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Articles and Analysies Last Updated: Oct 27, 2009 - 9:33:43 PM

The De-Nubianization Policies in Egypt and the Sudan/.

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Ghana, West Africa, Accra July 21-1 August 2006

Conference Theme: Transformation, Reparation, Repatriation                          and Reconciliation


The Policies of De-Nubianization in Egypt and Sudan: an Ancient People on the Brink of Extinction

M.J. Hashim




This paper deals with the officially explicit and illicit policies aimed at marginalizing the Nubians in both Egypt and the Sudan by, first, driving them away from their historical homelands by systematically impoverishing their region; secondly, re-settling Arab groups in the lands the Nubians leave behind; thirdly, pushing the Nubians into Arabicization through biased educational curricula at the expense of their own languages and culture; fourth, nursing a culture of complicity among the Nubian intellectuals so as to help facilitate these policies. Three cases will be discussed in this regard; (1) the case of the governor of Asuan, Egypt (the capital of the Nubian region in southern Egypt) in granting leases of land and built homes to non-Nubians; these are the lands from where the Nubians were evacuated under the pretext of building the High Dam in 1964. So far, the incessant complaints of the Nubian have fell on deaf ears. 2) The official guarantees made by the then Minister of Interior of the Sudan (General-Brigadier Abdul Rahim Muhammad Husain- presently the Minister of Defense) to the Egyptians regarding the safety of Arab settlers from Egypt into the Nubian basin in northern Sudan. 3) The decision taken lately by the minister of Education in the northern State forbidding the Nubian pupils from uttering a word in Nubian languages within the precinct of the schools.


The paper will also draw on the racist Arab culture toward the Nubians, in both countries with special emphasis on Egypt. It will discuss in this regard the racist, anti-black approach of Egyptian policies toward the Nubians in particular. In the Sudan it will draw attention to the fact that the ethical premises of slave trade are there lurking behind the scene, targeting non-Arab people in general. In this context the paper will discuss the massacre of the Sudanese refugees lately committed with cold blood in Cairo on December 30th 2005 at the footstep of the UNHCR office and in front of the cameras of international media.


Then in the conclusion the paper will shed light on how it is quite possible and predictable for the Nubians in both Egypt and Sudan to join the rising waves of ethnic rebellions in Sudan, thus bringing Egypt to the table of reckoning along with the Islamo-Arabist regime of Sudan. It concludes with certain recommendations for this conference to adopt.


The De-Population of the Nubian Region in Sudan and Egypt


In 1964 the construction of the High Dam in Aswan was completed, a matter that resulted in an area of 500 km along the Nile course (310 km in Egypt, 190 km in the Sudan) to be submerged under the reservoir. The reservoir, i.e. the lake, bears two names, 'Lake Nasser' in Egypt, and 'Lake Nubia' in the Sudan. This has lead to the resettlement of about 16500 Nubian families in Egypt (with a similar number of Nubian families on the Sudan side) away from their historical lands. In the case of Egyptian Nubians, the area resettlement was a barren place called Koum Ambo near Aswan. In the case of the Sudanese Nubians the area of resettlement was a place called Khashm al-Girba in middle-eastern Sudan, known to be of rainy autumn, contrary to the Saharan Nubian region.


In 1963 the Aswan Regional Planning Authority (ARPA) was founded by the Egyptian government to be developed in 1966 upon recommendations from both the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) into Lake Nasser Development Centre with a Six Years Plan. In 1975 upon the project findings the High Dam Development Authority was established. Developmental planning has continued up to the present time with constant help from the UNDP. Two economical activities have been available to the local people; namely fishery and agriculture. In this regard it is worth mentioning that the majority of the either the fishers or the farmers are not Nubians, but rather are people coming from other areas with the encouragement of the Egyptian government which monopolizes the marketing (for fishery, cf. Lassaily-Jacob, 1990; for agriculture, cf. Fernea & Rouchdy, 1991).

The main question here is why did the governments of both Egypt and the Sudan evacuate the area if were keen on development. No development, even the most mechanized one, can be achieved without man power. The Nubians were driven away from their historical home lands on the bank of the Nile at gunpoint. This experience has proved to be very traumatic to them, a matter that their endeavours to go back and resume living in their old villages have been reflected in their vocal music and songs (Mannan, 1990). A new genre of songs of homesickness has been developed of which the late Hamza Eldin (1929-2006) with his melancholic melodies and music stands as an example (cf. www.hamzaeldin.com ).


The anti-developmental nature of the depopulation of the Nubian region is demonstrated in the fact that a scheme of compensation had been implemented to redeem the evacuated Nubians. A true developmental approach to the whole project could have been achieved. The Nubians could have remained in their historical lands at the bank of the Lake Nubia, with new houses built in the same characteristic architectural and decorative design (cf. Wenzil, 1970). With such an approach one would not be in need for compensation. Even so, the compensation was not enough as usual in such cases, even though some scholars and officials might argue against that (for the case of Egyptian Nubians, see Fahim, 1972; for the case of the Sudanese Nubians, see Dafalla, 1975).


The Non-Nubian Re-Population of the Region


The Nubians in both Egypt and the Sudan did make many attempts to go back and establish small colonies of settlements and agriculture. They farmed the drawdown areas by pumping water from the reservoir (Fernea & Rouchdy, 1991). However, all these attempts were occasionally aborted by the fluctuating water level of the reservoir, a matter the Nubians believe it to be intentional by the authorities which never encouraged them to go back.


By the 1990s the Egyptian government began following a policy of repopulating the evacuated Nubian regions. It began encouraging Egyptians other than Nubians to settle in the evacuated areas around the reservoir lake. It did this while the Nubians were kept away from their own historical lands, living in a pigsty style of life in their barren area of Koum Ambo. The same thing happened in the Sudan, with tacit encouragement from the government to the Arab Bedouin who began settling in the evacuated area. The repopulation of the Nubian region in Egypt has become an official policy entrusted to both the Minister of Agriculture and the Military Governor of Aswan. Villages with full facilities and utilities were built by the Egyptian government and distributed to individuals and families from outside the regions with bank loans to start with. The latest of this is the inauguration of the settlement at the old Nubian village of Kalabsha with 150 non-Nubian families, which was opened by the Minister of Agriculture Amin Abaza (cf. al-Wafd Newspaper, 18/05/2006). On 11/06/2006 the Al-Hram Newpaper (the unofficial voice of the government) announced that tens of thousands of feddans were to be distributed in the Nubian region to people other than the Nubians. When the Nubians demanded that their lands be returned to them, they get an arrogant reply from the military Governor of Aswan: "If you want your lands, go fetch them beneath the water (cf. Rajab al-Murshidi in Rousa al Yousef Newspaper: www.rosaonline.net .


At the same time, the Nubians who ventured building their own colonies and farms in their old lands began facing obstacles at every corner. No one from the international community has come to help the Nubians in Egypt. They began voicing their problem through the internet, making use of the numerous Nubian websites, which mostly evolve around the home-villages bearing their names (cf. www.abirtabag.net ; www.jazeratsai.com ; www.karma2.com ; www.3amara.com ; www.nubian-forum.com/vb ; www.nunubian.com ).


This racist and Apartheid-like policy is adopted by the Egyptian government in order to contain the discontent among its Arab population who had been negatively affected by the 1992 Agricultural Law, which has come into effect by 1997. This law has liberalized the land tenure market by abolished the old land rental and tenure by returning the it to its old feudal owners, thus compelling the peasants to re-hire it all over again, with the threat of rental price increase looming over their heads. During the 1990s the price actually tripled and by now it has quadrupled (Roudart, 2000/1). This has caused a turmoil and unrest among the peasants who began seeking other jobs. Migration of the peasants to other areas of agricultural schemes of reclaimed land, away from their home village, was encouraged by the government. The Egyptian government adopted the policy of intermigration so as to solve (1) its chronic problem of population explosion, and (2) to compensate those who have been negatively affected by its land liberalization law. Re-settlement in the reclaimed land of the New Valley in Sinai was officially encouraged, a matter the peasants were not enthusiastic about. Being riverain all through history, such a move was too much for them. That is how the Egyptian government began re-settling them in the Nubian regions which was evacuated four decades ago against the will of its historical people, the Nubians. In doing this the Egyptian government is consciously pushing the Nubians into being completely assimilated and Arabized, a policy pursued by the successive Egyptian governments.


The Settlement of Egyptian Peasants in the Nubian Region in Sudan


In the Sudan the Nubians faced the conspiracy of both their government and the Egyptian government. Those who were affected by the construction of the High Dam, like their brethren in Egypt, were evacuated from their land and resettled in the Eastern region. The environment in their new home was completely different than that of their old home. However, only one third of them were affected by the High Dam, where the land of two third still remain unaffected in the old region. Being severely underdeveloped, the Nubian region continued to expel its people to the extent that whole villages are almost empty at the present.


In late 2003 news leaked out revealing that negotiations on highest levels with the Egyptian government had been made so as to facilitate the settlement of millions of Egyptian peasants, along with their families, in the triangle of the Nubian basin, Halfa-Dungula-‛Uwēnāt. The aim of this move is said to safeguard the Arab identity of Sudan against the growing awareness of Africanism in Sudan generally and among the Nubians in particular. The Sudanese delegation, which was backed by a Presidential mandate, was led by Arabist Nubians, General-Brigadier Abdul Rahim Muhammad Husain (then Minister of Interior, presently Minister of Defense). A cover-up plan named the Four Freedoms which theoretically allows the Sudanese and the Egyptians as well to own agrarian lands and settle in both countries was officially declared. The cover-up plan has come out half cooked as both parties were too eager in their scrambling to create a de facto situation before the Nubians become aware of what was going on. There is no agrarian land to be owned by the Sudanese investors in Egypt. But there is land for the Egyptians in the Sudan. On 31/03/2005 a mainsheet press release from the State Minister of Agriculture in Khartoum (dr. al-Sadig Amara, an Arabist Nubian as well) revealed that 6.1 Millions of feddans in the triangle of Nubian basin had been sold to the Egyptians (investors and peasants) with long term leases, i.e. investment through settlement (cf. al-Sahafa Newpaper, No. 3892). There is no mention of the Nubians in all these deals which seem like have been made overnight.


In official visits to Cairo, the two ministers mentioned above held meetings with Egyptian scholars and intellectuals who were sceptical about the viability of resettling millions of Egyptian peasants in the Sudan. Such a scheme applied in Iraq a few years ago during the war against Iran resulted in literally eliminating physically and cleansing the poor peasants immediately after the war ended. However the two flamboyant ministers chivalrously gave their solemn pledges reminding their audience that they are backed Presidential mandate.


The Minister of Defense went out of his way challenging his audience to bring forward their solutions about tackling the population explosion in Egypt if not by migrating to the vast areas of the sparsely populated Northern Sudan. Furthermore, lamenting the fact that the Egyptian migration to the Sudan has significantly diminished in the late decades after independence, he drew the comparison that the migration from West Africa has steadily increased. The State Minister on his behalf lamented the hesitation of some Egyptian intellectuals and officials, urging them to expedite moving to the Nubian basin before [sic] other people move there first (for more details, see: http://www.ahram.org.eg/archive/Inde ; another source of information is also:   http://acpss.ahram.org.eg/ahram/2001/1/1/CONF20.HTM ).


As the Nubian Memo to Kofi Annan (cf. Hashim, 2006) stated it, the Egyptians wanted the area of the reservoir completely depopulated of its indigenous people (i.e. all the Nubians affected in both the Sudan and Egypt). Disrupting the Nubian society of Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt has been a target for the governments of both countries as the Nubians constitute the only African entity on the Nile from Kōsti and Sinnār up the White and Blue Niles respectively down to the Mediterranean Sea.


The silencing of an Ancient Tongue: Don't speak Nubian


The Nubian languages, like all national languages in the Sudan, are on the brink of becoming extinct (cf. Hashim & Bell, 2005). The state not only did nothing to help enhance and promote the national languages, but look at them as a threat to the national unity. Of over 100 national languages in the Sudan (cf. Hurreiz & Bell, 1975), not even a single one of them has been recognized by the sate. The state-supported Arabic is encroaching at the expense of the dying national language. The successive governments of post-Independent Sudan have never heeded the calls from concerned bodies such as UNESCO (cf. UNESCO, 1988; or for recent reference, see: http://www.unesco.org/most/ln2lin.htm#resources) for using the national language as means of instruction, especially in primary levels.


The Nubian languages, especially the ancient form which was used during the Christian kingdoms, have been in use as the official language of the state and in daily use for centuries, from the 6th century to the up to the present (cf. Hashim & Bell, 2004). However the toll of the systematic onslaught on the national languages that that has been going on for the last six centuries has begun to show.


On 27/05/2006 the Nubians in the Sudan were shocked to read the headline news that the regional Minister of Education in the Northern state had given his explicit orders that no Nubian pupil to utter a word of Nubian language within the precinct of the schools. For decades, right from the beginning of the 20th centuries, the Nubian languages were fought against by the Arabization-oriented school administrations using the infamous tactic of the Ottoman Turkish Mijidi piaster (cf. Hashim, Forthcoming).  The obsolete piaster was to be hung from a string on the neck of the pupil who dared utter a word in the Nubian language inside the school (they were mostly boarding schools). The piaster was to be passed to another pupil only when caught committing the sin of speaking one of the most ancient languages in the history of mankind. Checked twice a day, in the morning and the evening, the holder of the piaster was severely punished; four strong pupils would be summoned to hold the 'culprit' [sic] from the feet and the hands to be whipped ten lashes. This practice, however, has stopped in the last two decades as a result of the growing protest of the poor Nubians.

This late measure of official and systematic cultural persecution has caused an outcry by the Nubians in home and diaspora without the interference of the international community, as usual. The Islamo-Arab government, on both the federal and regional levels, has not heeded the growing protest of the Nubians, the motto of the government being that one expressed with finite arrogance by the President Omer al-Bashir in the early 1990s: "We have assumed power with arms; those who want power, or want to share it, should be men and fight for it". Consequently, the marginalized African people of Sudan in Dar Fur, West Sudan, and the Beja in the East have taken to arms one after the other (with prospect of others in the North following them soon) in order to protect themselves from the state-sponsored projects of systematic cultural assimilation, impoverishment and persecution. Before the coup of the Islamic junta in the 30th of June 1898 the war zone was confined to the southern region of the South, Nuba Mountains and Ingassana Mountains. However, the Nubians in the far North have not joined the rebellion yet. The civil war to the marginalized African people of Sudan was not an alternative but rather a matter of necessity when there was no alternative at all; they were pushed into it by an arrogant and stupid regime. Unfortunately this regime now enjoys the Anglo-American support whose intervention presses the fighting groups to reach with it an agreement that does not solve their problem. Such agreements inject new blood in a regime that has outlived its days.


They kill Horses, don't they!

The culling of Sudanese Refugees in Cairo


In 1990, a year after the coup of the Islamic junta, waves of Sudanese refugees swarmed into Egypt in general and in Cairo in particular. That was expected and most of the western countries, which were the prime terminal the refugees sought, firmly locked their doors in the face of them. The western countries did this because of the high cost of supporting the waves of the refugees who every body knew that they may never go back to the Sudan as they were seeking permanent settlement in the west. On the other hand Egypt offered nothing to them whatsoever. Furthermore there was no work available for them there, even the lowest paid job. However, by 1995, there was about 4 million Sudanese refugees Egypt. That was natural as the doors of Egypt were the only ones open for them. But it was only a matter of a few days until the Sudanese refugees discovered that in fact they fled from the prisons of their own regime to be locked in another prison that is Egypt. The Egyptian government made clear to the western embassies in Cairo that no one of the Sudanese refugees to be given a visa from Cairo. The reason was a quite good one: such an act would increase the flow of the refugees into Egypt.

Then why did the Egyptian authorities open the door for them in the first place? And how did those refugees, while receiving nothing from the Egyptian government, did manage to support themselves? They were mostly families, with women, old folk and children! The answers to these questions will not only reveal one of the worst exploitations of the misfortunes that befall people, but will further reveal the Master-Slave mentality that still characterizes the Egyptian conduct when it comes to Sudan, consequent the whole of black Africa. The forsaken refugees relied ultimately on money transferred to them from their relations, whether from the rich, petroleum Arab countries or from the west. In 1999 in a visit to Cairo, the present writer was shocked to know that it was a common knowledge to every Sudanese and Egyptian intellectual alike the fact that the hard currency earned by the in-land revenue from the money transferred to the Sudanese refugees was much more than that earned from the Suez Canal. And that was not the whole story. The money which was usually transferred by fax, i.e. to be cashed immediately when the answer-back is received, was held by the banks for months before releasing it. The answer to this delay was that they did not receive the money. This answer was said in the face of the claimers who had the fax answer-back in their hands faxed to them by their relatives as a document to prove that the money was there in Cairo in safes of the Egyptian banks. Holding the money in that way could have never continued for years if it were not okayed by the Egyptian government in its policy to make the best out of the Sudanese calamities. In that visit and in another one earlier in 1994, the present writer left Cairo back to Khartoum without cashing money sent to him from Saudi Arabia. My visits were too short for such a difficult mission; in each one of them I only stayed for one month.

By 1998 the international community and the UN became aware of the Egyptian ghetto set up for the Sudanese refugees. The UNHCR began a programme of resettlement for the Sudanese refugees congregated in Cairo. The biggest diaspora in the history of the Sudan had begun as the refugees were dispersed all over the globe, especially in the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Europe and South America. By 2003 there were only a few thousands of them left in Cairo, whose majority of had already been registered in the UNHCR Cairo office. Those were mostly from southern Sudan, Dar Fur, Nuba Mountains and many other areas of the Sudan. By 2004, with the development of the peace negotiation that were brokered mainly by the USA, UK and Norway that pressurized the rebel groups to reach a settlement with the present Islamic regime, the interest of the UNHCR in the refugees began decreasing to focus on other areas. This gave the Cairo office, which was manned by Egyptians, a free hand in dealing with the situation. It simply resorted to a well drawn plan of faked ineptitude, pretending to be local staff who did not have any power. However, the international staffs were there and they were all Egyptians. As a result of this hopeless situation, most of the refugees, either headed back to Sudan to try another exit, or out of helplessness resigned by staying in Cairo believing in the meek promises made by the Egyptian staff at the UNHCR office that things would eventually be sorted.

In fact those who continued to stay were the poorest as they did not have any people to send them money to support themselves. They relied ultimately on the UNHCR. Of course they were also the ones with most genuine cases being mostly from the conflict zones of the South, Nuba Mountains, Ingassana Mountians, the Beja in eastern Sudan and Dar Fur in western Sudan. This made them a real burden to the Egyptian society and government which just discovered that those are filthy black Africans infested with Aids and a host of infective disease. So with Naivasha agreement which was reached between the Sudan People Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the present regime in May 2004, the UNHCR Cairo office bluntly told the refugees that their cases had consequently lost their genuineness. It told them to go back to their country as there was no war. The Egyptianized international body pretended not to be aware that the wars were not confined to southern Sudan, itself not yet safe for civilians. The poor of the poor were left to their own in the streets of Cairo, penniless, where they were looked upon with the disgust and contempt typical of an Arab slaver towards a slave who behaves like a free person.


The kept coming to the closed doors of UNHCR office every day dragging their feet with empty stomach to stay all the day there in the park of a mosque adjacent UNHCR office until it is time to sleep. On the 29th of September 2005 a group of homeless refugees decided to stay overnight there on the grass of the park. In a few days the number began increasing as there was no where to go to. That was the moment when they decided to campaign a picket at the footsteps of the international body. This prompted the other refugees who had a shelter to abandon them and join the picket. In one week the numbered exceeded 3000 refugees. A camp committee sprang out of them. They kept the vigil for more than three months, with highly civilized and meticulous organization of feeding, hygiene and sleeping, with places assigned to the women and children along with the old. Neither alcohol nor drunken people were allowed into the camp.


Right from the beginning the Egyptian society and government could not take in the scene of having such affluent area blackened by those filthy Africans. A host of derogatory and abusive language of dehumanization typical of Arabs dealing with Africans was introduced against which the poor of the poor pretended not to have heard them, walking with their heads raised high. While hatred and contempt continued building up against the picket of the refugees, the international office in Cairo completely identified with the Egyptian stand with the high echelon of the inept UN, ironically headed by a puppet black African, turning a deaf year to the moaning sounds of the refugees congregating at its doorstep. As usual, the UN was simply waiting for the refugees to get killed so as to make a well calculated wording of a statement expressing shock and concern and then doing its best to contain the situation (cf. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4570446.stm. The inevitable killing of the refugees came with a very cynical timing.


Just before midnight of December the 30th 2005, police forces and military troops supported with tanks began gathering and forming a cordon around the refugees camp. A delegation of the committee of the refugees tried to contact the police leadership to enquire about the reason for this cordon with no avail. With the advance of the first hour of the chilling morning the onslaught began by firing water canons (in the early hours of a winter dawn). Then the gendarme stormed the camp with more than 12 thousands, wielding truncheons and stamping people. The only thing the refugees could do as a reaction was performing prayer (Islamic and Christian as well), with others chanting religious hymns aloud. Chased by human demons which wanted to kill them in their own country, Sudan, and in Egypt, they were only left with one source of help, the Providence. But, alas, they were killed by hundreds.

The massacre caused an international outcry with no condemnation whatsoever to the bold killer. It was well covered by international media. The first move of Egypt was to down play the whole even by falsifying the number of the dead which they delimited down to 29. However, the true number as revealed by counting the dead in the various morgues Cairo's hospital brought the number to about 280. The Sudanese government shocked the free world when instead of condemning the killing of its own citizen, condoned what the Egyptian government did. Later the Egyptian officials revealed that the Sudanese government was informed about what it was going to do and they agreed. That was not all of it. The injured, even the ones with the slightest injury, happened to pass away once admitted to hospitals. Rumours had it that they were literally put down in the theater under anesthesia after having removed any internal organ deemed useful for transplant.


However, the most insulting of it all was the timing. This massacre of Sudanese refugees took place just on the eve of the 50th anniversary of the Independence Day of Sudan. The Egyptian regime could not be more cynical and more vindictive. The message was clear: independence or no independence, you are still our slaves. While the ordinary Sudanese people were fuming with anger and humiliation, the political parties were going out of their way to rationalize what the Egyptians did. The irony was that Egypt was the first state to recognize the Islamic coup d'tat of Sudan in June 1989, which plotted to assassinate its President, Hosny Mubarak in Addis Ababa in the mid 1990s. This prompted Egypt to sponsor the political opposition while working tacitly towards taming the wild Islamic regime. All the time dreading the idea of having a democracy in the Sudan, to Egypt a totalitarian regime in the Sudan is always convenient to deal with whatever the surface ideological differences. When it at last achieved this goal, Egypt ended with having both the opposition and government as friends. The regime is so keen to appease Egypt which poses as a strong ally that can help the Sudan in restoring its place in the international community with no sanctions or international criminal court. The opposition is believed by many Sudanese observers to have so far kept silent from condemning either the massacre of the refugees or the Egyptian occupation of Sudanese land because they have been on the payroll all through the years of their self-chosen exile in Egypt.


            Well, isn't it slavery all over again?




This paper concludes by demanding that the systematic and official obliteration of the identity of the Nubians in both Egypt and the Sudan as represented in selling out their historical lands on the bank of the Nile and their oppressing their languages should stop immediately. The Egyptian and Sudanese Nubians must have the right and priority to go back to their historical villages. The two states in Egypt and the Sudan must do whatever possible to protect the Nubians against any encroachment of other ethnic groups into their lands unless it takes place in a natural and peaceful way that does not make the Nubians feel that they are being targeted and endangered. The international community is called upon to offer support and solidarity. This paper draws the attention of this esteemed conference to the fact that selling the Nubian basin in Northern Sudan by this present regime to the Egyptian in order to facilitate the settlement of Arabized Egyptian peasants will turn that region into a civil war zone. The paper urges the conference to condemn this move in its endeavours to enhance peace and reparation.


The paper also demands that this conference includes in its programmes of reparation the Cairo massacre of December 30th 2005. The paper demands that this conference calls for an independent and international investigation into the circumstances that had lead to the killing of Sudanese refugees. The least that can be done to honour the dead is to know for sure their number. Let us not forget that those people were killed while wearing the badge of the UNHCR. Compensations should be paid to those who suffered, whether by losing a member/s of their family/s or by injury and the traumatic experience. Furthermore, their resettlement should be resumed.


The paper urges this esteemed conference to adopt a resolution to the effect of the points mentioned above. Let us be clear about reparation; there will be no reparation if the grievances have not been addressed.





  • Abdal-Mannam, M. Abdal-Salam (1996), The Resettlement of Halfawiyyin in the Butana as Reflected in their Folksongs, M. A. Thesis, Institute if African and Asian Studies (I.A.A.S), University of Khartum.
  •  Bakhit, Izzeldin (1996), Mass Poverty in developing Countries: A Cultural Prospective in Izzeldin Bakhit, etal, Attacking the Roots of Poverty, Marburg Consult for Self Promotion, Marburg.  
  • Dafalla, H. (1975), The Nubian Exodus, C. Hurst & Company, London, in Association with the Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppsala.
  • El Din, Hamza.  www.hamzaeldin.com . On line website. Consulted on 14/07/2006.
  • Fahim, H. M. (1972), Nubian Resttlement in the Sudan, American University in Cairo.
  • Fernea, R. & Rouchdy, A. (1991). Contemporary Egyptian Nubians, Epilogue, Part III. In: Frnea, E.W., Fernea, R. & Rouchdy, A. (ed). Nubian Ethnigraphies. Prospect Heights. Illinois: Waveland Press. Lassaily-Jacob, V. (1990). Village Resettlement in Lower Nubia, Egypt: the Modification of a Development Project through Case Study. Unpublished. Paris.
  • Hashim, M.J. (Forthcoming). The Sai Island: The Story of Civilization: Issues of Culture, Development and Marginalization in Nubia (in Arabic).
  • Hashim, M.J. (2006). Islamization and Arabization of Africans as a Means to Political Power in the Sudan: Contradictions of Discrimination based on the Blackness of Skin and Stigma of Slavery and their Contribution to the Civil Wars. In: Bankie, B.F. & Mchombu, K. 'ed.' (2006). Pan Africanism: Strengthening the Unity of Africa and its Diaspora. Windhoek: Gamsberg Macmillan Publishers. PP 244-267.
  • Hashim, M.J. & Bell, H. (2004). "Ideological Motives behind Nubian Writing Systems, Emblems of Shifting Identities over Thirteen Centuries". In: the Annual Colloquium of the Henry Sweet Society for the History of Linguistic Ideas. Jesus College, Oxford University. 13-16 September 2004.
  • Hashim, M.J. & Bell, H. (2005). "Nubian GeoNames in an Arabic Context: Issues of Global Relevance". The Fryske Academy and the Dutch and German Division of UN Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN), Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 13th-16th      April     2005.
  • Hurreiz, S.H. & Bell, H. (eds.) (1975). Directions in Sudanese Linguistics and Folklore. Khartoum: Khartoum University Press.
  • Murshidi (al-), Rajab (2006). "The Nubians attack the Governor of Aswan demanding Resettlement" (in Arabic). In: Rousa al Yousef Newspaper: www.rosaonline.net . 11.06.2006.
  • Roudart, L. (2000/1). Microeconomic analysis of the liberalization of the rent price on agricultural incomes. In: Land Reform: Land Settlement & Cooperatives. Part II. No. 2000/1. FAO. Online:

http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/Y0434T/Y0434t07.htm#P5_730 . Consulted on 13.07.06. 

  • UNESCO (1988). A Practical Guide to the World Decade for Cultural Development: 1988-1998. Paris.




Al-Hram Newpaper. Egypt. 11/06/2006

al-Sahafa Newpaper. No. 3892. Sudan. 31/03/2005

al-Wafd Newspaper. Egypt. 18/05/2006


Naivasha, Protocol. Protocol between the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) on Power Sharing, Naivasha, Kenya, Wednesday, May 26, 2004 2004 [cited 2006-02-21. Available from


Websites: generally consulted by the present author in the period between April 2006 June 2006 with:





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  • The hidden massacre of Sudanese Darfurians in Chad by Khaleil Ibrahim
  • NO election and NO..NO to ICC postponement. by Hatim El-Madani*
  • Let Sleeping Dogs Lie But Not On the Way of Others: Reply to Dr. Ganduls Critique of Okuk on the Case of Transitional Areas By James Okuk
  • The future of the South Sudan by Justin Laku
  • No one could hurl CPA in a dustbin By Majok Nikodemo Arou
  • SPLM Show-off Disbursement, Extravagance By:Helen Anderw
  • Darfur current situation and the coming days By Adeeb Yousif
  • Why ICC should not Issue Arrest Warrant on Al-Bashir By James Okuk
  • SPLM Unjustifiable Withdrawal By: Helen Andrew
  • SPLM Northern Sector .. Endless wrangling By: Helen Andrew
  • The 4thCPA Anniversary in Malakal: Time For Naivasha Partners to Honour their Promises By James Okuk
  • Find out solutions by Salaheldin Hussein
  • Al-Bashir Protects Sudans Capital with Water Trenches against JEM. By Dr. El-tahir El-faki
  • South Sudan ... Strange Concept of Development and Priority Disorder By: deng mulwal
  • SPLM Dubious Arming Race By:james Mathew
  • Sudanese Citizen Omer Elbashir's Arrest Is Getting Nearer by Tadjadine Bechir Niam
  • We don't Do French and thanks but No thanks Mr Williamson by Hatim El-Madani*
  • Real Self Determination is more than a Vote for Secession by Parek Maduot
  • Pagan Amum Shall not be Left Alone to Carry the Cross of Separation of South Sudan (2)By James Okuk
  • Pagan Amum Shall not be Left Alone to Carry the Cross of Separation of South Sudan (1)By James Okuk
  • Are B.C. pensions financing Sudanese genocide? By Travis Lupick
  • Search for Intelligent and Prudent Strategies for South Sudan Independence *By James Okuk
  • Is Obama our Man? Adam Zakaria A. Mahmoud
  • Open letter to Mr. Holmes UN under Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator/Al-Haj Hamad M.K Haj Hamad (Ph.D)
  • Does Lawrence Summers fit in Obamas White House Team? By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • Bush Does the Right Thing for Darfur
  • Hold your nose Sudan finance minister speaking by Hatim El-Medani*
  • Health Care and Activism in Sudan by Noelle LEtoile
  • The Case of Transitional Areas and Independence of South Sudan by By James Okuk
  • The very new message of Change by Keysar Abbker
  • Why the African Union has Failed Darfur by Abdellatife Ismail,
  • Albashir Goes Insanely Vulgar Against his International Partners By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • If Obama is not assassinated! by Suleiman Abualbasher, University of Kordofan, the Sudan
  • Congratulations to Barack Obama: Historical Victory as Forty-Fourth American President-elect By Adeeb Yousif
  • Now is the Time for Action on Darfur by Anne Bartlett
  • 300 South Sudanese Students in Various Egyptian universities by Akot Marial
  • Why wait till 2011 the door is a jar!! by Hatim El-madani*
  • Sudan finds fourth Chinese hostage alive
  • Statement from the Sudan Liberation Movement/ Army concerning the coming back of the splitters to the Movement by Nimer Mohamed Abdelrahman.
  • Preparing the scene for fair elections by Omar Al Bushra
  • In Memory of Father Lino Wur Abyei by Santino Dut Deng Kiir
  • Accountability of Lakes Governor over Rumbeks incidents.
  • Media Role in Supporting Orphans by Waleed Ali
  • SPLM is leading the south to unknown future by Sabino Diok, Canada
  • Ashraf Qazi A symbol for the success of the American Psychological Terror by By: Qutbai Almahdi
  • Ending Sima Samar mission in Sudan by Salma Altagani
  • Postponement of National Elections by Sami Alshazali
  • Supporting DPA by Ahmed Albahi
  • How would the international community support the Sudanese elections, 2009? by Mahgoub EL-Tigani
  • War against drugs by Fisal Alnour
  • South Africa valuable support to Sudan by Adil Faris
  • Relieving Pgan a giant step by Zakieldeen Abd Allah
  • Lack of Security in South Sudan by Hassan Ali
  • You arent Wriggling out of this one.. And No more twist and turn by Hatim El-Madani*
  • Fate of 2009 Elections in Sudan By Dr. El-tahir El-faki
  • Darfur Rebels reluctant stances by Adil Faris
  • Together For Better Future by Omar Al Bushra
  • Abbreviated Introduction of Shari'a Islammiyyah (1) The Islam and the Civilization by Amal Faiz Kordofany
  • Arab League efforts to end conflict in Darfur by Ahmed Al Badri
  • The two controversial by shool majok-Khartoum
  • Collective international efforts to end conflict in Darfur by Yassir Madani
  • Efforts to achieve peace in Darfur by Waleed Ali
  • SPLM and the look for a presidential candidate By: Helen Andrew
  • Eastern Front Disputes by Omar Khalid
  • Greed and tribalism will take the president to hell By: Raan Naath, South Sudan
  • Now Sudan Is Attacking Refugee Camps By MIA FARROW and ERIC REEVES
  • Horrible conditions of Juba roads By Jacob K. Lupai
  • Horrible conditions of Juba roads By Jacob K. Lupai
  • President Al-Bashir: Will the old method work? By: Elrayah Hassan Khalifa
  • Pagan Amum Dragging SPLM into other Agendas By: Nasr Addeen Ghatas
  • Minni Arco and Khalil Ibrahim relation by Salma Altagani
  • China efforts to restore peace in Darfur by Hassan Ali
  • Ramadan the month of sacrifices by Fiasal Alnour
  • Sudan Possesses Huge Oil Reserve by Zaieldeen Abd Allah
  • Flight Safety comes First by Sami Alshazali
  • It is time to Omar Al-basher stopped the killing and bloodshed in Defer. by Musa Yakub
  • Instability in southern Sudan by Salma Al Tagani
  • SPLM Contradiction by Omar Al Bushra
  • Djibrill Bassole' Tharwat Gassim
  • SPLM foreign Representation by Omar Khalid
  • Ocampos Indictment of Al-Bashir is Risky for the CPA by By James Okuk
  • Yes, there is a human atrocity in Darfur but who behind it by AL-Tayeb M. Al-Hassan
  • Differences within SPLM Northern Sector by Adil Faris
  • Will not vote for Kiir as president by Atem Garang Atem
  • War Crimes, Crimes against Humanity and Genocide in the North-eastern Sudan By Dr. Abu amna
  • Misleading claims by John Gordon
  • More and more development projects by Ahmed Al Bahi
  • American Aggression against Sudan by Yassir Madani
  • Rebecca Nyandeng's desperate ambitions shall fail! BY: Deng John, South Sudan
  • Justice and Equality Movement and its Great Deception for the Sudanese People. By: Mohammed El Hassan Ali
  • Nyandeng, mother of corruption? Mother of corruption, Nyandeng Garang Ngino Nyikako, USA
  • Ocampo must resign By: Abd Al Mahmoud Nor Aldaim Alkoronki
  • Confronting hostilities by development by Hassan Ali
  • What's Rebecca Nyandeng up to: Next President of GOSS? By Tut Gatwech, South Sudan,
  • Development in spite of sanctions by Ahmed Al Badri
  • Removing the remains of war /Zakieldeen Abd Allah
  • New efforts to end the conflict over Abyei by Sami Alshazali
  • DARFUR: A WAKE UP CALL FOR AFRICA By: Adeeb Abdel Rhman Yousif
  • Do not depend on American support by Fisal Alnour
  • Sudans peace partners resolve some key outstanding issues on CPA by By James Gatdet Dak
  • Arop Pledges to Restore Confidence Between Messeriya and Dinka By: Al-Sammani Awadallah / Mona Al-Bashir
  • SLA moves towards Israel by Omar Al Bushra
  • Sudan capable of brining justice to Darfur by Salma Tagani
  • Arrest Warrant Will Negatively Affect Neigbouring Countries, By: Mona Al-Bashir
  • Sudan, an independent country by Adil Faris
  • Why is Pagan Out of the Government? by Urban T Kir in Juba, South Sudan.
  • Darfur: between defiance of accused and hindrance of Justice By: Elrayah Hassan Khalifa California USA
  • President Al Bashir visit to Darfur and Ocampo claims by Omar Khalid
  • Efforts for normalizing Sudanese Chadian relations by Yassir Madani
  • SPLMs Kiir will NOT be the next President of Sudan by By Tut Gatwech, South Sudan
  • Local Perspectives on a Global Responsibility by Adeeb Abdel Rhman Yousif
  • The challenge that faces Sudan diplomacy by John Gordon
  • Steady Stance and Flexibility in Movements by Ahmed Al Bahi
  • In Memory of Dr. John Garang by By: Enoch Daniel Aba-Phoenix, Arizona
  • Waging Peace: A Credible NGO? By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • Minnawi and GoS by Omar Al Bushra
  • UN and Child Rights by Ahmed Al Badri
  • The Concrete Evidence by Sami Al Shazali
  • Division within Darfurian Movements by Zakieldeen Abd Allah
  • Dr John Garang remembered By Majok Nikodemo Arou
  • Darfur Child Soldiers by Adil Faris
  • Ocampo and his Fall in Abyss by Salma Tagani
  • President Omar Al-basher has to think twice that the crises are not over in Darfur. by Musa Yakub
  • Peace in Darfur, a priority by Hassan Ali
  • We need a clear position now by Yassir Madani
  • WHO WILL PAY FOR ABYEI? by Julie Kuol
  • Flawed Justice for Sudan by Antonio Cassese
  • We can Shield off Ocampo and his Likes when United by Ahmed Al Bahi
  • El Bashir !!! Die a man, not a ridiculous ape. by By: Hajareen Toum.
  • What crimes? by Omar Al Bushra
  • Where the indictment president Al-basher mislead people by Musa Yakub Media officer \ Sudan Liberation /movement in the UK and Northern Ireland
  • International Criminal Court Has Been Political Corporation by Gibreel Musa Ahmed ---- Khartoum - Sudan
  • Ocampo Awakened the Arab Solidarity/Adil Faris
  • The Sudanese Unique Social Fabric Can't be Destroyed by Ocampo's Statement by Omar Al Bushra
  • The Truth will Remain Glaring by Omar Khalid
  • Why Sudan Opposes the ICC Decision by Salama Tagani
  • Justice is Useless If it Destroys Peace *By James Okik
  • Comment on Bashir Indictment by Dr Isam Siddig
  • The Value of ICC Action on Darfur by Anne Bartlett
  • Providence is always on the side of the strongest battalions by Hassan Ali
  • Double Standard in Daylight Time by Ahmed AlBahi
  • No more Malesh we welcome the ICC move by Hatim El Madani*
  • Ocampo is Playing with Fire by Omar Khalid
  • President Salva Kiir's Abuse of power and Rule by whim. By: Joseph Aban Adyieng
  • Western Culture Moral Bankruptcy by Yassir Madani
  • Sudan Does Not Seek to Become US Eager Ally Ahmed Al Badri
  • Sudanese Peace: To Attain Democracy or Autocracy Consolidation? (1-2)/By: Mahmoud E. Yousif - Juba
  • US Feverish Attempts by Omar Al Bushra
  • Freeing Communities from the Legacy of War by Zakieldeen Abdllah
  • Averting Rainy Season Hazards by Salma Tagani
  • Enemies of the CPA poise to create confusion by By Majok Nikodemo Arou
  • Sudan's Position on NATO Troops Unchanged by Hassa Ali
  • Winter,Supporting Who against Who? by Omar Al Bushra
  • Are They Rebels or Bandits? by Ahmed Al Bahi
  • Need for Reciprocity in Sudan-US Relations by Omar Khalid
  • Reconciliation, Accord in the Offing by Yassir Madani
  • A Giant Step to Combat HIV/AIDS /Ahmed Al Bahi
  • Purging Political Life by John Gordon
  • Foreigners Presence in Sudan by Omar Al Bushra
  • The Massacre of Port Sudan By Dr. Abu Amna
  • Mr Al-Al-Nur wailing on the wrong Wall abandoning the three cards Monte trick by Hatim El Madani*
  • Delay in the Hybrid Operation Deployment by Omar Khalid
  • Would Sudans inflexible National Congress Party (NCP) honour a World Court Verdict on Abyei,? By Peter Lokarlo Marsu- Melbourne
  • The Elections Act by Yassir Madani
  • CPA Protection Responsibility of All National Forces by Omar Al Bushra
  • The Up-Coming Elections A Collective Responsibility towards Peace in Sudan by Dr. Ahmed Hamoda Hamid Fadlalla.
  • Updated JEM Proposal for Change by Dr. Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • Re to a Professor: Anne Bartlett Darfur is True By- Taha Zein
  • A Witness from among themselves by John Gordon
  • A Collective Responsibility towards Peace in Sudan by Dr. Ahmed Hamoda Hamid Fadlalla
  • Public Opinion No Longer Concerned About the Sudanese-American Relations by Yassir Madani
  • An Opportunity for National Reconciliation by Omar khalid
  • Towards Responsibility and a Harmonious Relationship by Omar Al Bushra
  • ICC Prosecutor Dealt another Blow by John Gordon
  • Unity of darfur by Babiker Gardia
  • Darfur: Truth or Fiction? By Anne Bartlett
  • Beyond the Last Computer by Philip Emeagwali
  • The Chevron way the US in open talks with Al-Qaida of Sudan by Hatim El-Madani*
  • Abu Dhabi looks to Sudan for food supply by Dr. S. A. Suliman
  • The world has to save Sudanfrom the brutality of the Khartoum regime by Bahar Arabie
  • Fragile Sudan: Search for Unity that will Never Be *By James Okuk
  • Government Suggests Joint Administration for Abyei Area
  • The Question of African Identity, Arabism and Islam phobia in the Sudan By: Justin D. Wannis
  • Salva Kiir: Shedding the tears of failure/John Sabit Atar, Nairobi, Kenya;
  • Expert De Waal Continues Misleading the World on Darfur by By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • Darfur and Prof Anne Bartlett By Mohammed M. Haiba
  • Bravo Toyota 4X4 you reached Trap Khartoum by Hatim El-Madani*
  • Stop the Witch-hunt in Khartoum by Anne Bartlett
  • Battle of Omdurman responsible for Battle of Omdurman. by By Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • It's Historical! by Mack Awer
  • Another Rwanda Genocide going on in the capital of Sudan, Khartoum and in Omdurman. by Mohamad Ahmad Moaz.
  • Why didn't Kiir cry so much for Garang? Tungawan Chol, Syndey, Australia
  • Expected Results from SPLMs 2nd Convention *By James Okuk
  • Statement on DPA Second Anniversary by Abdel Gabar M. Dosa
  • Airplanes Nightmare for South Sudanese By Steve Paterno
  • Stepping Out of Naivasha Paradise By: Abd Al Mahmoud Al Koronkai
  • The Politics of Panic in Southern Sudan By: Prof. Wani Tombe
  • Salva Kiir provokes a dangerous situation in the South By :Tut Gatwech
  • Towards a Sudan without a Government Army By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • Who is Behind Masseriya Tribe? by Mack Awer, former Red Army
  • The London-led Western crusade against Zimbabwe lacks rationalization. by Peter Lokarlo Marsu
  • The United Nations honors a female Sudanese researcher as part of the UNEP champions of the Earth: By Taha Yusuf Hassan
  • Britain to Darfur in daresay France it out by Hatim El Madani*
  • Darfur: Why Insecurity by Proxy has to Stop by Anne Bartlett
  • Corruption in the GOSS is a threat to peace in south Sudan. by Thomas Mawein Bior, Gogrial, Sudan
  • Disability is not Inability: Eliminating Teachers with Disabilities in Education by Ustaz Atem Dut Kuek
  • Postponing Sudan Census: Unjustified GoSSs rush hour By James Okuk
  • Sheikh Salva Keir Birneeeta by Hatim El Madani
  • Justice must be alive in Sudan if peace is genuine? By Mawien D Kuol
  • Sudans Bor county leaders disagree on town ownership by Philip Thon Aleu
  • Sudan and the popular uprising By Arman Muhammad Ahmad
  • Why politics must now also become personal on Darfur and China by Anne Bartlett
  • The Joke of the Poorly Ambitious Sudanese by Ali Bashir
  • The World Bank and NGOs in Southern Sudan: Keeping Poverty For Expatriate Benefit *By James Okuk
  • Kiir: Saying and doing differently by Malual Maker, South Sudan
  • Besides tribalism political favouritism a grave concern in New Sudan By Koang Tut Jing
  • South Sudan Democratic Forum in Canada informs the Goss to be mindful and permits the equality to any one (from South Sudan).By Ker Biel Ruey
  • English, the Crazy Language by Ali Al-Bashir- Jeddah.
  • El-Tom and Mr Nur Israel Taboo Loose lips sinck ships by Hatim El Madani
  • Our Parliament in Juba paid for doing nothing! by David Char Akau, South Sudan
  • Sudan's Economic Development Increases Despite Sanctions By Sabina Castelfranco
  • THE SOUTH IS EMPTY by Tharwat Gassim
  • Sudans Defence Minster: How Racist Can He Be? By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • False Accusation against Dr.Riek Machar, A true Nationalist Leader in South Sudan By: PeterT.Nguanok
  • Tabans acquittal an example of double standard treatment of SPLM members Atem Mabior
  • Sudanese Responses To: "Obama And My Son": Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, DC, USA
  • American Responses: "Obama And My Son": Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, DC, USA
  • Community Land: A Critical Socio-Economic Factor To Temper With In Southern Sudan By James Okuk
  • Breaking a Taboo: Mr Nur and his SLM Office in Israel By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • China refutes accusation on arms sales to Sudan
  • SPLM 2nd Convention: A Hard Test in Democratic Transformation *By James Okuk
  • The 60 Currents by Hamza M Babbikr
  • The unauthorized profile of the Eastern-Sudan Fronts Chairman 2-3 By Mohamed Ibrahim
  • The Justice & Equality Movement (JEM)/ Religion and the State By: Dr. El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • "USA TDOAY": Obama And My Son: Mohammad Ali Salih: Washington, DC, USA
  • CPA Adjustment and Quest for Southern Sudan Development *By James Okuk
  • Dear Cde Pagan Amoum Okiech by Aleu Ayieny Aleu
  • April 2008 General Population Census: Will I be Counted a Southerner? *By James Okuk
  • NUBA ASSOCIATION IN FRANCE:Condolence on death of Bishop Philip Abbass by Dr Ahmed Osman Tyia Kaffi
  • The Trembling Tip of the Nose!/Faisal Ali Suliman Addabi/lawyer/Doha/Qatar
  • An open letter to Hassan Abdullah Turabi By: Brian Adeba,
  • The big lie by Ismail Abdallah M.
  • JEMs Vision for a New Sudan by Dr El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • Reframing the Darfur Crisis by Anne Bartlett
  • Confederation for Southern Sudan a Betrayal to Self-determination By James Okuk
  • President Kiir should admit his failure and resign gracefully by Jor Deng
  • Kiir must be indicted for war crimes BY Atem Mabior
  • Kiir shows his real colours By Atem Mabior
  • Will UN Envoy Eliason Do His Homework on Darfur? By Dr. El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • Critical Analysis on the paper presented by Presidential Advisor, Mr Bona Malwal under the title The Future of the CPA under the Current Political Crises`.
  • Sudan needs reality check By Hassan Ibrahim
  • The Hypocrisy of NCP Supporters on Darfur By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • The Polemics of Politics of Transitions in Sudan By John G Nyuot Yoh*
  • SPLM: A Party that Deserves Building not Ruining By James Okuk
  • The Paradox of Political Transformation by SPLM Standards. By; Baraj Ayuen
  • Fanatic Islamic Iran & Exploitive Transnational Capitalism are the Most harmful Sources of insecurity in the World
  • Movement erosion Bneha .... Conflict adults ousts Emin Tela t by Shol Goba
  • Northern Sudanese and Bashirs Call for Jihad Time for Southerners to Think Aloud Lily A. Akol
  • Sudanese & American Friends March for Peace and Reconciliation By Jimmy Mulla
  • The Dilemma of The SPLM: Is it justified? By: Ngino Nikako
  • The 4th General Congress of the Justice & Equality Movement (JEM) By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • If Sudan Want Peace it has to Prepare for War? * By James Okuk
  • Yet Another Africans Challenge: Liability No. 21 the IQ By Dr. Mohamed N. Bushara*
  • When will Darfur mediators learn (2) By Suliman A Giddo*
  • Bravo to Mr. Salva Kiir for Rejecting the US Proposal By James Okuk Solomon
  • Female Circumcision Negligence and Abuse By Dr. Amal Ahmed Elbasheir.
  • U.S Should Upgrade the SPLA if it is willing to Help Southern Sudan *By James Okuk Solomon
  • Where Sudan Is Booming By Alexis Okeowo
  • When Will Darfur Mediators Learn? By Suliman A. Giddo*
  • Mob Emotions Is Anti-Democratic Transformation By James Okuk Solomon
  • Check with Improper Balance: SPLM Risky Politics of Partnership By James Okuk Solomon
  • Another way to break Abie deadlock by Dr. S.M.Eldebailo
  • The SPLM & Protecting the CPA: Guarding Against the Cynical Obstructionism of NCP Parek Maduot
  • Do Ministers belong to the Party or to the Government? *By James Okuk
  • Habib Bank v Central Bank of Sudan Ismat Abdel Gadir - LL.B
  • Shilluk Communities vs Shilluk International Congress (SIC) By: Kimo Ajing Aba
  • It is Darfur Again and the Misery Goes On By E. Ablorh-Odjidja
  • SLM request to delay Libya talks by Tag Elkhazin,
  • Will the united Sudan remain attractive for all under the NCP regime?! By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • The Value of Peace in Sudan: From Ki-Moon to International Wisemen By James Okuk Solomon
  • South Sudan Egyptians relations / John Lawrence Morbe Joseph
  • Will the Failed Abuja Diplomacy Be Repeated in Libya? By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Why a reality check is needed on Darfur by Anne Bartlett
  • United, Cairo's poor and poorer get heard
  • A Message from Ajik (Ajang) Union in North American To: Commander and Comrade Daniel Kodi by Fadul H.Haimad
  • What Happened To Gen. Kiir First Vice Presidency Position? / by Isaiah Abraham
  • Eritrea in the Sudan's president's office, By: Mohamed Osman Ibrahim
  • UN Ban Ki-Moon and his Drought Thesis of Darfur Conflict By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • UN Secretary General: Mission Impossible By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Old Habits Die Hard: The National Congress Party is Back to Its Outmoded TacticsBy: Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Greatest Marginalization of All Time/Isam Siddig
  • Darfur: A Little Less Talk, A Little More Action by Anne Bartlett
  • Muslims eye America by MOHAMMAD ALI SALIH
  • General Elections in Sudan by the Year 2009: A Fact or a Fiction?/By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Alsalkeen Charitable Organization General Secretary. /By Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Cons and Cues About The Sudanese Forthcoming General Election/Isaiah Abraham
  • Animals rights are also rights/Isaiah Abraham
  • SPLM Official Counters the Recent Remarks of the NCP Official over Abyie and Darfour Translated by MAJOK NIKODEMO AROU
  • The Arab Congregation and the Ideology of Genocide in Darfur, Sudan By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • Catholics Led to Hell/Written by Daniel Deng Monyde,
  • Keep away from Darfour, Mustafa Osman Ismail, warns the SPLM Translated by Majok Nikodemo Arou
  • Abyei Protocol. by Mayen. D. Ater
  • Darfur Actors and the absence of Road Maps By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Judiciary Reshuffle Ineptly Calculated by Daniel Deng Monyde
  • Stop the Genocide and give the security then peace will come/Hamed Mohamedain Omer
  • THE AMERICANS AND ME (2): ISLAM Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, Asharq Alawsat
  • Unwanted in Israel By Sherine Tadros at the Egyptian-Israeli border
  • ISSUES that Rose From the Sudanese Ambassador Press Conference By Jwothab Amum Ajak
  • Al Bashir Slams on Campaigners against Sudan, Reviews Political Developments By: Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Was Dr. John Garang Assassinated?/Daniel Deng Monyde,
  • What had happened in Darfur?/Mahmoud E. Yousif
  • Abie conflict The Inferno of Nivasha or the Paradise of Peace by Dr. S.M.Eldebailo
  • TEXT- Conclusions of AU-UN, Sudan on the Hybrid Operations
  • Alfashir is nearer than Kampala: JEM/NRF Commends New SPLM Stance on Darfur/By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • Sudan: The Politics of Naming - Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency/Prof. Mahmood Mamdani
  • US to Sanction Dr. Khalil Ibrahim! A Statement/Gammali Hasan Galal Eldin
  • Can Darfur Survive the CPA?/Abdullahi El-Tom and Mahmoud Abbaker Suleiman
  • GOD OR AMERICA: WHO IS FIRST? 8 DIFFERENT OPINIONS/Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, Asharq Alawsat
  • It would be Unwise to think that a United Sudan Properly Functions within the Main Frameworks of the Phenomenon of Eastern African Development./Urban T. Kir
  • Darfur Crisis: Mediation Failure (2)/Ahmed M. Mohamedain
  • Government of Sudan and Darfur crisis/Musa Yakub Daoud
  • President Bush "Hurts" for Darfur Darfur Is Safer than US Urban Cities/Ali Baghdadi
  • Our Vision on the prospect of peace to end the Darfur tragedy/By Dr. M.A.Suleiman
  • Lies, Damned Lies and the Darfur Crisis by Anne Bartlett is a Director of the Darfur Centre for Human Rights and Development
  • International Media Ignore Sudanese Voices /AfricaFocus (Washington, DC)
  • Sudanese cyber rally forces website to remove controversial ad by Wasil Ali
  • why war in abyaii by bakhit mohd humaidan
  • Al Salikeen Earmarks 1.2 Billion Pounds for Service Schemes by Al Sammani Awadallah
  • A CALL TO ALL THE PEOPLE OF SOUTH SUDAN/By James Ogilo Agor Agokwech-Rochester, MN USA
  • Will the Quartet Summit Contradict with the UN, AU Role in Darfur By: Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Sudan Vision Carries Out a Survey on Pros and Cons of Humanitarian Aid in Sudan By: Al-Sammani Awadallah
  • Al Khatim Adlans legacy of wisdom and vision/ahmed elzobier
  • WHEN THEY BEG FOR UNITY by Mack Awer Riak
  • The Genocide Glitterati by Anne Bartlett
  • Darfur-Darfur Dialogue Will Not be Held Hostage by Hostile Armed Factions", Says Dr. Omar Adam
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains/by Nuba Mountains Democratic Forum/Nour Tawir
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains by Nuba_Mountains Democratic Forum by Samie A Djudo
  • How Dr. Garang wanted Abyei to be? (1) /By Akol Miyen Kuol
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains by Nuba Mountains Democratic Forum
  • The Doomsday Cult/Ahmed Sam, human rights activist.
  • China must emulate AU wisdom in Sudan by Simon Roughneen for ISN
  • An article introducing our country Sudan by Maha esmeal ahmed esmeal
  • It is a time for all Peace forces to take action By : Matur Aciek
  • Kiir stood to his pledge of no reverse gear/ BY MAJOK NIKODEMO AROU
  • Unwitting Party to Genocide By Stephen Rademaker
  • January 9th- a Day of Peace and Full Independence/By Dr. Mawien Akot
  • Muslim cadet clear on identity/YVETTE CABRERA
  • 2008 General Elections: What Are The Scenarios Awaiting Us?/Maker Costa-Syracuse New York
  • s NCP is planning to rig elections at census level/By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Criticism to the Global War Against International Terrorism, (G-WAIT) by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Swindles of Modern Liberal Democracy by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • Peaceful Conflict Resolution & the War on Terror The cases of Sudan and Iraq by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Jinjaweed Leader By : kuku kadia
  • UA-GSC Sudan Resolution Passes/By Marie Y. Thibault
  • All About Darfur: Is Sudan in a culture of war? By Virginie Wembey
  • AU Recommends Six Month Extension for its Mission By: Al Sammani Awadallah / IOL
  • No South/North border and ABC: CPA is dead.By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Darfur destruction is Sudans al-Bashirs Shame/By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Relationship Between Economic Mismanagement & Social Instability by Eng. Tarig M.M.K. Anter
  • Fake Modern Religions Are Fighting Faith by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Ideological Structure of The Conservative Professional Nationalist Party & System by Eng. Tarig M.M.K. Anter,
  • 'Lost Boys of Sudan' By: Kristin Boyd , Staff Writer
  • Sudan's al-Bashir and Palace are imperfect Match By Sabrino Majok Majok
  • Frank Wolf: Divest from Sudan By U.S. Rep. Frank Wolf (R-10)
  • Sudanese Native Relates Horrors of His Childhood/By Konstantin Shishkin
  • General Congress of JEM Asserts Creation of a political Party/Professor Mahmoud Abakar Sulaiman
  • Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and the Litany of AU Deceit in Darfur/Dr. Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
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  • Reign of Corruption and political stagnation By Andrew Bak
  • Current American Planning Strategies vs. Planning Strategies of the 50s/By: Adil Bala (PhD)*
  • Free Will, JEM Peace Wing Sign Political and Military Protocol By Al-Sammani Awadallah
  • Only Favourable Humanitarian and Security Conditions are Needed in Darfur By: Al Sammani Awadalla
  • A call to Abolish Sharia Law in South Sudan: GOSS must take a Lead
  • Race and colour consciousness art or is it ... Religions? Hatim Elmadani
  • Who are Landless People in Sudan? Mack Awer -Cairo
  • Darfur: Diplomacy and its Discontents by Anne Bartlett
  • Why Egypt won't press Sudan: the Nile By Dan Murphy | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor
  • Pathological Delusions by Ahmed Elzobier
  • NIF is determined to kill CPA By Sabrino Majok Majok
  • Darfur - Solution Must Come From Africans By Mohammed Eisa Ismail
  • The responsibility to protect Darfur By William G. O'Neill
  • Sudanese go tech savvy By Cheryl Lecesse
  • Sorrow in Sudan By Vivian Ho