The U.S.-backed resolution limits arms sales to the Sudanese government and imposes an asset freeze and travel ban on those who defy peace efforts in the conflict-wracked area.
It passed 12-0 Tuesday, with Algeria, Russia and China abstaining because of opposition to sanctions.
"We find it counterproductive to introduce tight restrictions against the government of Sudan which will affect its capabilities in ensuring the security of the civilian population in Darfur, sustaining order in the conflict zone, disarming nongovernment forces and detaining those who violate international humanitarian law," the Russian Foreign Ministry said.
Russia has been a traditional arms supplier to Sudan.
The two-year rebellion in Sudan's vast western region of Darfur and the government's counterinsurgency effort, largely targeting civilians, has left about 180,000 dead and about 2 million people displaced, according to the United Nations.