosting to successful Afro-Arab cooperation institutions, which remained existing till now, such as the Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (BADEA),
Presidential Advisor Dr. Mustafa Osman Ismail has affirmed that the coming Arab Summit in Khartoum would avail an opportunity to the Arab leaders to get acquainted with what they can contribute to the rehabilitation process in Sudan following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) Dr. Ismail explained that the Arab Summit comes as Sudan is passing the post-war stage after the signing of the CPA, referring to the contribution of some Arab states and the Arab League itself to the peace process. He added that Sudan plays key roles in the issues of food security and Arab-African Cooperation, explaining that Sudan could contribute through the summit or various other Arab forums to this respect. Regarding food security, Dr. Ismail pointed out that Sudan could affirm to its Arab brothers that it has vast arable land of more than 200 million feddans with available Nile and rain waters is ready for maximum level of cooperation with them to utilize this land for the interest of Arab and African peoples. He added that Sudan also possesses more than 150 million heads of livestock that constitute along with the agricultural capabilities the guarantee for the food security of the Arab and African worlds. Dr. Ismail underscored importance of activation and strengthening of the Arab -African cooperation, adding that it would be one of the issues of the summit agenda. He pointed that Sudan has an integrated vision on the reactivation of the Arab- African Cooperation and boosting its institutions that will be presented to the summit, pointing out that Sudan may consider the possibility of calling for convening an Arab-African summit to discuss the issue. It is worth mentioning that the only and last Arab- African Summit was held in Cairo in 1977.
Former Arab League official, Mahadi Mustafa Al-Hadi asserts the significance of the Arab Summit in Khartoum
Speaking to SUNA on the occasion of the convening the Arab Summit, former Secretary General Assistant of the Arab League for Social Affairs, former Sudanese Ambassador, Mahadi Mustafa Al-Hadi, he asserted the significance of the Arab World as a region bestowed with huge potentialities, as it is the depository of the energy resources where the some recent discoveries in the field of oil were mostly found in the region including the Sudan, a country with large oil wealth. The region also enjoys large human resource, it is the meeting point of continents and civilizations, and it is the birthplace of the Heaven Messages. All these merits give the region an opportunity of planning for comprehensive developmental and renaissance move.
The forthcoming summit should be concerned firstly with the diffusion of conflicts and disputes allover the entire region, and with the elimination of factors of dissension in the region and enforcing its stability and blocking the road for foreign intervention. The summit there fore is meant with concrete actions of cementing of unity and solidarity in the Arab nation.
Equally important is the question of Arab African cooperation and how to revitalize this cooperation for the interest of both parties. The elements of enhancement are already a decades long experience of collaboration both in the political and economic fields. The Afro Arab solidarity action was vital during the liberation movement in Africa and the Arab Bank for Economic Development in African was a manifestation of the joint cooperation. The Arab intellectuals still have a prominent role to play in advocating for nurturing and leading the process.
Sudan has and still is an effective player in both regions in support. It has extended real material and moral support providing money and weapons to African liberation movement. Equally it is staunch ally to the Palestinian and Arab cause. The convening of the most famous “Three Nos” Arab Summit in 1976 was a milestone in this regard.
The Sudan is envisaged to continue the same vital role of enhancing the Arab/African common interests.
FORMER AMBASSADOR, BASHIR AL-BAKRI CALLS FOR RENEWED ROLE OF THE ARAB LEAGUE
In an interview with SUNA on the occasion of convening the Arab Summit in Khartoum next month, Ambassador Bakri, has recalled the famous Arab Summit held Khartoum following the Arab Israeli war of 1967, which achieved reconciliation of Arab leaders unified Arab ranks and recharged joint Arab action.
The new thing this time is that the Sudan is approaching the forthcoming summit with a new message for strengthening the Afro-Arab close ties.
Bakri recalled the establishment of the Arab League built on political grounds while Europe started with the economy and therefore the Arab nation needs a new perspective, reformation and a new message and has to promote its relations with the United Nations to be enabled to play the anticipated role in the World issues.
The Arab League needs to reform its structure and pay due attention to education, learning and sciences as prerequisites for development of Arab countries. The forthcoming summit is to be convened amid new realities. The main focus should be given to the following areas:
• To transfer Afro-Arab cooperation from the stages of words to the levels of actions
• To concentrate on agriculture and food security
• To strengthen the Arab will to realize accord
• To enhance the application of specific political, security and educational policies with stress on university education and scientific research
• To agree on common and clear cut plans of action and strategies