P. O. Box 3243, Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA Tel.: (251-) 513822 Fax: (251-1) 519321
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PEACE AND SECURITY COUNCIL
20 OCTOBER 2005
ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA
BRIEFING NOTE ON THE RENEWAL OF THE MANDATE
OF THE AU MISSION IN THE SUDAN (AMIS)
BRIEFING NOTE ON THE RENEWAL OF THE MANDATE OF
THE AU MISSION IN THE SUDAN (AMIS)
1. Council will recall that, under the auspices of President Idriss Deby of Chad and the Chairperson of the Commission, and in the presence of international observers and facilitators, the Sudanese parties signed, on 8 April 2004, a Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement (HCFA) on the Darfur Conflict and a Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance in Darfur.
2. Under the HCFA, the parties agreed, among other things, to:
- cease hostilities and proclaim a ceasefire;
- establish a Ceasefire Commission (CFC), which will report to a Joint Commission;
- facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance to Darfur; and
- combine their efforts in order to establish a global and definitive peace in Darfur.
3. An AU-led reconnaissance mission, including all partners, was sent to Darfur from 7 to 16 May 2004, and recommendations were made to establish the Ceasefire Commission, and to dispatch monitors and protection elements to protect the Observers.
4. On 28 May 2004, the Sudanese parties signed an Agreement on the Modalities for the Establishment of the Ceasefire Commission and the Deployment of Military Observers in the Darfur Region. In accordance with this Agreement, a decision was taken to deploy 60 African Military Observers (MILOBs) and 300 MILOB protectors, as well as observers from the Sudanese parties. It was also agreed that some representatives of the international community, namely the European Union and United States, would participate in the mission.
5. On 9 June 2004, the CFC and the first group of MILOBs were put in place in El Fasher. In the meantime, the security and humanitarian situation in Darfur continued to deteriorate, and it soon became clear that the 60 AU observers were both too few and too thinly spread to effectively carry out their mandate in the context of a growing number of ceasefire violations. The decision of the 3rd Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the AU, held in Addis Ababa from 6 to 8 July 2004, to increase the number of the AU MILOBs to a minimum of 80 did not improve the situation.
6. The effectiveness of the initial AMIS deployment was constrained by its small size and by logistical challenges. The small number of MILOBs, regardless of their efficiency and dedication, were unable to provide meaningful monitoring coverage for an area roughly the size of France, and particularly in a situation where the parties have not complied with the provisions of the HCFA they had signed. The Government of the Sudan (GoS), the armed Movements and the international community had indicated that AMIS I was not always able to carry out its tasks in a timely and efficient manner, due to its limited capacity. Due to these factors, the general consensus was that AMIS I should be strengthened.
7. It is in recognition of this situation that the 13th meeting of the Peace and Security Council (PSC), held on 27 July 2004, requested the Chairperson of the Commission to submit, for consideration, a comprehensive plan on how best to enhance the effectiveness of the AU Mission on the ground, including the possibility of transforming it into a full-fledged peacekeeping mission, with the requisite mandate and strengthen, in order to ensure the effective implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement, with particular emphasis on the disarmament and the neutralization of the Janjaweed militia, the protection of the civilian population, and the facilitation of the delivery of humanitarian assistance.
8. The plan was subsequently formulated by the Commission with the assistance of the UN and other partners. This plan, AMIS II, which proposed the transformation of the nature, scope and composition of the Mission and called for the enhancement of both the mandate and the strength of the military observers and the protection force, was approved by the PSC, at its 17th meeting held on 20 October 2004. The PSC decided “that AMIS shall consist of 3,320 personnel, including 2,341 military personnel, among them 450 observers, up to 815 civilian police personnel, as well as the appropriate civilian personnel. The enhanced Mission should be headed by a Special Representative of the Chairperson of the Commission (SRCC), who shall ensure the overall direction and coordination of the activities of the Mission and shall maintain close contact with the Sudanese parties, as well as the UN and all other concerned actors”.
9. AMIS II was deployed for a period of one year and was mandated to:
- monitor and observe compliance with the HCFA of 8 April 2004 and all such agreements in the future;
- assist in the process of building confidence;
- contribute to a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian relief and, beyond that, the return of IDPs and refugees to their homes, in order to assist in increasing the level of compliance of all parties with the HCFA and to contribute to the improvement of the security situation throughout Darfur.
10. It should be emphasized that one of the tasks entrusted to AMIS by the PSC is “to protect civilians who it encounters under imminent threat and in the immediate vicinity, within resources and capability, it being understood that the protection of the civilian population is the responsibility of the Government of the Sudan”.
11. The overall aim of AMIS is to assist the parties to reach a political settlement in Darfur and to contribute to a stable, peaceful and united Sudan. The strategic end-state foresees the restoration of a secure situation throughout Darfur, thereby providing a safe environment for the return of IDPs and refugees.
12. The concept of operations of AMIS II envisaged the military component establishing eight sectors and eight Military Observer Groups (MOG) sites. The eight sectors are El Fasher, Nyala, El Geneina, Kabkabiya, Tine, Kutum, Zahliguei, and Al Daien.
13. The concept of operations also provided for a police component to assist and monitor the GoS police and to build confidence among the civilian population, particularly the IDPs and returnees.
14. In order to implement the PSC decision to enhance AMIS within the agreed timeframe, a special unit called the Darfur Integrated Task Force (DITF) was established within the Peace and Security Department (PSD) to assist with planning, force generation, procurement of logistics and administrative support, and to liaise with partners to mobilize resources. The partners also contribute technical expertise in support of DITF and the Mission on the ground.
15. The decision of the PSC of 20 October 2004 to expand AMIS further requested the Commission to report regularly and to make further proposals on enhancing the effectiveness of the Mission. In this regard, an AU-led Assessment Mission was conducted from 10 to 22 March 2005 with the participation of some AU partners (UN, EU, US).
16. The assessment mission concluded that AMIS should be strengthened initially in two phases. The aim of the first phase, which was to have been substantially completed by end May 2005, required AMIS II to reach full operational effectiveness within its existing authorized strength of 3,320. Achieving this aim required the full deployment of military, police and other civilian personnel; putting in place the remaining logistics and administrative support; and enhancing structures for organization, management, command and control. The second phase would expand AMIS II to a total of 6,171 military personnel (as recommended by the Military Staff Committee – MSC) and 1,560 civilian police personnel.
17. In light of the above, the PSC, at its 28th meeting held on 28 April 2005, adopted a decision which, among others: “endorsed the Conclusions [MSC/EXP/Con.(III)] of the 3rd Meeting of the Military Staff Committee held on 25 April 2005, and the recommendations on the enhancement of AMIS contained in the Report of the Chairperson of the Commission, as reviewed by the MSC, including the steps to be taken for AMIS to promote a more secure environment and confidence-building measures, as well as protect civilians and humanitarian operations. Council consequently requested the Commission to review the concept of operation of the AMIS civilian police component to enable it perform its tasks, as appropriate, in areas where there is no GoS police presence. Council further decided that AMIS strength be increased to a total of 6,171 military personnel, with an appropriate civilian component, including up to 1,560 civilian police personnel, by the end of September 2005”.
18. Since the above decision was adopted, the Commission has worked tirelessly for the enhancement of AMIS, not only in terms of military and civilian police components, but also in terms of logistic requirements. Despite the logistical problems encountered on the field, particularly regarding aviation fuel, the deployment has proceeded smoothly. As of today, the status of the deployment is as follows:
- Nigeria: 3 battalions of 680 = 2,040;
- Rwanda: 3 battalions (1 of 680 and 2 of 538) = 1,756;
- Senegal: 1 battalion = 538;
- The Gambia: 1 company = 196;
- Chad: 1 section in Abeche = 40;
- Kenya: 1 military police section = 60 (35 deployed);
- South Africa: 285 Military personnel representing one Company of 241, one Light Engineer Section of 38 and EOD section of 6 Military.
19. To complete the deployment plan as provided for in the concept of operations, the Republic of South Africa has been requested to raise its contribution to the following level:
- a battalion of 538 Military personnel,
- a Reserved Company of 120,
- a Light Engineer Company of 100, and
- an EOD Team of 10.
20. In addition to the protection force, a further 686 MILOBs, generated from 25 African countries, from the Sudanese parties and from some partners, have been deployed into Darfur.
21. Regarding the civilian police component, 1176 personnel, out of the 1560 provided for in the concept of operations, have been deployed in Darfur.
22. It is the intention of the Chairperson to present a full report on the situation in Darfur which would cover the political, security, humanitarian, logistical, financial and other aspects, to enable the Council to have an in-depth discussion and decide on the way forward. For the time being, it is recommended that Council extend the AMIS mandate for a period of two (2) months from 20 October to 19 December 2005.