Title: Indiscriminate Attacks in Civilian Areas in Sudan by Nasif Bashir E Ahmed
Author: ناصف بشير الأمين
Date: 08-17-2015, 04:14 PM
04:14 PM Aug, 17 2015
ناصف بشير الأمين-كاردف - بريطانيا
My Library at SudaneseOnline
The purpose of this study is to examine the practices of indiscriminate attack by the government’s forces in Sudan which target civilians, in areas of armed conflicts (Darfur, Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan’s Nuba Mountains). These practices will basically be examined against the principles of International Humanitarian Law (IHL). This will be done through the examination of examples of documented acts of indiscriminate attacks and the analysis of the relevant principles of IHL that applicable to them. This will show to what extent Sudan’s Government is in breach of its basic obligation, under international law, to protect its own civilian population. International humanitarian law is a set of rules which seek to limit the effects of armed conflict on civilians. It protects persons who are not or no longer participating in hostilities and restricts the means and methods of warfare. IHL is also applicable to humanitarian assistance and is based on the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilians in Time of War and the 1977 Additional Protocols. For years, civilians have been the main victims of war. Protecting civilians during armed conflict is therefore, the cornerstone of IHL, and this protection extends to their property.
In his report to the Human Rights Council (Report of the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, 4 September 2014, A/HRC/27/69), the Independent Expert Mr Mashood Baderin has documented large-scale attacks by the Rapid Support Force on villages in South and North Darfur States in February and March 2014. He has also documented reports of aerial bombings by the Sudanese Air Force in the conflict areas and of their consequential adverse impact on the civilian population in those areas. According to the Independent Expert, there were reports of civilians killed from such aerial bombings in Draib Al Reih and Um Gunya in South Darfur in February, in Uzban village East of El-Daein in Blue Nile State on 15 March and in Thabit in North Darfur on 28 April. A hospital run by Médecins Sans Frontières in the village of Farandalla in South Kordofan was bombed by the Air Force on 16 June. The Independent Expert concluded that such indiscriminate aerial strikes, which are a clear violation of the basic principles of international human rights and humanitarian law, must stop. According to Human Rights Watch’s report (Sudan: Indiscriminate Bombing, Police Abuses, JANUARY 21, 2014), Sudan’s human rights record was marred by the government’s indiscriminate aerial bombing of populated areas. During the year 2013, Sudan’s air force engaged in indiscriminate bombing in civilian areas, in violation of international humanitarian law. Human Rights Watch documented aerial bombings in Darfur that killed dozens of civilians in February, April, and November. According to a recent HRW’s report (APRIL 15, 2015, Sudan: Cluster Bombs Used in Nuba Mountains, End Indiscriminate Bombing), Sudan’s air force has repeatedly, indiscriminately bombed civilian areas, often killing or maiming civilians, destroying homes and crops, and damaging schools, clinics, and other civilian property, in the four years since the beginning of the conflict in 2011, Human Rights Watch research has found. The report also states that “Evidence indicates that Sudan dropped cluster bombs on civilian areas of Southern Kordofan’s Nuba Mountains in February and March 2015. Cluster munitions are indiscriminate weapons banned under the Convention on Cluster Munitions that Sudan has yet to join.” Based on a research mission to the country, Amnesty International has found that Sudanese Armed Forces have targeted civilian areas and infrastructure which have no legitimate military objective.
Amnesty International has also confirmed, for the first time in a new report published on 03/08/2015, that Government forces in Sudan have committed war crimes against the civilian population of South Kordofan. The new report has documented, inter alia, targeting of civilians, schools, hospitals and local relief organizations, indiscriminate aerial bombardments and ground offensives, and use of cluster munitions and prohibited weapons. The report, Don’t we matter? Four years of unrelenting attacks against Civilians of Sudan’s South Kordofan State, states that indiscriminate aerial bombardments and ground offensives as well as the deliberate targeting of schools and hospitals constitute war crimes. It also states that “For years Sudanese Armed Forces have been raining down bombs and shells indiscriminately on civilian populations, destroying lives and livelihoods and triggering a major humanitarian crisis,” said Michelle Kagari, Amnesty International’s Deputy Regional Director. “Targeting civilian infrastructure and civilian areas which have no legitimate military objective, using prohibited weapons and other weapons in an indiscriminate way are war crimes.” The report has also documented the use of prohibited weapons – such as cluster bombs - launched from high flying aircraft, which has resulted in civilian casualties. Amnesty International found cluster munitions at four sites in two separate locations in Dalami and Umm Dorain counties and heard testimony of how children have been killed playing with unexploded ordinance. It could also be argued that these facts reveal a pattern of systematic practices.
States responsibility to protect civilian
While IHL protects all civilians without discrimination, certain groups are singled out for special mention. Women and children, the aged and sick are highly vulnerable during armed conflict. So too are those who flee their homes and become internally displaced or refugees. IHL prohibits forced displacements by intimidation, violence or starvation. However, in some conflicts, as in the case of Sudan, civilians have been sometimes specifically targeted and subjected to terrible atrocities, ignoring the very basis of the Geneva Conventions, respect for the human person. Under the heading “Basic Rule,” Article 48 of the Additional Protocol I lays out this fundamental feature of the principle of “distinction”: In order to ensure respect for and protection of the civilian population and civilian objects, the Parties to the conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants and between civilian objects and military objectives and accordingly shall direct their operations only against military objectives. The term “military objectives” refers to objectives that are limited to “those objects which by their nature, location, purpose or use make an effective contribution to military action and whose total or partial destruction, capture or neutralisation, in the circumstances ruling at the time, offers a definite military advantage.” Article 51(2) AP proscribes intentional attacks on civilians stating: “The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack. Acts or threats of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population are prohibited.” By stating that civilians must never be “as such . . . the object of attack” the Article emphasises that civilians must never be intentionally attacked. This principle is recognized as a fundamental rule of customary international law. In addition to intended attacks on civilian, the AP also proscribes indiscriminate attacks on civilians.
Indiscriminate attack is a war crime under the 1977 Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions. An indiscriminate attack is one in which the attacker does not take measures to avoid hitting non-military objectives, that is, civilians and civilian objects. An indiscriminate attack also includes using means and methods that, like the barrel bombing, cannot be directed at specific military objectives or whose effects cannot be limited. Article 51(4) and 51(5) define exactly which attacks are to be considered as “indiscriminate.” Accordingly, indiscriminate attacks are: (a) those which are not directed at a specific military objective; (b) those which employ a method or means of combat which cannot be directed at a specific military objective; or (c) those which employ a method or means of combat the effects of which cannot be limited as required by this Protocol; and consequently, in each such case, are of a nature to strike military objectives and civilians or civilian objects without distinction. Among others, the following types of attacks are to be considered as indiscriminate: (a) an attack by bombardment by any methods or means which treats as a single military objective a number of clearly separated and distinct military objectives located in a city, town, village or other area containing a similar concentration of civilians or civilian objects; (the point of this provision is to prevent an attacker from treating a whole city that contains not only civilians but also military targets as a single military target, which is of special relevance to the acts of aerial bombing in civilian areas in Sudan), and (b) an attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated. In this context, although every instance of indiscriminate attack violates the law of armed conflict, it is equally the case where attacking a military target may cause collateral damage to civilians or civilian objects. If the harm to civilians is proportionate to the military advantage expected, the attack, other things being equal, is a legal act of war. If the harm is “excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated,” the attack is prohibited, whether or not indiscriminate.
Article 51(4) and (5) provide us with the three basic instances of indiscriminate attacks: attacks that are not directed at military objectives, attacks that utilise a “method or means of combat” that cannot be targeted accurately at a military objective, and attacks that utilise a method or means of combat “the effects of which cannot be limited.” Although several countries have not ratified Additional Protocol I, this provision is considered to be part of customary international law and therefore, binding upon all parties to a conflict. While 51(2) prohibits intentional attacks against civilians, 51(4)(a) deals with an attack that becomes indiscriminate because of its recklessness: By launching an attack without a specific, identifiable military objective in mind, the attacker disregarded a known risk that the weapon will strike civilians. For both 51(2) and 51(4)(a), even those attacks utilising accurate weapon technology can be illegal because of their intended, or unintended, target. The ICC Statute, Article 8 (2)(b)(xx) also states that: Example of war crime: “Employing weapons, projectiles and material and methods of warfare which are of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering or which are inherently indiscriminate…” Further, in its Advisory Opinion on the Legality of the Threat of Use of Nuclear Weapons (1996), the ICJ held, “States must never make civilians the object of attack and must consequently never use weapons that are incapable of distinguishing between civilian and military targets.”
The Additional Protocol provides two tests to determine when a weapon’s use would be indiscriminate. 51(4)(b) states the first test, prohibiting attacks “which employ a method or means of combat which cannot be directed at a specific military objective.” Essentially, an attack that that “cannot be targeted at a specific military objective,” is inherently indiscriminate because the attacker cannot be sure that his weapon will not harm the civilian population. Even if a particular weapon can normally be targeted accurately, the specific circumstances of the attack may render it as indiscriminate. For example, the weapon used, the altitude from which the weapon is fired, the prevailing weather and meteorological conditions, and the time of day are all factors that would affect whether a belligerent can accurately fire a particular weapon. Most claim that there are certain weapons that, regardless of the context of the attack, will be indiscriminate because these weapons, by design, can never accurately target a military objective. Military manuals and scholars have cited Japanese unmanned “Fu-Go” balloons and German V2 rockets as examples of weapons that would categorically fail the 51(4)(b) test. The use of such weapons is in and of itself an indiscriminate attack, regardless of the likelihood of disproportionate harm. It is also argued that “some weapons are by their construction or necessary or normal use so imprecise that the degree of likelihood of their hitting the identified military objective aimed at must be deemed too low.” Potential examples of these “blind weapons” are biological weapons and poisoned drinking wells. It is also submitted that even if a weapon has not been designed to attack without distinction, if the history of the use of that weapon shows that its typical use is for indiscriminate purposes, the international community can deem all uses of that weapon to be indiscriminate. In this regard, it should be noted that the list of prohibited weapons includes: exploding ammunition (1868), expanding bullets (1899), gas etc. (1925), Non-proliferation Treaty (1968), Biological Weapons (1972), ENMOD (1977), CCW (Inhuman Weapons) (1980 – 2003), Chemical Weapons (1993), Antipersonnel landmines (1997), cluster munitions (2008). Some of these weapons are obviously prohibited because of their indiscriminate effects on civilians. The fact that there is a list of prohibited weapons does not mean that all other weapons are legal. In the past, some armies carried out what today would be described as an indiscriminate attack. Examples include Germany’s V-II rocket attacks during World War II, the Allied “strategic bombing” and firebombing of Dresden and Hamburg.
In conclusion, the documented practices of: indiscriminate aerial bombing of populated areas, targeting of civilians, schools, hospitals and local relief organizations, destroying homes, crops and other civilian property, indiscriminate aerial bombardments and ground offensives, and use of cluster munitions and prohibited weapons represent (systematic) acts of deliberate or indiscriminate targeting of civilian population, as defined by IHL and ICL. The deliberate targeting of civilians refers to those attacks on civilian areas which have no legitimate military objective. Consequently, these acts are highly likely to constitute war crimes, as concluded by HRW and Amnesty International.
Amnesty International, DON'T WE MATTER?: FOUR YEARS OF UNRELENTING ATTACKS AGAINST CIVILIANS IN SUDAN'S SOUTH KORDOFAN STATE, 3 August 2015, Index number: AFR 54/2162/2015.
Antoine A. Bouvier and Harvey J. Langholtz (Series Editor), Humanitarian Law and the Law of Armed Conflict, 2012, Williamsburg: Peace Operations Training Institute
Crimes of War, Indiscriminate Attack, http://www.crimesofwar.org/a-z-guide/indiscriminate-attacks/http://www.crimesofwar.org/a-z-guide/indiscriminate-attacks/ , accessed on 08/08/2015
D. Moeckli, S. Shah and S. Sivakumaran, International Human Rights Law, 2010, Oxford: OUP
European Commission, Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, http://ec.europa.eu/echo/files/aid/countries/factsheets/thematic/ihl_en.pdfhttp://ec.europa.eu/echo/files/aid/countries/factsheets/thematic/ihl_en.pdf, accessed on 09/08/2015.
Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Protocol Additional to the, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977.
Human Rights Council, Report of the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, Mashood A. Baderin, 4 September 2014, A/HRC/27/69
Human Rights Watch, Sudan: Cluster Bombs Used in Nuba Mountains, End Indiscriminate Bombing, April 15, 2015
Human Rights Watch, Sudan: Indiscriminate Bombing, Police Abuses, JANUARY 21, 2014
ICRC, Civilians protected under international humanitarian law, https://http://http://www.icrc.org/eng/war-and-law/protected-persons/civilians/overview-civilians-protected.htmwww.icrc.org/eng/war-and-law/protected-persons/civilians/ove...ilians-protected.htm, accessed 10/08/2015.
Javaid Rehman, International Human Rights Law, 2nd Edition, 2010, Essex: Pearson Education Limited
Joseph Weiner, Discrimination, Indiscriminate Attacks, and the Use of Nuclear Weapons, December 19, 2011, http://www.lcnp.org/pubs/Weiner_Discrimination-Indiscriminate-Attacks.pdfhttp://www.lcnp.org/pubs/Weiner_Discrimination-Indiscriminate-Attacks.pdf, accessed on 10/08/2015.
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
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03:15 PM, Radio DabangaICC President meets United Nations Secretary-General in New York 04-08-15, 07:11 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitSudan pushes back elections n South Kordofan state 04-08-15, 07:04 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSOUTH SUDAN and ETHIOPIA REFUGEES CAMPS:Declaration document for elections boycott 04-08-15, 04:54 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseEvacuation of (585) Sudanese from Yemen to Saudi Arabia via buses 04-08-15, 04:51 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsAnti-election campaign scares population of South Kordofan 04-08-15, 04:48 PM, Radio DabangaSudan rebels seize election material days before vote: spokesman 04-06-15, 07:48 PM, AFP Agence France PresseFood and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization celebrate 04-06-15, 07:05 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseSudan will witness economic cooperation with Arab Gulf countries: Finance Minister 04-04-15, 07:11 PM, SudaneseOnline News200 Sudanese interested in the voluntary return from Yemen 04-04-15, 05:26 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSix students, one poet detained in El Obeid and Khartoum 04-04-15, 05:21 PM, Radio DabangaThere is any direction to postpone the elections whatsoever: Sudan’s ruling party 04-04-15, 05:19 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSouth Sudan,under leadership of Kiir,poses extraordinary threat to the U.S national security: Obama 04-01-15, 07:40 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsICC welcomes Palestine as a new State Party 04-01-15, 07:31 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitJoint Q and A by FIDH and ACJPS on the 10th Anniversary of the Darfur Referral to the ICC 03-31-15, 07:29 PM, african centre for justiceSudanese lawyers call for release of colleague 03-31-15, 05:47 PM, Radio DabangaWe are ready to deploy an infantry brigade in Yemen: Sudan’s president says 03-31-15, 05:45 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsProspect of arrests in Darfur case bleak:Fatou Bensouda 03-31-15, 05:44 PM, Radio DabangaSudan’s ruling party refuses to attend Addis pre-dialogue meeting 03-30-15, 05:33 PM, Radio DabangaSudan and UNICEF sign Joint Country Programme of Cooperation Agreement 03-29-15, 06:43 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudanese nationals assaulted in Yemen 03-29-15, 06:38 PM, Radio DabangaSudan’s Army dismisses reports that Yemen’s Houthi shot down Sudanese jet fighter 03-29-15, 06:20 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsThe rebel SPLM-N committed sabotage actions in South Kordofan: Sudanese army says 03-29-15, 05:17 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan rebels claim attack on Habila garrison in South Kordofan 03-29-15, 05:16 PM, Radio DabangaEgypt waits Sudan’s invitation to the National Committee on the Ethiopian dam 03-28-15, 06:36 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan puts 4 jet fighters and 6,000 military troops at the disposal of Saudi Arabia 03-28-15, 06:34 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan’s President praises efforts seeking to activate the joint Arab action 03-28-15, 06:31 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsAfter claiming to down Saudi coalition plane, Houthis say they're holding Sudanese pilot 03-28-15, 06:30 PM, Al BawabaRebels led by Machar announces that the killed 38 government soldiers in Jonglei and Unity states. 03-27-15, 03:44 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsU.S Company fined USD 232.7 mln for transactions with Sudan and Iran 03-27-15, 03:32 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan joins Saudi offensive against Yemeni rebels 03-27-15, 01:28 PM, Radio DabangaSchlumberger fined $232.7mn for breaking Iran, Sudan sanctions 03-26-15, 04:17 PM, AFP Agence France PresseYemen: ICRC concerned at civilian casualties amid escalating violence 03-26-15, 04:10 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseSudanese govt. responsible for tribal violence: Darfur Bar 03-26-15, 04:07 PM, Radio DabangaU.S. calls on South Sudanese parties to resume peace talks 03-25-15, 09:27 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudanese opposition forum denied permit in Khartoum 03-25-15, 07:05 PM, Radio DabangaSudan’s president travels to Egypt to participate in the Arab League summit 03-25-15, 07:02 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsBakeries close, water outage in Sudan’s capital 03-25-15, 05:49 PM, Radio DabangaEgypt, Ethiopia, Sudan sign agreement on Renaissance Dam 03-25-15, 01:58 AM, Radio DabangaJoint Statement on the National Dialogue in Sudan by U.S. State Department 03-25-15, 01:55 AM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseSecurity agents thwart anti-election forum in Port Sudan 03-25-15, 01:51 AM, Radio DabangaSouth Sudan Rebel Group Releases Child Soldiers 03-23-15, 08:29 PM, wall street online journalNine medical students were born in UK and studied medicine in Sudan 03-23-15, 08:20 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsMissing British-Sudanese medics had humanitarian motives 03-23-15, 08:13 PM, BBC NewsForeign intelligence finance terrorist groups: Sudan’s Vice President 03-23-15, 08:07 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsFrance denies Darfur rebel leader Nour the permanent residence in its territory: Sudan’s Foreign Mi 03-23-15, 06:34 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsInternational agents behind Arab, African extremism 03-23-15, 06:33 PM, Radio DabangaSudan plans to disband camps in secure West Darfur 03-22-15, 06:28 PM, Radio DabangaSudan’s ruling party denies use of the State resources in its electoral programmes 03-22-15, 05:19 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsContaminated medical waste alert in Sudan’s capital 03-22-15, 05:17 PM, Radio DabangaLand travels between Sudan and Ethiopia starts in April 03-22-15, 05:14 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsLarge quantity of drugs destroyed in eastern Sudan 03-22-15, 05:13 PM, Radio DabangaNine British medics enter Isis stronghold to work in hospitals 03-22-15, 01:15 AM, theguardianWFP Executive Director visits South Sudan 03-21-15, 07:09 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsBloody tribal clashes in Sudan’s Darfur left many dead and injured 03-21-15, 07:04 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSouth Sudan Factions Recruit Thousands of Child Soldiers 03-21-15, 04:40 PM, Voice of AmericaSouth Sudan warlord offers abducted boys sit exams - UN envoy 03-20-15, 05:49 PM, ReutersPopulation Under Pressure in South Sudan Opposition Territory 03-20-15, 04:26 PM, Voice of AmericaChina supplies South Sudan with weapons to protect its oil fields 03-20-15, 04:18 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSouth Sudan rebels say civil war will go on 03-20-15, 02:21 PM, AFP Agence France PresseNtaganda case: Trial Chamber VI recommends holding the opening of trial in DRC; decision to be made 03-19-15, 06:15 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitSudan: don't tie Darfur peacekeepers exit to tribal violence end 03-18-15, 11:45 PM, ReutersAFRICAN FUEL DEMAND KEEPS GROWING DESPITE ADVERSE CONDITIONS SAYS CITAC AFRICA REPORT 03-18-15, 11:27 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseSudan: ICRC appeals for funds to scale up humanitarian action 03-18-15, 08:13 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsAl Bashir pardons five JEM-Sudan convicts 03-18-15, 06:09 PM, Radio Dabanga500, 000 dollars from FAO to support agriculture in Sudan 03-18-15, 06:03 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan hit by severe shortage of flour 03-18-15, 06:00 PM, Radio DabangaSudan’s army says that it killed 60 rebels in fighting in Southern Kordofan 03-18-15, 05:58 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsFive dead, three injured in Darfur shootings 03-17-15, 08:36 PM, Radio DabangaChina describes its relationship with Sudan as a model must be followed 03-17-15, 08:33 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudanese popular and official delegations conduct dialogue with U.S. lobbies on sanctions 03-17-15, 08:24 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsTrial of 19 Darfur rebels starts in Sudan’s capital 03-17-15, 08:19 PM, Radio DabangaIndonesia invites Sudan’s president to attend Bandung Summit 03-16-15, 07:34 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsOne dead, two injured in new fire at Bindisi camp, Central Darfur 03-16-15, 07:20 PM, Radio DabangaWe show the world that the elections will be free and fair: Sudanese National Elections 03-16-15, 06:14 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan opposition, govt. still at odds on election 03-16-15, 06:12 PM, Radio DabangaAl-Bashir discusses with Mufti of Croatia position of Muslim minorities 03-16-15, 06:08 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsCall for Sudan to stop recruiting minors in South Kordofan 03-16-15, 06:05 PM, Radio DabangaSudan’s Vice President calls for completing of the tribal reconciliations in Darfur 03-16-15, 06:01 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSPLM-N leadership: Sudan Deserves a New Peace 03-15-15, 09:27 PM, الحركه الشعبيه لتحرير السودان شمالSpecialist shortage sees cancer rise in Sudan 03-13-15, 05:22 PM, Radio DabangaSouth Sudan’s government says it does not want ‘Troika’ countries to be included in the peace talks 03-13-15, 05:20 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsForeign aid goods for sale at Sudanese markets: displaced 03-13-15, 05:18 PM, Radio DabangaICC knows it doesn't scare Sudan at all: Information Minister says 03-13-15, 05:15 PM, SudaneseOnline News$ 68 million from the Kuwaiti Fund for Sudanese water project 03-13-15, 03:35 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSustainable fisheries project launched for Sudan’s Red Sea State 03-13-15, 03:31 PM, Radio DabangaSudanese army says it repels SPLM-N attack on Southern Kordofan 03-13-15, 03:28 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsKenyatta case: Trial Chamber V(B) terminates the proceedings 03-13-15, 03:26 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitSochoi jet-fighter attacked Tanase Village 03-11-15, 10:58 PM, الحركه الشعبيه لتحرير السودان شمالSudan’s president invites his Egyptian counterpart to sign a document on the Ethiopian dam 03-11-15, 07:20 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan’s ruling party welcomes Berlin Declaration 03-11-15, 07:16 PM, Radio DabangaICC moves intended to disrupt the elections: Sudan’s parliament 03-11-15, 07:14 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsNorway and UNIDO launch a € 4,8 million project for the sustainable management of marine fisheries 03-11-15, 06:05 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseS. Sudan Braces for Sanctions as Economy Limps 03-11-15, 06:04 PM, Voice of AmericaICC Trial Chamber I joins the cases concerning Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé 03-11-15, 05:58 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitSix new judges sworn in today at the seat of the International Criminal Court 03-11-15, 04:09 AM, ICC Public Affairs UnitChina calls on the warring parties in South Sudan to reach a settlement 03-10-15, 05:49 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsWorld Bank is to address Sudan’s problems in the areas of development 03-10-15, 05:49 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsInternational court: Sudan has failed to cooperate in al-Bashir case 03-09-15, 05:13 PM, ReutersPre-Trial Chamber II informs the United Nations Security Council about Sudan’s non-cooperation in t 03-09-15, 04:54 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitThe Secretary-General Remarks at the opening session of the Commission on the Status of Women 03-09-15, 04:50 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseOn International Women’s Day, ICC reaffirms commitment to end sexual and gender-based crimes 03-08-15, 09:06 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitUS condemns lack of "political leadership" to resolve South Sudan's war 03-07-15, 06:08 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan’s President participates in the Egypt Economic Development Conference 03-07-15, 06:03 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsOngwen case: Confirmation of charges hearing postponed to 21 January 2016 03-06-15, 11:34 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitSix newly elected ICC judges to be sworn in on 10 March 2015 03-06-15, 11:32 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitSouth Sudan:76 organizations call for publication of AU Inquiry Report as deadline for peace passe 03-06-15, 11:20 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsLubanga case: ICC Appeals Chamber amends the Trial Chamber’s order for reparations to victims 03-04-15, 05:10 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitStatement attributable to the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General on the South Sudan Peace Proce 03-04-15, 04:48 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseChina sees no "logic" behind US-drafted resolution on South Sudan 02-28-15, 04:19 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudanese tribesmen request reconciliation mechanism 02-28-15, 04:18 PM, Radio DabangaSudan’s president stresses the opposition’s inability to block the elections 02-28-15, 04:17 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsFatou Bensouda, following the Appeals Chamber decision upholding the acquittal in the Ngudjolo Chui 02-27-15, 10:53 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitNgudjolo Chui case: ICC Appeals Chamber confirms the acquittal decision 02-27-15, 08:30 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitSudanese leader says being hounded by ICC, West 02-27-15, 08:29 PM, AFP Agence France PresseFatou Bensouda, at a press conference in Uganda: justice will ultimately be dispensed for LRA crime 02-27-15, 08:25 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitFreedoms severely curtailed in Sudan in 2014: Amnesty 02-27-15, 02:19 PM, Radio DabangaI’m ready to “leave” if the people decided that through elections: Sudan’s president 02-27-15, 02:16 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan's Bashir says will quit in 2020 if re-elected president 02-26-15, 07:02 PM, ReutersLiberation of Kuhliyat garrison 5 km west Kadugli city 02-25-15, 09:33 PM, الحركه الشعبيه لتحرير السودان شمالBashir: Iranian centers closed to protect Sudan 02-25-15, 09:32 PM, Al Arabiya NewsStatement of the ICC Prosecutor at a press conference in the Central African Republic 02-25-15, 09:29 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitSudan election is 'propaganda', says rebel leader 02-25-15, 06:53 PM, Guardian NewsChina announces that it will continue to support South Sudan peace process 02-24-15, 05:04 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsThree die in militia attacks in South and North Darfur 02-24-15, 05:03 PM, Radio DabangaSudan and Kuwait negotiate help Zain repatriate $280 million worth of Sudanese pounds 02-24-15, 05:02 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsDarfur displaced invite US Deputy Secretary of State to visit their camps 02-24-15, 05:00 PM, Radio DabangaSudan election campaign to start amid opposition boycott 02-23-15, 06:39 PM, AFP Agence France PresseBoko Haram on agenda of IGAD Inter -Parliamentary Union in Khartoum 02-23-15, 06:29 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan activists to take action against Tabit mass rape 02-23-15, 06:29 PM, Radio DabangaDarfur rebels kill soldiers in central Jebel Marra 02-21-15, 04:23 PM, Radio DabangaDarfur authority stresses that improvement of U.S-Sudanese relations will bring peace 02-21-15, 04:22 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsCentral Darfur's displaced without shelter after fire 02-21-15, 04:21 PM, Radio DabangaSudan’s president addresses the Speakers of Parliaments of IGAD 02-21-15, 04:19 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsThe fighting in Darfur displaced more than 41,000 since late December: UN 02-20-15, 04:56 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsBrig. Gen. John Mabieh vowed to take Malakal town by 9th March this year 02-19-15, 04:38 PM, Weirial Puok BaluangSouth Sudan Rebel Spokesman Defects 02-19-15, 00:43 AM, Voice of AmericaU.S. Treasury Allows Personal Communication Exports to Sudan 02-19-15, 00:41 AM, wall street online journalSudan security agents confiscate print runs of 14 newspapers 02-19-15, 00:29 AM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseFAO teams up with the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rangelands and provides about USD 1 mill 02-18-15, 04:41 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseSouth Sudan Warns Media Not to Publish Rebel Interviews 02-17-15, 05:29 PM, Voice of AmericaVideo Report Sheds Light On Fierce Fighting In Sudan 02-15-15, 05:19 PM, Huffington PostSudanese journalist disappears under mysterious circumstances 02-15-15, 04:57 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsPolitical delegation in Tabit scares residents 02-14-15, 04:16 PM, Radio DabangaIGAD's Inter-Parliamentary Union convenes its meeting in Khartoum 02-14-15, 04:12 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan investigates rape of girl in Darfur by UNAMID officer: Source 02-13-15, 04:49 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan’s opposition welcomes HRW’s confirmation of Darfur mass rape 02-13-15, 02:58 PM, Radio DabangaSudan refers the case of the two political detainees to the court 02-13-15, 02:56 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsStatement of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, on the Internation 02-12-15, 04:17 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitSeven Investment Programme Areas Under the Sudanese National Agricultural Investment Plan (NAIP) Id 02-12-15, 04:15 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseSudan: Mass Rape by Army in Darfur UN, AU Should Press for Protection, International Investigation 02-11-15, 11:04 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseFirewood collectors assaulted in Kabkabiya, North Darfur 02-06-15, 04:12 PM, Radio DabangaSudan’s president supports the Arab Parliament efforts 02-06-15, 02:39 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsBoy burns to death in attack on villages in North Darfur 02-06-15, 02:37 PM, Radio DabangaSudan and Arab League discuss providing assistance to Darfur 02-04-15, 06:00 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsMP demands rule of law restored in North Darfur 02-04-15, 04:52 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan’s Ministry of Culture orders the closure of the Sudanese Writer’s Union 02-03-15, 08:10 PM, african centre for justiceStatement of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, ahead of the gener 02-02-15, 08:56 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitLiberation and Justice Movement -LJM apology to people of Darfur 02-02-15, 05:40 PM, Radio DabangaAU movements to withdraw Darfur file from (ICC): Sudanese Foreign Minister 02-02-15, 05:37 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsAU calls on (ICC) to drop or suspend charges against Sudan’s president and Kenyan Deputy President 02-01-15, 06:40 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan's Omar al-Bashir gets Chinese-built presidential palace 01-27-15, 05:05 PM, BBC NewsSudan authorities working on arrest warrants against El Mahdi and Minawi 01-26-15, 05:16 PM, Radio DabangaSudanese popular initiative to mend relations between Khartoum and Washington 01-25-15, 04:59 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan’s president participates in AU Summit in Addis Ababa 01-19-15, 00:43 AM, SudaneseOnline NewsAl Bashir’s candidacy humiliation for all Sudanese: Darfur displaced 01-12-15, 04:36 PM, Radio DabangaAl Bashir is uniting Sudan with his hate speeches: Umma Party leader 12-30-14, 03:54 PM, Radio DabangaSudan’s ruling party announces its electoral programme 12-30-14, 02:57 AM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan and Kenya confirm that ICC targets Africa leaders 12-26-14, 05:32 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsEthiopia supports the collective leave of African States from (ICC): Sudan’s government says 12-26-14, 03:57 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan demands apology for Jordan statement on ICC report 12-23-14, 11:04 PM, The Middle East MonitorKhartoum summons Jordanian Ambassador about Jordan mission statements to UN 12-23-14, 11:00 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan calls on (UNSC) to cancel resolution 1593 which referred the Darfur file to ICC 12-19-14, 03:06 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsICC’s referral of Darfur issue to UN is a means of pressure to arrest those wanted by the court: Su 12-17-14, 03:44 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsDisplaced urge UN Security Council to act on Darfur case 12-16-14, 05:29 PM, Radio DabangaStatement by the UK Legal Advisor to the UK Mission to the UN to the Security Council Briefing on S 12-16-14, 03:30 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseICC decision is a “chance” to Sudanese and African community to put an end to the court: Sudan’s Pa 12-15-14, 03:26 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsAl-Bashir says (ICC) is one of the tools aims to humiliate and subjugate Sudanese 12-14-14, 02:41 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsICC criticizes UN for failing to push for the arrest of Sudanese President 12-13-14, 04:10 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan Call A Political Declaration on the Establishment of a State of Citizenship and Democracy 12-06-14, 04:37 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseBemba, Kilolo et al. case: Pre-Trial Chamber II commits five suspects to trial 11-11-14, 05:25 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitBeja Congress Condemns Rape of Women in Darfur 11-09-14, 11:26 PM, مؤتمر البجاThe Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, attends 7th Colloquium of Inter 11-05-14, 06:58 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitRe: Sudanese Congress Party Leader banned from travel 11-02-14, 09:11 PM, سيف اليزل سعد عمرAn important Statement No.14 by Commander Ismail Khamis Jalab The former governor of South Kordofan 10-31-14, 04:37 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseICC holds first sub-regional Seminar of Counsel and the Legal Profession in Dakar, Senegal 10-27-14, 10:41 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitFatou Bensouda briefs the United Nations Security Council 10-24-14, 05:31 PM, ICC Public Affairs UnitSudan's ruling party nominates Al- Bashir to new presidential term 10-22-14, 05:53 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsAnother brutal war crime committed by khartoum regime in Hieban town 10-17-14, 05:20 PM, الحركه الشعبيه لتحرير السودان شمالExperts consider appearance of Kenyan present before ICC as legal precedent 10-10-14, 05:09 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsAl Bashir should take Kenyan President as example: Sudan rebels 10-10-14, 03:41 PM, Radio DabangaLetter to President Obama from Sudanese living in Diaspora 10-09-14, 11:04 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsA demonstration in London on April 28 to condemn terrorism and violence practiced by Sudanese autho 10-08-14, 08:03 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan leader rigid, ex-media boss uncle says 10-08-14, 07:58 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsUS urges parties to conflict in S. Sudan to stop fighting 10-08-14, 07:46 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsFighting the war in the mountains of Sudanand#138; with a camera 10-08-14, 07:01 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsPress Release from U.Sudan Peace and Development Foundation 09-24-14, 06:20 AM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseSudan: UN Body Should Press for Inquiry One Year On, No Justice for Protester Deaths 09-23-14, 06:10 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseInternational Criminal Court opens its doors to more than 750 visitors on Hague International Day 09-22-14, 08:02 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseICC Trial Chamber IV issues arrest warrant against Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain 09-11-14, 06:04 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseICC to start trial of Banda on Friday 07-17-14, 00:08 AM, SudaneseOnline NewsHead of Sudanese Alliance puts road-map plan to remove tension 06-18-14, 08:32 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan renews rejection to ICC measures 06-18-14, 08:32 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsNew Amnesty International report - Nowhere Safe: Civilians Under Attack in South Sudan 05-11-14, 08:24 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseSudan’s 2015 elections: an ominous deja vu? 05-06-14, 01:38 AM, Sudan Democracy First GroupSouth Sudan Facing Genocide Risk Amid Personal Power Struggle, U.N. Officials Warn 05-04-14, 05:11 PM, Huffington PostICC urges Ethiopia to arrest President Al-Bashir 05-01-14, 06:58 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsAMNESTY INTERNATIONAL Obituary: Osman Hummaida 04-25-14, 07:25 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseSolidarity Committee threatens to take” September victims” case to ICC 04-23-14, 04:43 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsNo justice for Sudan protest killings: Human Rights Watch 04-22-14, 05:25 PM, Radio DabangaSudan: No Justice for Protest Killings Release Detainees and Punish Abusive Forces 04-21-14, 06:57 PM, SudaneseOnline Press Release‘Legal technicality’ leads to expulsion of NGO Merlin from Sudan 04-18-14, 03:28 PM, Radio DabangaHuman rights activists call for cessation of war in Sudan 04-08-14, 07:14 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudanese civilians terrorised by capricious militia 04-07-14, 06:51 PM, AFP Agence France PresseEgyptian Muslim Brotherhood leader visits Khartoum 04-05-14, 03:56 PM, The Middle East MonitorSudan aid needs astonishing : British official 04-03-14, 07:27 PM, The Daily StarSudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin for the period 01 to 15 March 2014 04-02-14, 08:20 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudanese Parliamentarian considers non-invitation of President Al-Bashir to attend African-European 04-02-14, 04:12 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan accuses EU of seeking to create a rift in African position 04-01-14, 06:56 PM, The Middle East MonitorAlarm raised over violence in Sudan's Darfur 03-28-14, 06:52 PM, Aljazeera newsSudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin for February 2014 03-26-14, 03:39 PM, Darfur Relief and Documentation CentreMohamed I. Elgadi’s Letter to President Obama 03-26-14, 03:29 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsMusa Hilal’s insurgency 03-17-14, 05:20 PM, Sudan Democracy First GroupSPLM Secretary General describes death sentence by Sudanese court against him as political 03-15-14, 05:03 PM, ياسر عرمانSudan police clash with mourners at funeral 03-13-14, 02:48 AM, Aljazeera newsStatement of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, providing an updat 03-07-14, 07:42 PM, SudaneseOnline Press ReleaseStatement by the International Criminal Court on the occasion of International Women’s Day 03-07-14, 07:41 PM, SudaneseOnline Press Releasestatement issued by DRDC concerning the ongoing round of ethnic cleansing in Darfur 03-04-14, 04:08 AM, SudaneseOnline NewsArson, #####ng displace thousands in Sudan's Darfur 03-04-14, 03:32 AM, SudaneseOnline NewsBooth: The US will continue urging international community to ask Sudan cooperate with ICC 02-28-14, 03:53 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsNEWS FLASH: DR Congo: Arrest Sudanese President al-Bashir, wanted for genocide 02-26-14, 06:47 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsPresident of the Assembly calls upon the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to resp 02-26-14, 06:45 PM, SudaneseOnline News A comprehensive peace Khartoum: Hussein Saad 02-23-14, 08:57 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsPublication of Constitutional Proetction of Human Rights in Sudan 02-10-14, 06:37 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsIssues No. 6 and 7 of the Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin covering the periods 01 to 1 02-10-14, 06:33 PM, SudaneseOnline NewsSudan’s Humanitarian Aid Commission suspends the International Committee of the Red Cross’ operatio 02-08-14, 01:54 AM, SudaneseOnline NewsFighting the war in the mountains of Sudanand#138; with a camera 01-28-14, 05:40 AM, SudaneseOnline NewsUS urges parties to conflict in S. Sudan to stop fighting 01-02-14, 05:37 PM, SudaneseOnline News The Nuer Community of North America Calls upon China, Russia and Iran 12-30-13, 09:52 PM, sudaneseonline Massacre of Nuer civilians at The Hands of President Kiir’s Dinka mili 12-22-13, 01:49 AM, sudaneseonline Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin Issue No 4 01 – 15 Decem 12-17-13, 07:24 PM, SudaneseOnline News Statement by the International Criminal Court on the passing of Nelson 12-07-13, 01:06 AM, SudaneseOnline News New Report: Crisis situation for women in Sudan 12-07-13, 00:51 AM, SudaneseOnline News 3rd Issue of the Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin for the 12-02-13, 03:32 PM, sudaneseonline Sudan leader rigid, ex-media boss uncle says 11-22-13, 03:28 AM, SudaneseOnline News Ex-media boss uncle says Sudan leader will never change 11-21-13, 03:30 PM, SudaneseOnline News Sudan feels the heat from fuel protests 11-15-13, 05:59 AM, BBC News UN revels that Sudan's president has canceled his visit to New York 09-27-13, 01:10 AM, SudaneseOnline News Darfur People's Association of New York Rally to urge UN, UNSC and the 09-26-13, 05:29 AM, SudaneseOnline News Rally to urge UN, UNSC and the United states to stand for Justice for 09-23-13, 07:21 AM, SudaneseOnline News UN: Demand al-Bashir’s surrender to the International Criminal Court 09-20-13, 05:14 PM, SudaneseOnline News ICC urges American administration to arrest Sudan's president, if he v 09-19-13, 05:22 PM, SudaneseOnline News Al Bashir case: ICC Judges invite the US to arrest the suspect and sur 09-18-13, 08:07 PM, SudaneseOnline News U.S. is not qualified morally, politically or legally to give any less 09-18-13, 04:43 PM, SudaneseOnline News Letter from African Centre for Justice and Peace Studies 09-14-13, 00:49 AM, SudaneseOnline Press Release Human Rights Situation in Sudan: Amnesty International’s joint written 09-11-13, 10:17 PM, SudaneseOnline News Renewal and strengthening of the special procedure mandate on the situ 09-11-13, 10:16 PM, SudaneseOnline News Kenya: Cooperate fully with International Criminal Court trials 09-09-13, 06:04 PM, SudaneseOnline Press Release