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Articles and Analysies Last Updated: Oct 27, 2009 - 9:33:43 PM

BETWEEN GENUINE DEMOCRACY AND THE CLEPTOCRACY OF THE RULING GROUP by Arman Muhammed Ahmad
Sudaneseonline.com

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Sudan

BETWEEN GENUINE DEMOCRACY AND

THE CLEPTOCRACY OF THE RULING GROUP


                                    

    

                             Arman Muhammed Ahmad


Arman Muhammed Ahmad
Cleptocracy and democracy are two opposites which will never meet. While democracy is defined as rule by the people, cleptocracy means rule by thieves. The cleptocratic elite are politicians and senior officials in the state who misappropriate public money. Some of them give lip service to democracy, but they don't really believe in it. From a cleptocratic point of view, the people are the servants of the government; however, in a true democracy, the government must be the servant of the people. Public wealth in a true democracy is not restricted to certain elites or group; it is shared equitably among all citizens. Every citizen thereby has his or her stake in the national wealth. Further, in a genuine democracy, the citizen is the real governor in the sense that he appoints the rulers. The basic duty of the rulers is to serve the interests of the citizens, because the citizens appoint them, hold them accountable and can terminate their services through the informed and enlightened use of the ballot.

                                                                 

Financial and administrative corruption

               
One of the strangest manifestations of the cleptocracy in Sudan was revealed in a recent auditor's report. In clear defiance of the provisions of the Auditor General's Act as well as Article 205 of the Transitional Constitution, many government officials refused to allow their institutions to be audited by the auditor general. Article 205 of the Transitional Constitution, based upon the Naivasha Agreement, states that:                                                                                                      

                                                                                                 

 

    "The National Audit Chamber shall assume auditing of   the accounts of the National Executive organs, the National Legislature, and the National Judiciary as well as the accounts of northern states, public institutions corporations and companies and any other institutions as may be determined by law.".                                                               

                                   

        

The government has not yet taken the necessary legal steps to counter this large-scale and dangerous corruption. However, it will probably eventually form a commission of inquiry. The true aims of this will be to calm and anaesthetise public opinion, and to divert attention from such issues. As a delaying tactic, the National Congress (NC) ruling junta may also form false committees or hold fake conferences to debate the epidemic of corruption. It may even set up, on the strength of such conferences, a new commission, headed by NC members and employ a number of them, on ridiculously high salaries, to tackle this corruption thus creating even more corruption!

 

The rule of law is the foundation of democracy, while cleptocracy stems from a lack of respect for the constitution and violation of the law by its presumed guardians. This epidemic of financial and administrative corruption infects all institutions controlled by the NC cadres, such as the Chamber of Zakat (Charity), the Pensions Fund, the Fund for Supporting Students, the Communications Institution and the Duty Free Corporation, as well as the investment corporations of the army, police and security services. The volume of corruption and other irregularities in the banking system is estimated at 1000000000000 Sudanese pounds (1 trillion Sudanese pounds). This universal, shocking and dangerous level of corruption is a direct result of sleaze and political incompetence. Tackling it requires only one thing the resignation or dismissal of the officials of the NC junta from top to bottom, to make them accountable for this corruption and to bring them to justice.                                                     

                                                                      

Economic growth and social injustice in Sudan

       
  Oil revenues in
Sudan over the past ten years (1998 2008) should have been higher than the returns announced, but the current oil contracts were signed by members of the cleptocracy.   These contracts were signed in the absence of democracy and transparency, and are still shrouded in secrecy .  The economic growth is now 8.3% thanks to the global increase in oil prices, but this growth has not been reflected in the lives of ordinary Sudanese citizens. One of the most prominent manifestations of social injustice is that the ruling junta spent, and continues, to spend money at the expense of the Sudanese people from squandering money on ridiculously expensive celebrations, to unmerited award ceremonies for NC cadres. Meanwhile, Churches and Western relief agencies are providing for the NC group fellow Muslims and their hungry children in Darfur . Reports issued by The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Food Programme at the end of 2007, showed an increase in the suffering of Darfur's children from acute malnutrition, at a rate greater than the 15% determined by the World Health Organization. In northern Darfur the rate increased by 20% in comparison with other regions.

 

                   Cleptocracy and the 'mixed' electoral system

 

The ruling junta in Khartoum is currently trying to call a National Accord Conference, after passing the 2007 election bill based on what they call the 'mixed' electoral system. In fact, the National Accord is a ruse aimed at preventing other political forces from boycotting the elections. Thus, it tries to make the election look real and legitimate, because boycotting it would result in the 'elected salvation' government losing its false legitimacy. In effect, the ruling group is trying hard to convince leaders of the larger parties to accept the idea of being nominated for the presidential elections. Once caught in this trap, the mechanism of the proposed election law will be used to subject these parties to a crushing defeat. In order to force through this National Accord, the ruling group has formed several ad hoc committees, such as the National Line Unification Committee, the Committee of 'proclaimed' Wise Men and other committees, where old cadres are infiltrated by opportunists. In addition, certain members of these puppet committees are bribed, and from time to time the regime will pull their strings.

 

 

The transitional constitution of the Naivasha Agreement included international charters on human rights. It, thus, ensured on paper the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens. But, under this constitution, Sudanese citizens have been exposed to murder and torture in the villages of Darfur , in the south of Sudan , as well as in Amri, Kagbar, Port Sudan , Khartoum and other regions. The arrest of citizens and the theatrical release of political prisoners by means of presidential amnesty continue. Press freedom is also curtailed and journalists are persecuted. This is in addition to other memorable violations of constitutional rights in the recent past.

 

 

The electoral bill provides an opportunity for the ruling group, to fabricate the excuses which could certainly lead to the annulment of the election results in whole or in part, as they used to do in elections for trades unions and federations. The bill also enables the commission to postpone elections, and the National High Court to cancel election results. So what can we expect the 'salvation' group to do if they are defeated in elections, carried out in the absence of an independent judiciary and the rule of law?

 

The bill requires the members of the commission to be independent, unaffiliated to any political party, and to behave with transparency and impartiality. But this cannot be relied on, as the Sudanese people have already experienced such 'transparency', 'impartiality' and 'integrity ' before.   A junta of army officers disguised and portrayed themselves as 'neutral' and 'independent', yet they carried out the military coup of 1989. By then it was too late to discover that the officers responsible were just National Islamic Front (NIF) affiliates and its secret cadres in the army.

 

The commission and the electoral register


Under the provisions of the electoral bill, the Electoral Commission is appointed by the President of the National Conference, who is also the President of the Republic. The Commission appoints a general secretariat to work with the Head of the Commission and to carry out executive tasks. In addition, the Commission appoints an Electoral High Committee and Chief Election Officer for each state. The discretionary and the rule-making powers that the bill gives the Commission, enables it to manipulate the outcome of any election.


The electoral register can be used as an instrument for electoral fraud and the falsification of the citizens' will. In a democracy, the state assumes responsibility for creating an electoral register and for including all citizens who are eligible to vote. It normally does this by circulating registration forms which allows the authorities to update the register on a regular basis. In fact, this is considered an essential task of the state. However, it is normally optional for a citizen to stand for an elected position, and it may be optional to vote.

 

Creating the electoral register is one of the basic services that the government should provide the citizen with to ensure his constitutional rights to nominate or to vote. The bill states that registration for elections is an individual responsibility, so the burden rests on the shoulders of the helpless citizen. Of course, there is a hidden agenda behind these provisions. The bill also limits the role of the Electoral Commission to accepting or excluding voters from the electoral register, considering appeals against candidates and voters. However, it takes many measures and actions that could open the floodgates to fraud.

 

Women's representation is a big trick

 

To carry out any election under the present cleptocracy, is merely a truism. The election bill also enables the ruling NC group to perform another trick by setting the representation of women to 25%, bringing the number of women's seats in the National Parliament to 112 out of the 450 seats. All available evidence indicates, that, in the current circumstances, this proportion is tailored to suit the size of the female cadre of the NC. The NC is now using Sudanese women as an instrument to strengthen their cleptocratic grip on power, as it once used the Sudanese army to topple democracy itself.

 

The electoral bill also sets conditions for proposing candidates for the posts of president, the head of the southern government, governors, and members of the federal legislative assemblies. It makes provisions for penalising a candidate who fails to gain enough votes. A candidate will lose his deposit if he does not receive 10% of the total number of votes cast. You may well ask where is democracy and constitutionality in such legislation?

 

The bill allows for a degree of proportional representation in parliament by means of party lists. This figure is set at 15% or 68 seats. By this means it allows the ruling group to create further so-called Islamic parties, in addition to the parties already allied with them. The purpose of the party lists seems to be designed to provide the allies of the NC with seats in parliament. They are to be accommodated within the seats allotted to proportional representation.

 

The aim of all this game is to maintain the status quo. In other words, the purpose of the ruling group's insistence on framing the electoral legislation as outlined above is to preserve an absolute majority of 52% for the NC National Conference reflecting the current situation.

 

 

Funding from heaven

                                                   
Theoretical statements , in the electoral bill, about transparency in the funding of election campaigns and giving equal access to the media for all candidates cannot, of course, be relied on. Broadcasting is a sector controlled by the ruling ideological group. In a recent interview given to the programme (Hotline) the Vice President of the NC of Political Affairs and Management was asked about the sources of funding for the NC Party. He arrogantly asserted that God sustained the NC just as he sustained the Virgin May, and he quoted from the Quran:

 

"Every time that Zachary entered the Apse to visit her, He found her supplied with sustenance. He said: "O Mary! Whence   (comes) this to you?" She said: "From Allah for Allah Provides sustenance to whom He pleases with no limit." 3:37

 

His answer is very revealing. It shows clearly the degree of transparency among the leaders of the NC. In fact it confirms that the anticipated democratic shift by those fanatic ideologues has absolutely nothing to do with true democracy. Who could possibly believe this theocratic official when he asserts that funding of his corrupt group comes from heaven and has no limits? Clearly, religion has nothing to do with such mania. The violation of the constitution, law breaking, and adoption of ideas and slogans, with the aim of emptying it of its content, as already mentioned, are reasonable causes for scepticism and for challenging the impartiality of any election conducted by this ideological group. It is obvious this group would never gain the trust of the Sudanese citizens, in a fair and democratic election conducted by an enlightened government.

 

  In short, the record of the ruling group in terms of electoral fraud, breach of law and public order, political violence against opponents, toppling democracy by means of a military coup and violation of human rights, raises doubts about the feasibility of any elections conducted by these cleptocrats . Today Kenya is suffering violence, fighting, unrest and instability as a result of fraudulent elections. Some might argue that an election is necessary to implement the Machakos and Naivasha Agreements. But, w e on the other hand, would argue that events in Kenya , stand as evidence to the futility of any such elections in Sudan . Even if they are carried out under international monitoring.

 

 

Arman Muhammed Ahmad
 
February 1, 2008

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                 

 


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  • False Accusation against Dr.Riek Machar, A true Nationalist Leader in South Sudan By: PeterT.Nguanok
  • Tabans acquittal an example of double standard treatment of SPLM members Atem Mabior
  • Sudanese Responses To: "Obama And My Son": Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, DC, USA
  • American Responses: "Obama And My Son": Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, DC, USA
  • Community Land: A Critical Socio-Economic Factor To Temper With In Southern Sudan By James Okuk
  • Breaking a Taboo: Mr Nur and his SLM Office in Israel By Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • China refutes accusation on arms sales to Sudan
  • SPLM 2nd Convention: A Hard Test in Democratic Transformation *By James Okuk
  • The 60 Currents by Hamza M Babbikr
  • The unauthorized profile of the Eastern-Sudan Fronts Chairman 2-3 By Mohamed Ibrahim
  • The Justice & Equality Movement (JEM)/ Religion and the State By: Dr. El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • "USA TDOAY": Obama And My Son: Mohammad Ali Salih: Washington, DC, USA
  • CPA Adjustment and Quest for Southern Sudan Development *By James Okuk
  • Dear Cde Pagan Amoum Okiech by Aleu Ayieny Aleu
  • April 2008 General Population Census: Will I be Counted a Southerner? *By James Okuk
  • NUBA ASSOCIATION IN FRANCE:Condolence on death of Bishop Philip Abbass by Dr Ahmed Osman Tyia Kaffi
  • The Trembling Tip of the Nose!/Faisal Ali Suliman Addabi/lawyer/Doha/Qatar
  • An open letter to Hassan Abdullah Turabi By: Brian Adeba,
  • The big lie by Ismail Abdallah M.
  • JEMs Vision for a New Sudan by Dr El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • Reframing the Darfur Crisis by Anne Bartlett
  • Confederation for Southern Sudan a Betrayal to Self-determination By James Okuk
  • President Kiir should admit his failure and resign gracefully by Jor Deng
  • Kiir must be indicted for war crimes BY Atem Mabior
  • Kiir shows his real colours By Atem Mabior
  • Will UN Envoy Eliason Do His Homework on Darfur? By Dr. El-tahir Adam El-faki
  • SALVA KIIR BETRAYS THE SOUTHERN CAUSE by Atem Mabior
  • Critical Analysis on the paper presented by Presidential Advisor, Mr Bona Malwal under the title The Future of the CPA under the Current Political Crises`.
  • Sudan needs reality check By Hassan Ibrahim
  • The Hypocrisy of NCP Supporters on Darfur By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • The Polemics of Politics of Transitions in Sudan By John G Nyuot Yoh*
  • SPLM: A Party that Deserves Building not Ruining By James Okuk
  • The Paradox of Political Transformation by SPLM Standards. By; Baraj Ayuen
  • Fanatic Islamic Iran & Exploitive Transnational Capitalism are the Most harmful Sources of insecurity in the World
  • A PRAYER IN EACH CORNER by MOHAMMAD ALI SALIH
  • Movement erosion Bneha .... Conflict adults ousts Emin Tela t by Shol Goba
  • Northern Sudanese and Bashirs Call for Jihad Time for Southerners to Think Aloud Lily A. Akol
  • Sudanese & American Friends March for Peace and Reconciliation By Jimmy Mulla
  • The Dilemma of The SPLM: Is it justified? By: Ngino Nikako
  • The 4th General Congress of the Justice & Equality Movement (JEM) By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • If Sudan Want Peace it has to Prepare for War? * By James Okuk
  • Yet Another Africans Challenge: Liability No. 21 the IQ By Dr. Mohamed N. Bushara*
  • When will Darfur mediators learn (2) By Suliman A Giddo*
  • Bravo to Mr. Salva Kiir for Rejecting the US Proposal By James Okuk Solomon
  • Female Circumcision Negligence and Abuse By Dr. Amal Ahmed Elbasheir.
  • U.S Should Upgrade the SPLA if it is willing to Help Southern Sudan *By James Okuk Solomon
  • Where Sudan Is Booming By Alexis Okeowo
  • When Will Darfur Mediators Learn? By Suliman A. Giddo*
  • Mob Emotions Is Anti-Democratic Transformation By James Okuk Solomon
  • Check with Improper Balance: SPLM Risky Politics of Partnership By James Okuk Solomon
  • Another way to break Abie deadlock by Dr. S.M.Eldebailo
  • The SPLM & Protecting the CPA: Guarding Against the Cynical Obstructionism of NCP Parek Maduot
  • Do Ministers belong to the Party or to the Government? *By James Okuk
  • Habib Bank v Central Bank of Sudan Ismat Abdel Gadir - LL.B
  • DRIVING FAST TO EXPLODE IN THE ABYSS! By Comarde Edward Lino
  • Shilluk Communities vs Shilluk International Congress (SIC) By: Kimo Ajing Aba
  • FASTING RAMADAN IN A MONASTERY: Mohammad Ali Salih
  • It is Darfur Again and the Misery Goes On By E. Ablorh-Odjidja
  • SLM request to delay Libya talks by Tag Elkhazin,
  • THE HONOURABLE WISE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD/Ali Mahmoud Hassanein
  • Will the united Sudan remain attractive for all under the NCP regime?! By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • The Value of Peace in Sudan: From Ki-Moon to International Wisemen By James Okuk Solomon
  • South Sudan Egyptians relations / John Lawrence Morbe Joseph
  • Will the Failed Abuja Diplomacy Be Repeated in Libya? By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Why a reality check is needed on Darfur by Anne Bartlett
  • United, Cairo's poor and poorer get heard
  • A Message from Ajik (Ajang) Union in North American To: Commander and Comrade Daniel Kodi by Fadul H.Haimad
  • What Happened To Gen. Kiir First Vice Presidency Position? / by Isaiah Abraham
  • Eritrea in the Sudan's president's office, By: Mohamed Osman Ibrahim
  • UN Ban Ki-Moon and his Drought Thesis of Darfur Conflict By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • UN Secretary General: Mission Impossible By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Old Habits Die Hard: The National Congress Party is Back to Its Outmoded TacticsBy: Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Greatest Marginalization of All Time/Isam Siddig
  • Darfur: A Little Less Talk, A Little More Action by Anne Bartlett
  • Muslims eye America by MOHAMMAD ALI SALIH
  • General Elections in Sudan by the Year 2009: A Fact or a Fiction?/By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Alsalkeen Charitable Organization General Secretary. /By Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Cons and Cues About The Sudanese Forthcoming General Election/Isaiah Abraham
  • Animals rights are also rights/Isaiah Abraham
  • SPLM Official Counters the Recent Remarks of the NCP Official over Abyie and Darfour Translated by MAJOK NIKODEMO AROU
  • The Arab Congregation and the Ideology of Genocide in Darfur, Sudan By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom, Ph.D.
  • Catholics Led to Hell/Written by Daniel Deng Monyde,
  • Keep away from Darfour, Mustafa Osman Ismail, warns the SPLM Translated by Majok Nikodemo Arou
  • Abyei Protocol. by Mayen. D. Ater
  • Darfur Actors and the absence of Road Maps By Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman
  • Judiciary Reshuffle Ineptly Calculated by Daniel Deng Monyde
  • Stop the Genocide and give the security then peace will come/Hamed Mohamedain Omer
  • THE AMERICANS AND ME (2): ISLAM Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, Asharq Alawsat
  • Unwanted in Israel By Sherine Tadros at the Egyptian-Israeli border
  • ISSUES that Rose From the Sudanese Ambassador Press Conference By Jwothab Amum Ajak
  • Al Bashir Slams on Campaigners against Sudan, Reviews Political Developments By: Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Was Dr. John Garang Assassinated?/Daniel Deng Monyde,
  • What had happened in Darfur?/Mahmoud E. Yousif
  • Abie conflict The Inferno of Nivasha or the Paradise of Peace by Dr. S.M.Eldebailo
  • TEXT- Conclusions of AU-UN, Sudan on the Hybrid Operations
  • Alfashir is nearer than Kampala: JEM/NRF Commends New SPLM Stance on Darfur/By: Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • COMSARY by SALMAN OMER MAHMOUD
  • Sudan: The Politics of Naming - Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency/Prof. Mahmood Mamdani
  • US to Sanction Dr. Khalil Ibrahim! A Statement/Gammali Hasan Galal Eldin
  • Can Darfur Survive the CPA?/Abdullahi El-Tom and Mahmoud Abbaker Suleiman
  • GOD OR AMERICA: WHO IS FIRST? 8 DIFFERENT OPINIONS/Mohammad Ali Salih, Washington, Asharq Alawsat
  • It would be Unwise to think that a United Sudan Properly Functions within the Main Frameworks of the Phenomenon of Eastern African Development./Urban T. Kir
  • Darfur Crisis: Mediation Failure (2)/Ahmed M. Mohamedain
  • Government of Sudan and Darfur crisis/Musa Yakub Daoud
  • President Bush "Hurts" for Darfur Darfur Is Safer than US Urban Cities/Ali Baghdadi
  • Our Vision on the prospect of peace to end the Darfur tragedy/By Dr. M.A.Suleiman
  • Lies, Damned Lies and the Darfur Crisis by Anne Bartlett is a Director of the Darfur Centre for Human Rights and Development
  • International Media Ignore Sudanese Voices /AfricaFocus (Washington, DC)
  • Sudanese cyber rally forces website to remove controversial ad by Wasil Ali
  • why war in abyaii by bakhit mohd humaidan
  • Al Salikeen Earmarks 1.2 Billion Pounds for Service Schemes by Al Sammani Awadallah
  • A CALL TO ALL THE PEOPLE OF SOUTH SUDAN/By James Ogilo Agor Agokwech-Rochester, MN USA
  • Will the Quartet Summit Contradict with the UN, AU Role in Darfur By: Al Sammani Awadallah
  • Sudan Vision Carries Out a Survey on Pros and Cons of Humanitarian Aid in Sudan By: Al-Sammani Awadallah
  • Al Khatim Adlans legacy of wisdom and vision/ahmed elzobier
  • WHEN THEY BEG FOR UNITY by Mack Awer Riak
  • The Genocide Glitterati by Anne Bartlett
  • Darfur-Darfur Dialogue Will Not be Held Hostage by Hostile Armed Factions", Says Dr. Omar Adam
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains/by Nuba Mountains Democratic Forum/Nour Tawir
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains by Nuba_Mountains Democratic Forum by Samie A Djudo
  • RIFT KAKUMA HITS BY VALLEY FEVER. By;Mabior Mayom Mayom
  • How Dr. Garang wanted Abyei to be? (1) /By Akol Miyen Kuol
  • A brighter future for the Nuba Mountains by Nuba Mountains Democratic Forum
  • The Doomsday Cult/Ahmed Sam, human rights activist.
  • China must emulate AU wisdom in Sudan by Simon Roughneen for ISN
  • An article introducing our country Sudan by Maha esmeal ahmed esmeal
  • It is a time for all Peace forces to take action By : Matur Aciek
  • Kiir stood to his pledge of no reverse gear/ BY MAJOK NIKODEMO AROU
  • IT IS TIME FOR THE SPLA TO ESTABLISH ITS OWN AIR FORCE/Maker Costa
  • Unwitting Party to Genocide By Stephen Rademaker
  • SPLA, STANDS STRONG AND PROUD!/By Hakim Makuer Gol
  • January 9th- a Day of Peace and Full Independence/By Dr. Mawien Akot
  • Muslim cadet clear on identity/YVETTE CABRERA
  • 2008 General Elections: What Are The Scenarios Awaiting Us?/Maker Costa-Syracuse New York
  • s NCP is planning to rig elections at census level/By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Criticism to the Global War Against International Terrorism, (G-WAIT) by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Swindles of Modern Liberal Democracy by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • Peaceful Conflict Resolution & the War on Terror The cases of Sudan and Iraq by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Jinjaweed Leader By : kuku kadia
  • UA-GSC Sudan Resolution Passes/By Marie Y. Thibault
  • All About Darfur: Is Sudan in a culture of war? By Virginie Wembey
  • AU Recommends Six Month Extension for its Mission By: Al Sammani Awadallah / IOL
  • No South/North border and ABC: CPA is dead.By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Darfur destruction is Sudans al-Bashirs Shame/By Sabrino Majok Majok*
  • Relationship Between Economic Mismanagement & Social Instability by Eng. Tarig M.M.K. Anter
  • Fake Modern Religions Are Fighting Faith by Tarig M. M. K. Anter
  • The Ideological Structure of The Conservative Professional Nationalist Party & System by Eng. Tarig M.M.K. Anter,
  • 'Lost Boys of Sudan' By: Kristin Boyd , Staff Writer
  • Sudan's al-Bashir and Palace are imperfect Match By Sabrino Majok Majok
  • Frank Wolf: Divest from Sudan By U.S. Rep. Frank Wolf (R-10)
  • Sudanese Native Relates Horrors of His Childhood/By Konstantin Shishkin
  • General Congress of JEM Asserts Creation of a political Party/Professor Mahmoud Abakar Sulaiman
  • Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and the Litany of AU Deceit in Darfur/Dr. Abdullahi Osman El-Tom
  • ѡ () " "
  • Reign of Corruption and political stagnation By Andrew Bak
  • Current American Planning Strategies vs. Planning Strategies of the 50s/By: Adil Bala (PhD)*
  • Free Will, JEM Peace Wing Sign Political and Military Protocol By Al-Sammani Awadallah
  • Only Favourable Humanitarian and Security Conditions are Needed in Darfur By: Al Sammani Awadalla
  • A call to Abolish Sharia Law in South Sudan: GOSS must take a Lead
  • Race and colour consciousness art or is it ... Religions? Hatim Elmadani
  • Who are Landless People in Sudan? Mack Awer -Cairo
  • Darfur: Diplomacy and its Discontents by Anne Bartlett
  • Why Egypt won't press Sudan: the Nile By Dan Murphy | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor
  • Pathological Delusions by Ahmed Elzobier
  • NIF is determined to kill CPA By Sabrino Majok Majok
  • Darfur - Solution Must Come From Africans By Mohammed Eisa Ismail
  • The responsibility to protect Darfur By William G. O'Neill
  • Sudanese go tech savvy By Cheryl Lecesse
  • Sorrow in Sudan By Vivian Ho