Articles and Analysies Appeal to inhabitants of Southern Sudan from a European: BY: Alex Dobrovolsky, UKRAINE
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Dec 28, 2009 - 1:17:22 PM
Appeal to inhabitants of Southern Sudan from a European:
Renaming of Southern Sudan into Nilotia or Nilotland is a prerequisite for the real independence, liberty, successful development, and prosperity of your country!
BY: Alex Dobrovolsky, UKRAINE
First of all, the inhabitants of Southern Sudan should break any spiritual liaison with Arabic Sudan and with all Arabic World and separate from Arabic Sudan and from all Arabic World psychologically. And for this it is necessary to get rid of the word “Sudan” in the name of their country.
The Holy Bible gives several examples when people began the new life and changed their names.
God established the covenant with Abram and renamed him into Abraham (Genesis, 17: 1—10).
God renamed Jacob into Israel (Genesis, 32: 24—32).
Jesus Christ called Simon to the ministry as one of the twelve apostles and renamed him into Peter and Cephas (Luke, —16 and John, —42). The words “Peter” and “Cephas” mean “a rock”.
In the history of humanity there were many cases of renaming the nations and the states. Between 1950 and 1990 there were at least 14 cases of renaming the states! Of these 12 took place in Africa, one in Central America and one in the remote islands of Oceania. In most cases the state received the new name at the moment when it attained independence.
Two the most successful renaming in Africa are renaming of Northern Rhodesia into Zambia and renaming of South-West Africa into Namibia.
Between 1889 and 1905 the lands of present Zambia and Zimbabwe went under the rule of the British South Africa Company (BSAC). In 1911 the administration of the BSAC divided the mentioned territory into two administrative units: Northern Rhodesia to the north from river Zambezi and Southern Rhodesia to the south from Zambezi. In 1964 Northern Rhodesia became an independent state and received the new name Zambia in accordance with the name of river Zambezi. The causes for renaming were as following.
Firstly, people in all the world at large used to confuse Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Secondly, the name “Northern Rhodesia” is not convenient to use in conversation and in the printed text. Think, how awkwardly the next phrase sounds: “in northern part of Northern Rhodesia” compared with “in northern Zambia”.
It is quite obvious that people in all the world at large often used to confuse Southern Sudan with Northern Sudan. And it is quite obvious that the name “Southern Sudan” is not convenient for usage in talks and in the printed text.
Let us agree that phrase “in the city Raga in the western part of Southern Sudan” is heard verbose. And how short and clear is the phrase “in the city Raga in western Nilotia”.
Between 1883 and 1890 South-West Africa went under the power of Germany. Later on, in 1914—1915 (juridically in 1920) South-West Africa went under the power of South Africa. Between 1960 and 1970 South-West Africa received the name Namibia as the second name in accordance with the name of desert Namib in the littoral part of the country. In 1990 South-West Africa became an independent state with new name Namibia. The causes for renaming were as following.
In the first place, the inhabitants of South-West Africa wished to emphasized that their country has incredible beautiful desert Namib with red-colored sands, where unusual plants are growing and where a lot of species of animals and birds are dwelling.
In the second place, the name “South-West Africa” is inconvenient to use in talks and in the printed text (as well as the names “Northern Rhodesia” and “Southern Sudan”).
desert Namib gave the name to Namibia state;
mountain-volcano Cameroon gave the name to Cameroon state;
mountain Kenya gave the name to Kenya state;
lake Chad gave the name to state Chad;
river Zambezi gave the name to Zambia state;
river Senegal gave the name to Senegal state;
river Gambia gave the name to Gambia state;
river Niger gave the names to states Niger and Nigeria;
river Congo gave the names to states Congo-Brazzaville and Congo-Kinshasa (former Zaire).
In Latin America:
river Paraguay gave the name to Paraguay state;
river Uruguay gave the name to state Uruguay;
lake Nicaragua gave the name to Nicaragua state.
About half of the population of Southern Sudan lives on the banks of river Nile, the capital Juba is situated on the bank of Nile, and all the rivers of Southern Sudan flow into Nile. Hence, it is quite natural to rename Southern Sudan into Nilotia or Nilotland in accordance with the name of the river Nile. In addition, in Southern Sudan and in other countries of Africa grows the tree Acacia nilotia.
In scientific ethnographic literature Southern Sudan is often named as Nilotic Sudan (in French — Soudan Nilotique).
Other 10 cases of renaming of the states which took place in African continent.
In 1957 two British protectorates Gold Coast and British TogolandTrustTerritory united into the integrated independent state Ghana.
In 1960 French protectorate Ubangi-Shari (Oubangui-Chari in French) became an independent state with new name Central African Republic or shortly Centroafricana (in French — République Centrafricaine, or Centrafricaine).
In the same 1960 French Sudan (in French — Soudan Française) became an independent state with new name Mali.
In 1964 British protectorate Nyasaland became an independent state with new name Malawi.
In 1966 British protectorate Basutoland became an independent state with new name Lesoto.
In same 1966 British protectorate Bechuanaland became an independent state with new name Botswana.
In 1968 Spanish Guinea (in Spanish — Guinea Español) became an independent state with new name Equatorial Guinea (in Spanish — Guinea Ecuatorial).
In 1960 French protectorate Dahomey became an independent state. In 1975 the inhabitants of Dahomey renamed their state into Benin, in French — Bénin.
In 1965 Southern Rhodesia became an independent state. In 1980 the inhabitants of Southern Rhodesia renamed their state into Zimbabwe.
In 1960 French protectorate Upper Volta (Haute-Volta in French) became an independent state. In 1984 the inhabitants of Upper Volta renamed their state into Burkina Faso.
Very successful renaming of a country was done in Central America in order to avoid confusion. For a long time people in all the world confused Honduras (former Spanish Honduras) with neighboring British Honduras. In 1981 British Honduras became an independent state, and this very year inhabitants of new state renamed their country into Belize (in Spanish — Belice).
Also very successful renaming of a country was done in Oceania. Between 1887 and 1980 islands New Hebrides (in French — Nouvelles Hébrides) in Pacific Ocean were under the common rule of Great Britain and France. In 1980 New Hebrides became an independent state with new name Vanuatu.
Many people in Europe, Northern America, Latin America and in other continents erroneously take Southern Sudan and Northern Sudan for single Arabic Nation as one and indivisible ethnic community. People interpret the wars in Southern Sudan (1955—1972, 1983—2005) as the civil wars inside the single Arabic Sudanese Nation like civil wars in Lebanon inside single Arabic Lebanese Nation. The name “Southern Sudan” mistake the most people in the planet.
Many inhabitants of Southern Sudan speak about so: We are proud that our skin is the most black in the planet. In Arabic language the word “Sudan” means “land of blacks”. And “black is beautiful”. And we wish to conserve the name “Southern Sudan”.
But such an argument may be refuted.
Firstly, people outside Northern Africa and Middle East do not know Arabic language, and thus do not know that word “Sudan” means “country of the blacks”.
Secondly, Arabs called with the word “Sudan” lands of conquered black tribes, which were under their power. Up to 1823 no Arabic authorities existed and there were no Arabic settlements on the lands of Nilotian tribes from Renk to the South. Therefore, up to 1823 the name “Sudan” had not any relation to contemporary Southern Sudan.
In 2000 AC (4010 years ago):
1) Nilotian tribes (descendants of Cush in the Bible) lived in valleys of rivers Nile, Atbara, Blue Nile, and White Nile from Egyptian border in the North up to rivers El-Gazal and Sobat in South and to the Ethiopian border in East;
2) Ancient Egyptians (descendants of Mizraim in the Bible) lived in valley of river Nile from Sudanese border up to Mediterranean Sea;
3) tribes Blemmyes-beja lived between river Nile and Red Sea in Sudan and Egypt.
The most numerous Nilotian tribes were Nubians. Nubians lived mostly in valleys of the rivers Nile (between Khartoum and Egyptian border), Atbara and Blue Nile.
Other Nilotians lived over the territory from Khartoum up to Malakal, and also together or side by side with Nubians in the savannah and desert near river Nile.
Gradually, during 3000 years, from 2000 AC up to 1000 AD Nubians mixed genetically with the tribes Blemmyes-beja and with ancient Egyptians. Languages of these two nations had an influence upon the language of Nubians. By 1000 AD the Coptic (Egyptian) Church gained a foothold in all Nubia, and two principal literature languages of Nubia became Nubian and Coptic.
Thereby, in year 1000 (1010 years ago) Nubians separated finally from Nilotians and became a separate people. Nilotians preserved their genetic and linguistic purity.
In 1000 in Northern Sudan the following communities lived:
1) Arabs and Blemmyes-beja between river Nile and Red Sea;
2) tribe Darfur in the mountains Darfur;
3) Nubians in valleys of the rivers Nile (up to Khartoum), Atbara and Blue Nile;
4) Mountain Nubians and Kordofanian tribes in the mountains Dar-Nuba and Kordofan.
Nilotians in the very year 1000 lived already in all lands of Southern Sudan, as well as on the strip of land 50 kilometres in width to the North from the river El-Arab (including the region Abyei!)
Different ethnic groups of Northern Sudan and Nilotian tribes of Southern Sudan by year 1000 were entirely and finally separated by the invisible wall in relation to genetics, languages and customs.
And now about the most significant. Between 1000 and 1823 (during 823 years!) Nilotians of Southern Sudan had nearly no contacts with the tribes of Northern Sudan. HISTORY is a weighty argument for renaming of Southern Sudan.
Between years 700 and 900 Arabs conquered the tribes blemmyes-beja between river Nile and Red Sea.
Between 1172 and 1500 (during 328 years) Arabs conquered Nubia (and also renamed Nubia into Sudan!).
Then between 1500 and 1750 Arabs conquered regions Dar-Nuba and Kordofan.
In 1820—1822 Egyptians conquered all Northern Sudan (except of Darfur) and established Khartoum, and from 1823 Egyptian-Sudanese troops began conquer Nilotian lands in contemporary Southern Sudan.
Up to 1875 Arabs from Egypt and Northern Sudan had created a network of the footholds in all the territory of Nilotia (Southern Sudan). Between 1870 and 1875 Egypt conquered Darfur.
Between 1850 and 1870 the British began to penetrate into Southern Sudan, and then between 1882 and 1905 Northern and Southern Sudan passed under the rule of Great Britain. But clashes between Arabs and Nilotians continued. Then Great Britain separated Southern (Nilotic) Sudan from Northern (Arabic) Sudan territorially and administratively in 1920—1923, the Arabic merchants and officials being expelled from Southern Sudan.
Between 1923 and 1946 (during more than 22 years) Northern (Arabic) Sudan and Nilotia (Southern Sudan) actually existed as two separate parts of British Empire, and these two parts had different administrations, different laws and different systems of education.
Between 1923 and 1946 there were no Arabs in Southern Sudan, and on the border between the both parts of Sudan the British guard stood.
But beginning from 1946 the British authorities in spite of ethnic differences commenced to lead a policy of the artificial unification of Northern and Southern Sudan, and in 1953—1956 the North and South were unified into the integral state Sudan despite of Nilotian’s wishes and despite of a History.
Nilotians during the last thousand years had and have strong relationships with peoples of Equatorial Africa.
Between 1000 and 1750 Nilotians settled down on the western and northern lands of Kenya, on the northern lands of Uganda, and on the north-eastern part of Zaire (Congo-Kinshasa).
Between 1750 and 1850 the tribes Adamawa (Azande-Mündü-Ndogo) arrived from the West into Nilotia.
Probably in 1000 existed a single Nilotic language with multiple dialects. Little by little between 1000 and 1950 (during 950 years) the dialects of a single Nilotic language developed into the separate languages of Uganda, Zaire, Kenya, and into 12 separate languages of 12 main ethnic communities of Nilotia: Dinka, Bari, Lotuko, Nuer, Shilluk, Murle, Moru, Madi, Luo, Anuak, Acholi, Toposa. These 12 Nilotian tribes should remember their common origin from one root, and together with tribes Adamawa (Azande, Mündü, Ndogo) should initiate building the prospering Nilotia state.
Remember about millions of people, who perished for independent state Nilotia in wars 1823—1923, 1955—1972, and 1983—2005.
Of all the nations of Africa just Nilotia has the most heroic history.
Renaissance of Equatorial Africa will begin in 2011 from independence and from renaming of Southern Sudan into Nilotia or Nilotland.
It is necessary to introduce the words “Nilotic” and “Nilotian” everywhere: Nilotic Nation, Nilotian people, Nilotians, Nilotic University of Juba, Nilotic Petroleum Corporation, Nilotian Electricity Corporation, Nilotian Gas Company, Nilotic Central Bank.
Change the name of your country as quickly as possible, and separate from Arabic Sudan! Tomorrow it may be too late! Today the door of salvation is open!
NB: Dear Mr. Editor-in-Chief of electronic magazine “South Sudan Nation”,
I am Alex Dobrovolsky, born in 1974, a citizen and inhabitant of Ukraine. I am a geographer. It’s me who has suggested naming Southern Sudan as Nilotia or Nilotland.
On the 7th of July 2009, I received your letter with an attachment written by Rengo Gyyw Rengo- “No renaming Southern Sudan if it chooses to break away”.
I surprised that not all the inhabitants of Southern Sudan want to rename their country. Therefore I write once again a new message in the form of an appeal to inhabitants of Southern Sudan, where I explained in details, why it is necessary to rename Southern Sudan without fail.
I beg you to place my message as a page on the site “South Sudan Nation”. Here is my message.