Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA P.O. Box: 3243 Tel: (251-1) 51 38 22 Fax: (251-1) 51 93 21
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES FOR THE RESOLUTION
OF THE SUDANESE CONFLICT IN DARFUR
1. We, the Government of the Sudan (hereinafter the GoS), the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), henceforth referred to as the Parties, meeting in Abuja, Nigeria, under the auspices of the African Union (AU), as part of the efforts to find a lasting solution to the conflict in Darfur;
2. Reiterating our commitment to our previous agreements, namely the Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement signed in N’djamena, Chad, on 8 April 2004 the Agreement on the Modalities for the Establishment of the Ceasefire Commission (CFC) and the Deployment of Observers signed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 28 May 2004, as well as the Protocols on the Improvement of the Humanitarian Situation in Darfur and on the Enhancement of the Security Situation in Darfur, both signed in Abuja, Nigeria, on 9 November 2004;
3. Reaffirming our commitment to the full implementation of relevant UN Security Council resolutions and African Union decisions stressing the need to reach a political solution in order to bring the conflict in Darfur to an end;
4. Convinced that the core of the current conflict in Darfur is political and socio-economic which can only be resolved through peaceful means and within the framework of a comprehensive settlement that addresses its various causes and aspects;
5. Stressing our commitment to respect international humanitarian law and promote and protect human rights, including the rights of women and children, as part of the efforts to address the prevailing situation in Darfur;
6. Recognizing that faith, traditional values and customs as well as family as the natural and basic nucleus of society, play a positive role;
7. Reaffirming our commitment to the unity, sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of the Sudan;
8. Recognizing that the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Government of the Sudan (GoS) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), on 9 January 2005, constitutes a significant step towards finding a just, peaceful and lasting solution to the conflict in the Sudan.
Agree that the following principles shall guide our future deliberations and constitute the basis for a just, comprehensive and durable settlement of the conflict in Darfur:
1. Respect for the diversity of the people of the Sudan is of paramount importance, as are the full recognition and accommodation of the multi-ethnic, multi-religious, as well as the development of multi-cultural character of the society. The territorial integrity and unity of the Sudan historically agreed to by the free will of its people will be enhanced by the recognition and accommodation of such diversity.
2. Democracy, political pluralism, freedom a vibrant and dynamic civil society, the rule of law, the independence of the judiciary, the freedom of the media, accountability and transparency, with justice and equality for all, regardless of ethnicity, religion and gender, are a basis for the effective participation of all Sudanese citizens in the management of their own affairs and decision-making processes at all levels of governance.
3. Citizenship is the basis for civil and political rights and duties, including the freedom of expression and association for all Sudanese. No Sudanese shall be discriminated against on the basis of religion, belief, ethnicity, gender or for any other reason. This shall be incorporated into the National Constitution.
4. A federal system of government, with an effective devolution of powers and a clear distribution of responsibilities between the national and other levels of governance, is considered essential for ensuring effective local participation and fair administration of Sudan in general and Darfur in particular. In this context, issues relating to the Native Administration should be addressed.
5. Effective representation in all government institutions at the national level, including the Legislative, Judicial and Executive branches, as well as economic and cultural institutions shall be ensured for effective participation by the citizens of the Sudan, including those from Darfur.
6. National wealth shall be distributed equitably. This is essential to ensure the effectiveness of the devolution of power in Darfur, within the framework of a federal system of government, and to ensure that due consideration is given to the socio-economic needs of Darfur.
7. Power sharing and wealth sharing shall be addressed in accordance with a fair criteria to be agreed by the Parties.
8. Humanitarian assistance will be provided on the basis of humanitarian principles including those enshrined in International Humanitarian Law, UN norms and standards.
9. Refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) have an inalienable right to return to their places of origin in accordance with International Law and UN norms and standards. To this end, the Parties to the conflict and the international community shall take concrete measures to create a conducive environment to provide the necessary assistance to IDPs and Refugees.
10. Rehabilitation and reconstruction of Darfur is a priority; to that end, steps shall be taken to compensate the people of Darfur and address grievances for lives lost, assets destroyed or stolen, and suffering caused.
11. The promotion of reconciliation, the restoration of the traditional and time honored peaceful coexistence among the communities of Darfur, based on the principle of mutual respect, and the commitment to prevent future divisions are essential to restore and sustain lasting peace and stability in Darfur.
12. Aiming at sustainable development, environmental degradation, water resources and land use shall be addressed. Tribal Land ownership rights (hawakeer) and other historical rights shall be affirmed within their historical borders. Traditional mechanisms in Darfur will be considered consistent with the provisions of the National Constitution.
13. Broad security arrangements to consolidate the restoration of peace shall be addressed in the context of a Comprehensive Agreement.
14. Agreements reached by the Parties shall be presented to the people of Darfur to secure their support through Darfur – Darfur dialogue and consultation.
15. The guarantee of the AU and assistance of the international community shall be sought to ensure the implementation of Agreements reached for the resolution of the conflict in Darfur.
16. All Agreements reached by the Parties shall be incorporated into the National Constitution.
17. The Parties commit themselves to undertake negotiations to end the conflict in Darfur in good faith.
Abuja, 5 July 2005
For the Government of the Sudan
Mohamed Yousif Abdallah
State Minister for Humanitarian Affairs
For the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army For the Justice and Equality Movement
Khamis Abdallah Abakar Ahmed Mohamed Tugod Lissan
Vice-President Head of Delegation
The AU Special Envoy for the
Peace Talks on Darfur on behalf of the Mediation
Dr. Salim Ahmed Salim