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جلسة استماع بالكونغرس: خبراء أمريكيون ينتقدون غياب "الحرية الدينية" بالسعودية

10-12-2017, 09:56 AM

Yasir Elsharif
<aYasir Elsharif
تاريخ التسجيل: 12-09-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 23176

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جلسة استماع بالكونغرس: خبراء أمريكيون ينتقدون غياب "الحرية الدينية" بالسعودية

    09:56 AM October, 12 2017

    سودانيز اون لاين
    Yasir Elsharif-Germany
    مكتبتى
    رابط مختصر

    من موقع الجزيرة نت، ويوجد فيديو:
    ـــــــــــــــــــ

    خبراء أميركيون ينتقدون غياب "الحرية الدينية" بالسعودية
    قبل ساعتين

    انتقد خبراء أميركيون -خلال جلسة استماع للشهود والخبراء في مجلس النواب الأميركي- غياب "الحرية الدينية" في السعودية التي وصفوها بـ "مهد التطرف" ودعوا واشنطن للضغط على الرياض "للتوجه نحو التسامح الديني".
    فقد قال كبير مستشاري مكتب الديمقراطية وحقوق الإنسان والعمل بالخارجية الأميركية إن السعودية لا تعترف بحق غير المسلمين في ممارسة معتقداتهم علنا، وتـستخدم ضدهم عقوبات كالسجن والجـلد والغرامة وغيرها.
    وأوضح مايكل كوزاك أن حكومة بلاده تهتم بإصلاح القوانين التي تتسم بالتمييز الديني والإعدامات، ضاربا المثل بالسعودية وإيران.
    وتابع "من ضمن اهتماماتنا عالميا العمل على إصلاح القوانين التي تتسم بالتمييز وتحرم الكثيرين من قدرتهم على ممارسة معتقداتهم الدينية".
    وردا على سؤال من عضو الكونغرس تري غودي عما إذا كان ينبغي لـ الولايات المتحدة إعطاء الأولوية للأمن القومي على معالجة المخاوف المتعلقة بالحرية الدينية في بلدان أخرى، وصف الأستاذ بجامعة جورج تاون توماس فار السعودية بأنها "مهد التطرف الإسلامي". وأضاف أن المملكة "هي المكان الذي تنبع منه الأيديولوجية التي تغذي التطرف" وأنها "مثال جيد جدا على عدم التسامح الديني".
    ولفت الأكاديمي الأميركي إلى أهمية أن تواصل إدارة الرئيس دونالد ترمب التعاون مع السلطات السعودية على أن تبين لها أن التسامح الديني قد يكون في مصلحة المملكة.
    وقال بالخصوص "أعتقد أننا لا نشرح للسعوديين بشكل كاف لماذا تكمن مصلحتهم في التوجه نحو التسامح الديني. لا نريد منهم تبني حرية التعبير والحريات الدينية بالشكل الذي نمارسه هنا، ولكن ينبغي لهم الشروع في ذلك لأنه يمكن أن يفيدهم".
    المصدر : الجزيرة
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10-12-2017, 10:01 AM

Yasir Elsharif
<aYasir Elsharif
تاريخ التسجيل: 12-09-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 23176

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Re: جلسة استماع بالكونغرس: خبراء أمريكيون ينت (Re: Yasir Elsharif)

    Religious Freedom and American National Security
    A Hearing of the National Security Subcommittee of the
    House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, October 11, 2017
    Thomas F. Farr1
    Chairman DeSantis, Ranking Member Lynch, and members of the sub-committee, thank you for
    holding this important hearing and for inviting me to testify.
    My message to you today is straightforward and hopeful: advancing religious freedom
    successfully in our foreign policy can help the victims of religious persecution abroad and
    increase the security of the American people.
    But if we are to succeed we will need to change some of our thinking at the State Department
    about religious freedom, and our approach to promoting it in U.S. foreign policy.
    Growing evidence indicates that an effective religious freedom policy can help increase our
    security, and that of other nations, by undermining religion-related terrorism. The evidence
    applies to violence that emanates from any religion. But the primary threat to U.S. national
    security, and that of most other nations, especially Muslim-majority nations, is Islamist
    terrorism.
    Integrating the promotion of religious freedom across all U.S. foreign policy agencies is essential
    to reducing religion-related terrorism. This work will be accelerated the Senate’s confirmation of
    Governor Sam Brownback, the President’s nominee for the position of U.S. Ambassador at
    Large for International Religious Freedom.
    Governor Brownback has the opportunity and the skills to build upon the work of his
    predecessor, Ambassador David Saperstein, and integrate religious freedom into American
    national security strategy. I urge the Senate to confirm Governor Brownback immediately. Those
    suffering violent religious persecution around the world, including the Rohingya Muslims of
    Burma and the Christians and Yazidis of Iraq, need him on the job now.
    The Existing IRF Approach to Islamist Terrorism
    Most Islamist terrorism is born and incubated in the Middle East. Our approach to terrorism as a
    religious freedom issue has understandably focused on the minority religious groups victimized
    by ISIS or the governments in the region such as Syria, Pakistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. As we
    should, we focus most of our attention on the terrible suffering of religious communities that our

    Thomas Farr is President of the Religious Freedom Institute. He also directs the Religious Freedom
    Research Project at Georgetown University, where he is an associate Professor of the Practice of Religion
    and World Affairs in the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service. Farr was the first Director of the
    State Department’s Office of International Religious Freedom (1999-2003).
    2
    own government has designated as victims of genocide, including Yezidis, minority Shiites, and
    Christians.
    The methods historically used by the State Department to draw attention to the victims of
    religious persecution, and to their persecutors, consist of annual reports on the status of religious
    freedom, and annual designations of the worst violators – the “countries of particular concern” or
    CPCs. The 1998 International Religious Freedom (IRF) Act also authorized economic sanctions
    and the funding of religious freedom programs.
    All of these provisions are needed. The annual reports from the State Department and the U.S.
    Commission on International Religious Freedom are accurate and thorough. Both the State
    Department and the Commission are to be commended for their most recent reports. In
    particular, I want to recognize the work of Dan Nadel, Director of the State Department’s Office
    of International Religious Freedom, and his staff, as well as Knox Thames, Special Adviser for
    Religious Minorities in the Middle East and South/Central Asia. These two men have led U.S.
    IRF policy since the departure last January of Ambassador Saperstein.
    As for the annual identification of the worst persecutors, the “countries of particular concern,”
    that report is also vitally important.
    But the problem is that these reports are entirely diagnostic in nature. They shine a light on the
    problem but do little to solve it.
    Economic sanctions are rarely effective. When they have been tried, they have not worked.
    Governments are unlikely to change their religion policies because of sanctions alone. Additional
    policies are needed to supplement the leverage provided by sanctions or other negative
    incentives the United States might impose.
    State Department-funded IRF programs are a good place to start, especially if they provide
    reasons why religious freedom is in the target nation’s interests. Program funding historically has
    hovered around $4 million annually, an amount Ambassador Saperstein succeeded in increasing
    to $20 million. But even that amount pales in comparison to other programs intended to protect
    American national security.
    Moreover, IRF programs funded by State, though often meritorious, are not part of an all-ofgovernment
    strategy. They are spread too thin and are too ad hoc to have any appreciable impact
    on Islamist terrorism, or to convince governments that religious freedom will improve
    governance, stimulate economic growth, or undermine religious violence.
    The unfortunate reality is that IRF policy has been isolated from the mainstream of U.S. foreign
    policy. It has been overlooked as a means of promoting stability and national security.
    3
    How Religious Freedom Undermines Terrorism
    Until recently the social sciences have ignored the connections between religious freedom and
    religion-related violence. However, scholars at the Religious Freedom Institute are
    demonstrating something that the American Founders instinctively understood: religious
    freedom is the basis for all other rights. It is necessary for the success of any society. The
    evidence shows that religious freedom has a causal impact on other social, political, and
    economic goods, such as long-term political stability, economic growth, and even better health.
    But the religious freedom effect that can best contribute to American security, and help
    persecuted minorities at the same time, is to help prevent religion-related violence and terrorism.
    Societies that lack religious freedom, such as those of the Middle East, are far more likely to
    incubate, suffer domestically, and export internationally, religion-related terrorism.
    The reverse is also true. Societies that protect religious freedom generally do not incubate
    religious violence and terrorism. Despite its difficulties with Hindu radicalism, India’s success as
    the world’s largest democracy, with a huge and largely peaceful Muslim minority, stems in large
    part from its history of religious tolerance. The same can be said of Indonesia, the world’s largest
    Muslim country. Despite its own Islamic extremism, Indonesia’s tolerant Islamic civil society
    helps keep that nation democratic and stable. That both India and Indonesia are moving in a
    worrisome direction is precisely because each is experiencing a decrease in respect for the
    religious freedom of all their citizens. But, at present, neither is an exporter of religion-related
    terrorism.
    In West Africa, no less than seven Muslim-majority countries -- Senegal, Mali, Niger, Guinea,
    Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, and The Gambia—have avoided the violent extremism that plagues
    other Muslim states. Each has significant legal protections for the religious freedom of Muslims
    and non-Muslims, and each encourages interreligious cooperation. The result is a stabilizing
    religious pluralism that discourages religious extremism.
    How to Integrate Religious Freedom into U.S. National Security Strategy
    How can religious freedom be integrated into our national security strategy؟ For one thing, by
    focusing less on ineffective rhetorical denunciations, and instead combining practical incentives
    with arguments that appeal to the self-interest of the target society.
    For example, the State Department recently announced the withholding of $290 million in aid to
    Egypt because of human rights violations, including harsh restrictions on religious communities.
    This is a good start, but unlikely to change things on the ground. History strongly suggests that
    Egypt will not alter its policies on religious freedom for $290 million.
    4
    The U.S. should augment the withholding of aid by providing hard evidence that altering
    repressive laws and policies will benefit Egypt, for example by reducing the violent extremism
    that is harming the country’s all-important tourist industry.
    To date, U.S. religious freedom arguments to Cairo have emphasized injustice, human rights, and
    international law. Those arguments have been correct, and fruitless. They should be amplified
    with evidence that religious freedom, by requiring full equality for all religious groups and open
    debate about Islam, does not sanction violence or extremism, and will work to undermine it.
    U.S. aid can also help develop the institutions that will advance religious freedom, by, for
    example, integrating religious freedom training into programs with Egyptian military and local
    police forces, judges and lawyers, educational institutions, and civil society groups.
    Iraq provides another opportunity. Since 2014, the U.S. government has allocated nearly $1.7
    billion dollars to Iraq for humanitarian assistance (USAID Fact Sheet, 9/20/17). Most of that aid
    has not reached the Christian minorities designated as victims of ISIS genocide. Most are
    unlikely to return to their ancestral homes without aid.
    The plight of Christians, Yazidis and other minorities in Iraq is of course a monumental
    humanitarian crisis. But it also constitutes a serious U.S. national security problem. Religious
    pluralism is a necessary condition for long-term stability in Iraq. If minorities do not return and,
    over time, become fully integrated into Iraqi society, that nation will very likely become a
    perpetual Shia-Sunni battleground where terrorism flourishes.
    The office of International Religious Freedom should ensure that USAID, State Department, and
    Defense resources are expended to counter the religion-related violence that is at the root of this
    crisis. The U.S. should mount a sustained campaign to convince Iraqi stakeholders that they will
    never live in peace and security without the pluralism that non-Muslim minorities bring. With
    our help, Iraq must provide security, jobs, and religious freedom to these non-Muslim minorities
    so that they can integrate into Iraqi society.
    Success in such efforts will not come easy. But the long war against Islamist terrorism and
    religious persecution cannot be won with law enforcement and military force alone. America
    needs new ideas and new combatants to win this war. Religious freedom should be part of the
    mix.
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10-12-2017, 10:04 AM

Yasir Elsharif
<aYasir Elsharif
تاريخ التسجيل: 12-09-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 23176

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Re: جلسة استماع بالكونغرس: خبراء أمريكيون ينت (Re: Yasir Elsharif)

    Thomas Farr is President of the Religious Freedom Institute, a non-profit organization
    committed to achieving religious liberty for everyone. Farr also directs the Religious Freedom
    Research Project at Georgetown University’s Berkley Center. He is an associate Professor of the
    Practice of Religion and World Affairs at Georgetown’s Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign
    Service.
    Farr serves as a senior fellow at the Institute for Studies of Religion at Baylor University, and at
    the Witherspoon Institute in Princeton, N.J. He received his B.A. in history from Mercer
    University, and his Ph.D. in modern British and European history from the University of North
    Carolina.
    Dr. Farr served for 28 years in the U.S. Army and the U.S. Foreign Service. During those years
    he was Adjutant General of the 4th Transportation Brigade in Germany; Assistant Professor of
    History at West Point; Assistant Professor of International Relations at the Air Force Academy;
    and a member of the U.S. negotiating team at the U.S.-Soviet arms control talks in Geneva. In
    the 1990s Farr headed an interagency task force on verification provisions for the START II
    Treaty.
    In 1999 Farr became the first director of the State Department's Office of International Religious
    Freedom. Responsible for establishing America’s new IRF policy, Farr held this position until
    2003. He subsequently directed the Witherspoon Institute's International Religious Freedom
    (IRF) Task Force, was a member of the Chicago World Affairs Council’s Task Force on
    Religion and U.S. Foreign Policy, and served on the Secretary of State’s IRF working group.
    Dr. Farr trains American diplomats at the Foreign Service Institute, and is a consultant to the
    U.S. Catholic Bishops Conference. He serves on the administrative board of Aid to the Church in
    Need; the boards of directors of the Institute on Religion and Democracy, Christian Solidarity
    Worldwide-USA, and Saint John Paul the Great High School; and on the boards of advisors of
    the Alexander Hamilton Society and the National Museum of American Religion.
    Dr. Farr has testified on international religious freedom policy before the U.S. Congress and the
    Canadian Parliament, and spoken at a wide variety of government agencies, think tanks, and
    universities. He is a contributing editor for the Review of Faith and International Affairs, and
    Providence: A Journal of Christianity and Foreign Policy. His major titles include World of
    Faith and Freedom: Why International Religious Liberty is Vital to American National Security
    (Oxford University Press, 2008); Religious Freedom and Gay Rights: Emerging Conflicts in
    North America and Europe, co-edited with Timothy Shah and Jack Friedman (Cambridge
    University Press, 2016); and U.S. Foreign Policy and International Religious Freedom:
    Recommendations for the Trump Administration, with Dennis Hoover (Religious Freedom
    Institute, 2017).
    Farr is the recipient of the Jan Karski Wellspring of Freedom Award, presented by the Institute
    on Religion and Public Policy; a lifetime achievement recognition presented by In Defense of
    Christians; and the international award presented at the 15th annual Religious Liberty Dinner in
    Washington DC, sponsored by the 7th Day Adventists. A Roman Catholic, he is married to
    Margaret McPherson Farr. They have three daughters and 10 grandchildren.
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