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Articles and Analysies Last Updated: Oct 27, 2009 - 9:33:43 PM

Darfur: between defiance of accused and hindrance of Justice By: Elrayah Hassan Khalifa California USA
Sudaneseonline.com

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                           Darfur: between defiance of accused and hindrance of                                                     

                           Justice

 

                     By:   Elrayah Hassan Khalifa

                            California USA

 

 

On June 30th 1989 Sudanese people woke up to say their farewell to their democratically   elected government and to receive the worst nightmare in their modern history; a military government called itself The Government of National Salvation (GNS), putting an abrupt halt to the ongoing peace agreement between the forced outgoing democratic government and Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). From its inception GNS concealed its real identity, assuring disassociation with any group or party. However, people of Sudan were smart enough to identify the group whose interests were against peace with SPLA/M and whose project was the total Islamization and Arabization of the country. Thus, it was not a novel for GNS to escalate the war in the South and to resort to any means including declaration of Jihad, to crush Southerners and win the war. However, after depleting the country resources and killing young men by pushing them into an aggressive war, untrained, GNS relinquished the notion of Jihad and agreed to sign the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) with the SPLM. The war in the South could well be a subject matter of war crimes owing to the atrocities committed by the military and paramilitary troops of the government which included killing POWs, burning villages, raping women and giving counterinsurgency impunity to raid the villages and enslave children. However, since the parties reached an agreement and in the absence of fact finding committee or investigators to investigate any complaints from either side there was no point for initiating legal proceeding in this issue.

From a government reputable for its efficient civil service system, Sudan, under the current regime, was transformed into a state of chaos; lacking the minimum standard of berucarcy. Administrative mechanism was manipulated solely to empower the supporters of the regime with wealth and power. On the other hand, GNS employed various weapons to fight its political opponents, the most important of which was termination of employees. Tens of thousands of highly qualified employees were laid off for no reason other than their lack of enthusiasm to the policy of the regime. Other employees were forced to go on training camps where they were subjected, besides military training, to rigorous religious programs against their will. Those who held opposing views have faced detention without due process. But that is not the whole story; the government had deterrent treatment for resolute opponents. One of these means was the notorious ghost houses; places where detainees kept and subjected to unspeakable torture. Detainees who were lucky to survive, told disturbing tales about the types of torture applied on them. Lies and cover ups were the main methods the government employed to outwit human rights organization, when paying visits for inspections. Following these state of affairs, Sudanese citizens started to evacuate the country in an unprecedented brain drain in history. As the policy of the regime was to vacate the country from any person who opposes or does not support its civilization project (Islamic Shari a law), it has left the door open for those who want to leave the country. In light of these preceding facts, one could imagine how the government of Sudan would deal with the conflict of Darfur.

 

 

 

Darfur issue:

 

The people of Darfur suffered a tediously protracted marginalization and neglect from the central government of Sudan. They have always been underrepresented in their own region. Furthermore they were destituted of their share in wealth and power at the national level. When GNS signed the CPA with SPLM; the people of Darfur felt that this was the appropriate time for the government to repair the damage of neglect and allocate some fund from the oil revenues to start developing the region. They requested the government to include their grievances within the CPA agreement as a national issue, but the government rejected their request with disdain. The long standing neglect and inequitable treatments which the people of Darfur suffered, not only from the current government, but from all governments which ruled Sudan since independence made them conscious of the fact that nothing would assert their rights other than violence. When people of the South took arms and fought for their rights, thought the Darfurians, the government of Khartoum listened and submitted to their claims.

The present conflict started in 2003 and escalated into one of the fiercest confrontations in African continent. There have been an estimated of 30,000 casualties, one million people are displaced within the region and over 120,000 have fled into neighboring Chad. As was indicated earlier, the region of Darfur has always been marginalized by the central government in terms of infrastructure, economic development and education, despite their loyalty to the Northern. Clashes took place between the nomads (who called themselves Arabs) and sedentary farmers (who came to be called Africans). Earlier when there was enough pasture and water for both groups, nomads were always welcomed by farmers. Besides grazing their animals, they fertilized the farmers lands. They also sold their products and bought the necessities they needed. The relationships between all the tribes were smooth and the deep interactions led to intermarriage between them. When conflict aroused it was usually settled by local chiefs, who were widely respected and their judgment was honored. Things have changed after drought and desertification hit the region and impacted the lives of all populations in the area. Competitions for posture and water led to frequent frictions, which in turn fomented the lurking animosity between nomads (which are called Baggara tribes) and the farmers (which are largely Fur Masalit and Zaghawa). Though Zaghawa are nomads they were not regarded as Arabs. The animosity was largely created by the feeling of superiority among the nomad Arabs, who felt they were the source of civilization; language and culture, hence they should be given the upper hand in administering the region, albeit their number is small. This perception was supported by leading politicians in the North, whom, ironically, the Darfurians constitute solid block of their party (Umma party) voters. Darfurians on the other hand, have always felt degraded and neglected by the central government but were bestowed with legendary patience acquired through their continual life of hardships and sufferings. The central government neither left the conflict to the locals, whose competency was proved to be effective in the past, nor did it equip the official administrations. Thus the region of Darfur was left in a complete absence of conflict resolution mechanism.

 

From this state of affairs erupted two rebel movements, who, despite the magnitude of the protracted injustice and neglect, addressed the government politely and in a civilized fashion. These two groups are Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM), based on Fur and Masaleet tribes and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), consists of Zaghawa tribe. The revolt started on April 2003 by attacking Alfashir, a big city in Darfur, killing 72 troops of the garrison, destroying four aircraft on the ground and arrested the garrison commander. The reaction of the government was both unrealistic and disproportionate. It kept calling rebellions armed bandits, or that foreign countries funded them (an unsubstantiated allegations yet to be proved by the government) for a sole reason of causing disruptions in an attempt to undermine the government of Sudan. Though the attack by the rebellions was relatively small, intended only to send a message to the government, but it seemed the voice of reason was the last resort to this government (the case of the South was a good example).

The retaliation of the government was not expected to go that far and extend to intentionally killing civilians; including children, women and old men. It was not expected to overstep the limit of humankind morality (assuming the government has one) and engage in massive use of air force to bombard weakening civilians inside their villages. The government took advantage of the presence of nomadic Arabs whose grudges against Darfurians (blacks) were commonplace and were only waiting for a chance to unleash their malicious animosities against Darfurians. Those nomadic Arabs are the notorious Janjaweed used earlier by the government as proxy in its conflict with the South. Like its conflict with the South the government gave Janjaweed impunity, and helped them with the airstrikes. The policy of the government was deeper than just committing atrocities against people of Darfur. Its aim was to Arabize and Islamize the country, as a means of intercepting the Africanization trend brought by SPLM/A. Hence, the government endeavored to replace African-like populace with Arab-like and the people of Darfur do not fit in the second category. Based on this policy Large number of nomadic tribes from neighboring countries have entered Darfur region and settled. Some of these tribesmen were recruited by the government to serve as Janjaweed. They were given horses, weapons and free rein to kill, sabotage and rape. Destroying the means of livelihood such as filling the wells, killing the cattle and burning the villages; stands out as a strong evidence of the intention of the government to vacate the country from Darfurians, though the government claimed that its intention was to deny the rebels sanctuary in Darfur. In other words the government shifted its prime responsibility of protecting its own people from atrocities, to becoming the main orchestrator of the campaign of ethnic cleansing.

 

The international communality:

 

The international community as usual did not take action until 2004 when the Secretary-General announced the establishment of a commission of Inquiry to determine whether acts of genocide had occurred in Darfur. The Committee concluded that; while there was killing of civilians, torture, enforced disappearances, destruction of villages and rape, but the acts could not be characterized as genocide. However, it recommended the council to act urgently to both stop perpetrators and rescue victims. After this finding of massive violation of human rights, Security Councils only action was to call on the government of Sudan to disarm the Janjaweed militias, claiming that Darfur was not on its agenda. With international pressure from humanitarian and human rights groups, after the deteriorating situation in Darfur, Security Council passed resolution 1556 determining that the situation in Sudan constitutes a threat to international peace and security to the stability of the region. The resolution   went further to Call on the Government of Sudan to fulfill immediately all of the commitments it made in the 3 July 2004 Communiqu, including particularly by facilitating international relief for the humanitarian disaster by means of a moratorium on all restrictions that might hinder the provision of humanitarian assistance and access to the affected populations, by advancing independent investigation in cooperation with the United Nations of violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, by the establishment of credible security conditions for the protection of the civilian population and humanitarian actors, and by the resumption of political talks with dissident groups from the Darfur region, specifically the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudan Liberation   Movement and Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/A) on Darfur.

There was conclusive evidence to the effect that the government of Sudan was profoundly involved in these atrocities, if not the sole player and instigator of this tragedy, but nevertheless the resolution was void of any indication to the government involvement in carrying these attacks. These violations have been recorded few months later when the situation worsened in Darfur and human rights groups were able to document the horrendous crimes committed or otherwise instigated by the Sudanese government. The Security Council was expected, as the sole institution for maintaining international peace and security and the last resort for stopping transgressors and rescuing victims; to pass a tough resolution against the government of Sudan. But it had been crippled by the narrow interest of China and Russia, who, were expected to veto any sanction against Sudan! Darfurians had no options but to wait another two months, only for the Security Council to declare the entire fiasco of the Sudanese government to better the humanitarian conditions and to protect civilians against attacks of the Janjaweed militias. Security Council, seeing that the government of Sudan was not complying with its resolutions, passed resolution 1564 to include practical steps of ending the state of impunity by arresting the Janjaweed militias and any one who was responsible for human rights abuses. The resolution also made reference to the African Union (AU) to expand its monitoring mission. The resolution further established Commission of Inquiry to investigate violations of international crimes. The government of Sudan has never implemented any of the Security Council resolutions; on the contrary it continued to defy the international community by intentionally disregarding its resolutions. Even so and notwithstanding the declaration of the United States Congress unanimously that Sudan had committed genocide against the people of Darfur, Security Council could not step up to its role. It passed resolution 1574, which did not condemn the government of Sudan. In fact it urged the Joint Assessment Mission of the United Nations, the World Bank and the parties, in association with other bilateral and multilateral donors, to continue their efforts to prepare for the rapid delivery of an assistance package for the reconstruction and economic development of Sudan ! In resolution 1591 The Security Council decided that, in light of the failure of all parties to the conflict in Darfur to fulfill their commitments, to increase pressure on the parties by imposing a travel ban and assets freeze on those impeding the peace process, committing human rights violations and violating measures set out in previous resolutions. The resolution also condemns the failure of the government to disarm militiamen and apprehend and bring to justice Janjaweed leaders and their associates who had carried out human rights and international humanitarian law violations and other atrocities.

 

These consistent patterns failure to observe the Security Council resolutions; have led to the adoption of resolution 1593, which was based on the report of the International Commission of Inquiry on violations of international humanitarian and human rights law in Darfur. The Council determined that the situation in Darfur continued to constitute a   threat to international peace and security; as such acting under Chapter V11 of the Charter of the United Nations decided to refer the situation in Darfur (since July 1rst 2002) to the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court. This resolution came after two years of unendurable sufferings of victims of Darfur, who were caught in the middle between immoral, astute government and inadequate Security Council. Chapter V11, article 3 of the UN Charter, empowers the Security Council to determine if there is a threat to the international peace and security and then make the recommendations or decide the measures to be taken. Some of the measures which the Security Council might take are specified in article 41 and 42 of Chapter V11. Article 41 provides that The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations. If the measures specified in Article 41 proved to be inadequate, at that point Security Council would resort to Article 42 which provides it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations. Security Council found it appropriate, to end once and for all the untold misery of the people of Darfur; rightfully referred the matter to the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court. In article 13 of its statues, the International Criminal Court specifies three ways by which it can assume jurisdiction, one of which is pertinent to resolution 1593, which goes: A situation in which one or more of such crimes appears to have been committed is referred to the Prosecutor by the Security Council acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations.

Algeria, Brazil, China and United States; abstained from voting notwithstanding their acknowledgement to the overwhelming evidence against the government of Sudan provided by the International Commission of Inquiry on violations of international humanitarian and human rights law on Darfur. It goes without saying that people of the world conferred great responsibility on the Security Council to take strong measures to restore international peace and security. The report of the Commission did not only reveal the massive crimes committed by the government, but it further added blocking of humanitarian aid to the victims; an attitude which was later characterized by the court prosecutor as genocide by attrition. The position of the United States in abstaining was not justifiable by any means. Her representative states The United States continues to fundamentally object to the view that the ICC should be able to exercise jurisdiction over the nationals, including government officials, of States not party to the Rome Statute. That strikes at the essence of the nature of sovereignty. Because of our concerns, we do not agree to a Security Council referral of the situation in Darfur to the ICC and abstained in the voting on today's resolution. We decided not to oppose the resolution because of the need for the international community to work together in order to end the climate of impunity in the Sudan and because the resolution provides protection from investigation or prosecution for United States nationals and members of the armed forces of non-State parties

By evoking the essence of the nature of sovereignty USA representative brought to the memory the position of Winston Churchill when he was called to intervene to rescue the Jews from the Holocaust in Nazi Germany. At that time and because Churchill was observing the sovereignty of the state of Germany, he refused to intervene. He added that so long as Germany was acting within its territories, he did not have legitimate reason to intervene. Had Germany acted beyond its boundaries that could have been an issue of international law. This statement has left millions of Jews to be exterminated in one of the most horrendous crimes in modern history. Even after having the benefit of hindsight we can not judge Churchill harshly on this matter, for two reasons; one of which is lack of precedents on the issue at the time and the second is the sacrosanctity of sovereignty at the time when the concept of nation state was relatively new. Now almost all members of the United Nations have singed or ratified the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in December of 1948. This declaration has provided for the fundamental rights of all human beings; the most important of which is the right to life, liberty and security of person. Sovereignty of the state therefore shall be respected and recognized provided; it does not jeopardize or otherwise violate human rights and freedoms. To say otherwise would be to put the wagon in front of the horse. Ironically, it was USA which conducted the trials of Nuremburg (November 1945-October 1946) to prosecute the Nazis for their crimes against the Jews, under the International Military Tribunal. Now we have those expendable blacks of Darfur, why not pushing hard through the mechanism of the International Criminal court to restore peace and security for them. It was not enough for members of the Security Council to pay lip-service expressing their sympathy and solidarity with the victims, despite their convictions of the evidence brought by the prosecutor. The suggestion of American and Algerian to rely on the AU in resolving this conflict would only be counter productive and would further prolong the sufferings of the victims. The AU does not have the capability or the experience to resolve this issue single-handedly. Yet, the decision of the Security Council to refer the matter to the International Criminal Court was a historical step, which would end the long sufferings of the victims of Darfur and seek justice for them.

 

After careful investigations , the International Criminal Court had issued arrest warrants on 27 April against two accused; Ahmad Harun, former Minister of State for the Interior of the Sudan, and Ali Kushayb, a Janjaweed leader who had committed crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. The Sudanese government continued its arrogant attitude and refused to cooperate with the International Criminal Court. The office of prosecutor was not legally obliged to comply with the principle of Complentarity as the matter was referred to the court by Security Council. The inference being that once the matter has been brought by Security Council to the court, then the court should have the primary jurisdiction of the case. Even so, to ascertain that all Sudanese accountability initiatives have been addressed and in order to comply with technicalities of the admissibility of the case, the office of the prosecutor undertook visit to Khartoum. It appeared that there was no credible proceedings took place with respect to both accused. Ali Kushayb was interrogated briefly and was released for lack of evidence. As for Ahmad Harun; it was declared by the Ministry of Interior that he had been interrogated and there was no case. The minister further added that the International Criminal Court had no jurisdiction and that the prosecutor was only an intruder. The office of prosecutor exerted all the necessary efforts to effect the arrest of the two defendants, but the government of Sudan not only refused to cooperate, but rewarded on of the accused by promoting him and giving him access to the refugees humanitarian aid. While office of prosecutor continued to investigate other violations, it concluded that the government of Sudan failed to respect resolution 1593 (2005) and to cooperate with the office or the court and urged the Security Council to act and put an end to this pattern of non-cooperation.

 

The current situation

 

On July 14, 2008 the Chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court Luis Moren- Ocampo alleged that Omer al-Bashir, the President of Sudan bore individual criminal responsibility for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, committed since 2003 in Darfur. The reaction of the President of Sudan did not change; only this time he raised the tone of his braggadocio attitude in defying the international community. In essence he was saying to the prosecutor; come and get me if you are strong enough. The government of Sudan mobilized the people in an effort to give the outside world the impression that the people of Sudan were behind their President. On the other hand this same government undertook double standard attitude. While it stood firm, unshaken and uncompromisingly resolute (in the Sudanese media) against any cooperation with the International Criminal Court, it held intensive diplomatic negotiations in New York, to find a resolution from this intricate predicament. The world did not hear such an outcry throughout the unimaginable torture of the victims of Darfur (20003-2008) from African leaders or the Arab League, who expressed their concern about the move of the Prosecutor. Had they displayed the same enthusiasm and moved in the same intense manner they could have solved the problem of Darfur. Both African and Arab leaders fear that this trial might set a precedent, uphold an international rule of law and hence might jeopardize their totalitarian system of governments and further expose their poor records of human rights.

 

Sudan, through the mediation of AU, pushed to freeze the arrest warrant by the Security Council for one year. This could only happen if this move is not vetoed by any of the permanent members. The disturbing fact is that the international community could respond to the threats of the Sudanese government if these threats implied either blocking the aid from the Darfurian refugees, or expelling the humanitarian workers and peacekeeping mission. If this scenario occurred and the Security Council passed such a resolution then the perpetrators were able to impose their agenda in spite of the will of the international community. It is deplorable that, while some members of the Security Council are struggling to get the Security to freeze the arrest warrant of the Sudanese President,   he is still speaking disrespectfully of the international institutions. Last Thursday July 31st 2008 The UN Security Council renewed the mandate for peacekeepers in Darfur on Thursday in a resolution that Washington criticized for raising concerns about moves to indict Sudans president for genocide. Most Western powers accepted wording that makes clear the council would be willing to discuss freezing any International Criminal Court indictment of President Omar Hassan al-Bashir for genocide in the interest of peace in Darfur. (Daily Times) I believe it is the duty of the United States to stand against this trend and restore to the Security Council its reputation as a great edifice, which people of the world conferred great responsibility on.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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  • WHO WILL PAY FOR ABYEI? by Julie Kuol
  • Flawed Justice for Sudan by Antonio Cassese
  • We can Shield off Ocampo and his Likes when United by Ahmed Al Bahi
  • El Bashir !!! Die a man, not a ridiculous ape. by By: Hajareen Toum.
  • What crimes? by Omar Al Bushra
  • Where the indictment president Al-basher mislead people by Musa Yakub Media officer \ Sudan Liberation /movement in the UK and Northern Ireland
  • International Criminal Court Has Been Political Corporation by Gibreel Musa Ahmed ---- Khartoum - Sudan
  • Ocampo Awakened the Arab Solidarity/Adil Faris
  • The Sudanese Unique Social Fabric Can't be Destroyed by Ocampo's Statement by Omar Al Bushra
  • The Truth will Remain Glaring by Omar Khalid
  • Why Sudan Opposes the ICC Decision by Salama Tagani
  • Justice is Useless If it Destroys Peace *By James Okik
  • Comment on Bashir Indictment by Dr Isam Siddig
  • The Value of ICC Action on Darfur by Anne Bartlett
  • Providence is always on the side of the strongest battalions by Hassan Ali
  • Double Standard in Daylight Time by Ahmed AlBahi
  • No more Malesh we welcome the ICC move by Hatim El Madani*
  • Ocampo is Playing with Fire by Omar Khalid
  • President Salva Kiir's Abuse of power and Rule by whim. By: Joseph Aban Adyieng
  • Western Culture Moral Bankruptcy by Yassir Madani
  • Sudan Does Not Seek to Become US Eager Ally Ahmed Al Badri
  • Sudanese Peace: To Attain Democracy or Autocracy Consolidation? (1-2)/By: Mahmoud E. Yousif - Juba
  • US Feverish Attempts by Omar Al Bushra
  • Freeing Communities from the Legacy of War by Zakieldeen Abdllah
  • Averting Rainy Season Hazards by Salma Tagani
  • Enemies of the CPA poise to create confusion by By Majok Nikodemo Arou
  • Sudan's Position on NATO Troops Unchanged by Hassa Ali
  • Winter,Supporting Who against Who? by Omar Al Bushra
  • Are They Rebels or Bandits? by Ahmed Al Bahi
  • Need for Reciprocity in Sudan-US Relations by Omar Khalid
  • Reconciliation, Accord in the Offing by Yassir Madani
  • A Giant Step to Combat HIV/AIDS /Ahmed Al Bahi
  • Purging Political Life by John Gordon
  • Foreigners Presence in Sudan by Omar Al Bushra
  • The Massacre of Port Sudan By Dr. Abu Amna
  • Mr Al-Al-Nur wailing on the wrong Wall abandoning the three cards Monte trick by Hatim El Madani*
  • Delay in the Hybrid Operation Deployment by Omar Khalid
  • Would Sudans inflexible National Congress Party (NCP) honour a World Court Verdict on Abyei,? By Peter Lokarlo Marsu- Melbourne
  • The Elections Act by Yassir Madani
  • CPA Protection Responsibility of All National Forces by Omar Al Bushra
  • The Up-Coming Elections A Collective Responsibility towards Peace in Sudan by Dr. Ahmed Hamoda Hamid Fadlalla.
  • Updated JEM Proposal for Change by Dr. Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • Re to a Professor: Anne Bartlett Darfur is True By- Taha Zein
  • A Witness from among themselves by John Gordon
  • A Collective Responsibility towards Peace in Sudan by Dr. Ahmed Hamoda Hamid Fadlalla
  • Public Opinion No Longer Concerned About the Sudanese-American Relations by Yassir Madani
  • An Opportunity for National Reconciliation by Omar khalid
  • Towards Responsibility and a Harmonious Relationship by Omar Al Bushra
  • ICC Prosecutor Dealt another Blow by John Gordon
  • Unity of darfur by Babiker Gardia
  • Darfur: Truth or Fiction? By Anne Bartlett
  • Beyond the Last Computer by Philip Emeagwali
  • The Chevron way the US in open talks with Al-Qaida of Sudan by Hatim El-Madani*
  • Abu Dhabi looks to Sudan for food supply by Dr. S. A. Suliman
  • The world has to save Sudanfrom the brutality of the Khartoum regime by Bahar Arabie
  • Fragile Sudan: Search for Unity that will Never Be *By James Okuk
  • Government Suggests Joint Administration for Abyei Area
  • The Question of African Identity, Arabism and Islam phobia in the Sudan By: Justin D. Wannis
  • YOU ! SUDANESE PEOPLES, MARGINALIZED AND EXCLUDED INTENTIONALLY FROM DEVELOPMENT by Dr AHMED OSMAN TYIA KAFFI.
  • Salva Kiir: Shedding the tears of failure/John Sabit Atar, Nairobi, Kenya;
  • Expert De Waal Continues Misleading the World on Darfur by By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • Darfur and Prof Anne Bartlett By Mohammed M. Haiba
  • Bravo Toyota 4X4 you reached Trap Khartoum by Hatim El-Madani*
  • Stop the Witch-hunt in Khartoum by Anne Bartlett
  • Battle of Omdurman responsible for Battle of Omdurman. by By Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • It's Historical! by Mack Awer
  • Another Rwanda Genocide going on in the capital of Sudan, Khartoum and in Omdurman. by Mohamad Ahmad Moaz.
  • Why didn't Kiir cry so much for Garang? Tungawan Chol, Syndey, Australia
  • Expected Results from SPLMs 2nd Convention *By James Okuk
  • Statement on DPA Second Anniversary by Abdel Gabar M. Dosa
  • Airplanes Nightmare for South Sudanese By Steve Paterno
  • Stepping Out of Naivasha Paradise By: Abd Al Mahmoud Al Koronkai
  • The Politics of Panic in Southern Sudan By: Prof. Wani Tombe
  • Salva Kiir provokes a dangerous situation in the South By :Tut Gatwech
  • Towards a Sudan without a Government Army By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • Who is Behind Masseriya Tribe? by Mack Awer, former Red Army
  • The London-led Western crusade against Zimbabwe lacks rationalization. by Peter Lokarlo Marsu
  • The United Nations honors a female Sudanese researcher as part of the UNEP champions of the Earth: By Taha Yusuf Hassan
  • Britain to Darfur in daresay France it out by Hatim El Madani*
  • Darfur: Why Insecurity by Proxy has to Stop by Anne Bartlett
  • Corruption in the GOSS is a threat to peace in south Sudan. by Thomas Mawein Bior, Gogrial, Sudan
  • Disability is not Inability: Eliminating Teachers with Disabilities in Education by Ustaz Atem Dut Kuek
  • Postponing Sudan Census: Unjustified GoSSs rush hour By James Okuk
  • Sheikh Salva Keir Birneeeta by Hatim El Madani
  • Justice must be alive in Sudan if peace is genuine? By Mawien D Kuol
  • Sudans Bor county leaders disagree on town ownership by Philip Thon Aleu
  • Sudan and the popular uprising By Arman Muhammad Ahmad
  • Why politics must now also become personal on Darfur and China by Anne Bartlett
  • The Joke of the Poorly Ambitious Sudanese by Ali Bashir
  • The World Bank and NGOs in Southern Sudan: Keeping Poverty For Expatriate Benefit *By James Okuk
  • Kiir: Saying and doing differently by Malual Maker, South Sudan
  • Besides tribalism political favouritism a grave concern in New Sudan By Koang Tut Jing
  • South Sudan Democratic Forum in Canada informs the Goss to be mindful and permits the equality to any one (from South Sudan).By Ker Biel Ruey
  • English, the Crazy Language by Ali Al-Bashir- Jeddah.
  • El-Tom and Mr Nur Israel Taboo Loose lips sinck ships by Hatim El Madani
  • Our Parliament in Juba paid for doing nothing! by David Char Akau, South Sudan
  • AFRICAN FOOTBALL TOURNAMENT by Ali Bashir Al-Shafie
  • Sudan's Economic Development Increases Despite Sanctions By Sabina Castelfranco
  • THE SOUTH IS EMPTY by Tharwat Gassim
  • Sudans Defence Minster: How Racist Can He Be? By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • BETWEEN GENUINE DEMOCRACY AND THE CLEPTOCRACY OF THE RULING GROUP by Arman Muhammed Ahmad
  • False Accusation against Dr.Riek Machar, A true Nationalist Leader in South Sudan By: PeterT.Nguanok
  • Tabans acquittal an example of double standard treatment of SPLM members Atem Mabior
  • Sudanese Responses To: "Obama And My Son": Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, DC, USA
  • American Responses: "Obama And My Son": Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, DC, USA
  • Community Land: A Critical Socio-Economic Factor To Temper With In Southern Sudan By James Okuk
  • Breaking a Taboo: Mr Nur and his SLM Office in Israel By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • China refutes accusation on arms sales to Sudan
  • SPLM 2nd Convention: A Hard Test in Democratic Transformation *By James Okuk
  • The 60 Currents by Hamza M Babbikr
  • The unauthorized profile of the Eastern-Sudan Fronts Chairman 2-3 By Mohamed Ibrahim
  • The Justice & Equality Movement (JEM)/ Religion and the State By: Dr. El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • "USA TDOAY": Obama And My Son: Mohammad Ali Salih: Washington, DC, USA
  • CPA Adjustment and Quest for Southern Sudan Development *By James Okuk
  • Dear Cde Pagan Amoum Okiech by Aleu Ayieny Aleu
  • April 2008 General Population Census: Will I be Counted a Southerner? *By James Okuk
  • NUBA ASSOCIATION IN FRANCE:Condolence on death of Bishop Philip Abbass by Dr Ahmed Osman Tyia Kaffi
  • The Trembling Tip of the Nose!/Faisal Ali Suliman Addabi/lawyer/Doha/Qatar
  • An open letter to Hassan Abdullah Turabi By: Brian Adeba,
  • The big lie by Ismail Abdallah M.
  • JEMs Vision for a New Sudan by Dr El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • Reframing the Darfur Crisis by Anne Bartlett
  • Confederation for Southern Sudan a Betrayal to Self-determination By James Okuk
  • President Kiir should admit his failure and resign gracefully by Jor Deng
  • Kiir must be indicted for war crimes BY Atem Mabior
  • Kiir shows his real colours By Atem Mabior
  • Will UN Envoy Eliason Do His Homework on Darfur? By Dr. El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • SALVA KIIR BETRAYS THE SOUTHERN CAUSE by Atem Mabior
  • Critical Analysis on the paper presented by Presidential Advisor, Mr Bona Malwal under the title The Future of the CPA under the Current Political Crises`.
  • Sudan needs reality check By Hassan Ibrahim
  • The Hypocrisy of NCP Supporters on Darfur By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • The Polemics of Politics of Transitions in Sudan By John G Nyuot Yoh*
  • SPLM: A Party that Deserves Building not Ruining By James Okuk
  • The Paradox of Political Transformation by SPLM Standards. By; Baraj Ayuen
  • Fanatic Islamic Iran & Exploitive Transnational Capitalism are the Most harmful Sources of insecurity in the World
  • A PRAYER IN EACH CORNER by MOHAMMAD ALI SALIH
  • Movement erosion Bneha .... Conflict adults ousts Emin Tela t by Shol Goba
  • Northern Sudanese and Bashirs Call for Jihad Time for Southerners to Think Aloud Lily A. Akol
  • Sudanese & American Friends March for Peace and Reconciliation By Jimmy Mulla
  • The Dilemma of The SPLM: Is it justified? By: Ngino Nikako
  • The 4th General Congress of the Justice & Equality Movement (JEM) By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • If Sudan Want Peace it has to Prepare for War? * By James Okuk
  • Yet Another Africans Challenge: Liability No. 21 the IQ By Dr. Mohamed N. Bushara*
  • When will Darfur mediators learn (2) By Suliman A Giddo*
  • Bravo to Mr. Salva Kiir for Rejecting the US Proposal By James Okuk Solomon
  • Female Circumcision Negligence and Abuse By Dr. Amal Ahmed Elbasheir.
  • U.S Should Upgrade the SPLA if it is willing to Help Southern Sudan *By James Okuk Solomon
  • Where Sudan Is Booming By Alexis Okeowo
  • When Will Darfur Mediators Learn? By Suliman A. Giddo*
  • Mob Emotions Is Anti-Democratic Transformation By James Okuk Solomon
  • Check with Improper Balance: SPLM Risky Politics of Partnership By James Okuk Solomon
  • Another way to break Abie deadlock by Dr. S.M.Eldebailo
  • The SPLM & Protecting the CPA: Guarding Against the Cynical Obstructionism of NCP Parek Maduot
  • Do Ministers belong to the Party or to the Government? *By James Okuk
  • Habib Bank v Central Bank of Sudan Ismat Abdel Gadir - LL.B
  • DRIVING FAST TO EXPLODE IN THE ABYSS! By Comarde Edward Lino
  • Shilluk Communities vs Shilluk International Congress (SIC) By: Kimo Ajing Aba
  • FASTING RAMADAN IN A MONASTERY: Mohammad Ali Salih
  • It is Darfur Again and the Misery Goes On By E. Ablorh-Odjidja
  • SLM request to delay Libya talks by Tag Elkhazin,
  • THE HONOURABLE WISE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD/Ali Mahmoud Hassanein
  • Will the united Sudan remain attractive for all under the NCP regime?! By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • The Value of Peace in Sudan: From Ki-Moon to International Wisemen By James Okuk Solomon
  • South Sudan Egyptians relations / John Lawrence Morbe Joseph
  • Will the Failed Abuja Diplomacy Be Repeated in Libya? By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Why a reality check is needed on Darfur by Anne Bartlett
  • United, Cairo's poor and poorer get heard
  • A Message from Ajik (Ajang) Union in North American To: Commander and Comrade Daniel Kodi by Fadul H.Haimad
  • What Happened To Gen. Kiir First Vice Presidency Position? / by Isaiah Abraham
  • Eritrea in the Sudan's president's office, By: Mohamed Osman Ibrahim
  • UN Ban Ki-Moon and his Drought Thesis of Darfur Conflict By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • UN Secretary General: Mission Impossible By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Old Habits Die Hard: The National Congress Party is Back to Its Outmoded TacticsBy: Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Greatest Marginalization of All Time/Isam Siddig
  • Darfur: A Little Less Talk, A Little More Action by Anne Bartlett
  • Muslims eye America by MOHAMMAD ALI SALIH
  • General Elections in Sudan by the Year 2009: A Fact or a Fiction?/By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Alsalkeen Charitable Organization General Secretary. /By Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Cons and Cues About The Sudanese Forthcoming General Election/Isaiah Abraham
  • Animals rights are also rights/Isaiah Abraham
  • SPLM Official Counters the Recent Remarks of the NCP Official over Abyie and Darfour Translated by MAJOK NIKODEMO AROU
  • The Arab Congregation and the Ideology of Genocide in Darfur, Sudan By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • Catholics Led to Hell/Written by Daniel Deng Monyde,
  • Keep away from Darfour, Mustafa Osman Ismail, warns the SPLM Translated by Majok Nikodemo Arou
  • Abyei Protocol. by Mayen. D. Ater
  • Darfur Actors and the absence of Road Maps By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Judiciary Reshuffle Ineptly Calculated by Daniel Deng Monyde
  • Stop the Genocide and give the security then peace will come/Hamed Mohamedain Omer
  • THE AMERICANS AND ME (2): ISLAM Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, Asharq Alawsat
  • Unwanted in Israel By Sherine Tadros at the Egyptian-Israeli border
  • ISSUES that Rose From the Sudanese Ambassador Press Conference By Jwothab Amum Ajak
  • Al Bashir Slams on Campaigners against Sudan, Reviews Political Developments By: Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Was Dr. John Garang Assassinated?/Daniel Deng Monyde,
  • What had happened in Darfur?/Mahmoud E. Yousif
  • Abie conflict The Inferno of Nivasha or the Paradise of Peace by Dr. S.M.Eldebailo
  • TEXT- Conclusions of AU-UN, Sudan on the Hybrid Operations
  • Alfashir is nearer than Kampala: JEM/NRF Commends New SPLM Stance on Darfur/By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • COMSARY by SALMAN OMER MAHMOUD
  • Sudan: The Politics of Naming - Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency/Prof. Mahmood Mamdani
  • US to Sanction Dr. Khalil Ibrahim! A Statement/Gammali Hasan Galal Eldin
  • Can Darfur Survive the CPA?/Abdullahi El-Tom and Mahmoud Abbaker Suleiman
  • GOD OR AMERICA: WHO IS FIRST? 8 DIFFERENT OPINIONS/Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, Asharq Alawsat
  • It would be Unwise to think that a United Sudan Properly Functions within the Main Frameworks of the Phenomenon of Eastern African Development./Urban T. Kir
  • Darfur Crisis: Mediation Failure (2)/Ahmed M. Mohamedain
  • Government of Sudan and Darfur crisis/Musa Yakub Daoud
  • President Bush "Hurts" for Darfur Darfur Is Safer than US Urban Cities/Ali Baghdadi
  • Our Vision on the prospect of peace to end the Darfur tragedy/By Dr. M.A.Suleiman
  • Lies, Damned Lies and the Darfur Crisis by Anne Bartlett is a Director of the Darfur Centre for Human Rights and Development
  • International Media Ignore Sudanese Voices /AfricaFocus (Washington, DC)
  • Sudanese cyber rally forces website to remove controversial ad by Wasil Ali
  • why war in abyaii by bakhit mohd humaidan
  • Al Salikeen Earmarks 1.2 Billion Pounds for Service Schemes by Al Sammani Awadallah
  • A CALL TO ALL THE PEOPLE OF SOUTH SUDAN/By James Ogilo Agor Agokwech-Rochester, MN USA
  • Will the Quartet Summit Contradict with the UN, AU Role in Darfur By: Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Sudan Vision Carries Out a Survey on Pros and Cons of Humanitarian Aid in Sudan By: Al-Sammani Awadallah
  • Al Khatim Adlans legacy of wisdom and vision/ahmed elzobier
  • WHEN THEY BEG FOR UNITY by Mack Awer Riak
  • The Genocide Glitterati by Anne Bartlett
  • Darfur-Darfur Dialogue Will Not be Held Hostage by Hostile Armed Factions", Says Dr. Omar Adam
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains/by Nuba Mountains Democratic Forum/Nour Tawir
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains by Nuba_Mountains Democratic Forum by Samie A Djudo
  • RIFT KAKUMA HITS BY VALLEY FEVER. By;Mabior Mayom Mayom
  • How Dr. Garang wanted Abyei to be? (1) /By Akol Miyen Kuol
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains by Nuba Mountains Democratic Forum
  • The Doomsday Cult/Ahmed Sam, human rights activist.
  • China must emulate AU wisdom in Sudan by Simon Roughneen for ISN
  • An article introducing our country Sudan by Maha esmeal ahmed esmeal
  • It is a time for all Peace forces to take action By : Matur Aciek
  • Kiir stood to his pledge of no reverse gear/ BY MAJOK NIKODEMO AROU
  • IT IS TIME FOR THE SPLA TO ESTABLISH ITS OWN AIR FORCE/Maker Costa
  • Unwitting Party to Genocide By Stephen Rademaker
  • SPLA, STANDS STRONG AND PROUD!/By Hakim Makuer Gol
  • January 9th- a Day of Peace and Full Independence/By Dr. Mawien Akot
  • Muslim cadet clear on identity/YVETTE CABRERA
  • 2008 General Elections: What Are The Scenarios Awaiting Us?/Maker Costa-Syracuse New York
  • s NCP is planning to rig elections at census level/By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Criticism to the Global War Against International Terrorism, (G-WAIT) by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Swindles of Modern Liberal Democracy by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • Peaceful Conflict Resolution & the War on Terror The cases of Sudan and Iraq by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Jinjaweed Leader By : kuku kadia
  • UA-GSC Sudan Resolution Passes/By Marie Y. Thibault
  • All About Darfur: Is Sudan in a culture of war? By Virginie Wembey
  • AU Recommends Six Month Extension for its Mission By: Al Sammani Awadallah / IOL
  • No South/North border and ABC: CPA is dead.By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Darfur destruction is Sudans al-Bashirs Shame/By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Relationship Between Economic Mismanagement & Social Instability by Eng. Tarig M.M.K. Anter
  • Fake Modern Religions Are Fighting Faith by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Ideological Structure of The Conservative Professional Nationalist Party & System by Eng. Tarig M.M.K. Anter,
  • 'Lost Boys of Sudan' By: Kristin Boyd , Staff Writer
  • Sudan's al-Bashir and Palace are imperfect Match By Sabrino Majok Majok
  • Frank Wolf: Divest from Sudan By U.S. Rep. Frank Wolf (R-10)
  • Sudanese Native Relates Horrors of His Childhood/By Konstantin Shishkin
  • General Congress of JEM Asserts Creation of a political Party/Professor Mahmoud Abakar Sulaiman
  • Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and the Litany of AU Deceit in Darfur/Dr. Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • ѡ () " "
  • Reign of Corruption and political stagnation By Andrew Bak
  • Current American Planning Strategies vs. Planning Strategies of the 50s/By: Adil Bala (PhD)*
  • Free Will, JEM Peace Wing Sign Political and Military Protocol By Al-Sammani Awadallah
  • Only Favourable Humanitarian and Security Conditions are Needed in Darfur By: Al Sammani Awadalla
  • A call to Abolish Sharia Law in South Sudan: GOSS must take a Lead
  • Race and colour consciousness art or is it ... Religions? Hatim Elmadani
  • Who are Landless People in Sudan? Mack Awer -Cairo
  • Darfur: Diplomacy and its Discontents by Anne Bartlett
  • Why Egypt won't press Sudan: the Nile By Dan Murphy | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor
  • Pathological Delusions by Ahmed Elzobier
  • NIF is determined to kill CPA By Sabrino Majok Majok
  • Darfur - Solution Must Come From Africans By Mohammed Eisa Ismail
  • The responsibility to protect Darfur By William G. O'Neill
  • Sudanese go tech savvy By Cheryl Lecesse
  • Sorrow in Sudan By Vivian Ho