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what's the router?

03-26-2005, 06:00 AM
hamid hajer
<ahamid hajer
Registered: 08-12-2003
Total Posts: 1508

مكتبة الفساد

من اقوالهم






what's the router?

    A device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP’s network. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect .

    Very little filtering of data is done through routers.



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03-26-2005, 06:08 AM
hamid hajer
<ahamid hajer
Registered: 08-12-2003
Total Posts: 1508






Re: what's the router? (Re: hamid hajer)


    Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for forwarding the packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP
    to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts.




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03-26-2005, 06:34 AM
hamid hajer
<ahamid hajer
Registered: 08-12-2003
Total Posts: 1508






Re: what's the router? (Re: hamid hajer)


    This page will provide a brief review of routers.

    A router is a special type of computer. It has the same basic components as a standard desktop PC. It has a CPU, memory, a system bus, and various input/output interfaces. However, routers are designed to perform some very specific functions that are not typically performed by desktop computers. For example, routers connect and allow communication between two networks and determine the best path for data to travel through the connected networks.




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    (Edited by hamid hajer on 03-26-2005, 06:55 AM)

                  

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03-26-2005, 07:11 AM
hamid hajer
<ahamid hajer
Registered: 08-12-2003
Total Posts: 1508






Re: what's the router? (Re: hamid hajer)



    Just as computers need operating systems to run software applications, routers need the Internetwork Operating System (IOS) software to run configuration files. These configuration files contain the instructions and parameters that control the flow of traffic in and out of the routers. Routers use routing protocols to determine the best path for packets. The configuration file specifies all the information for the correct setup and use of the selected, or enabled, routing and routed protocols on a router.



    RAM has the following characteristics and functions:

    Stores routing tables
    Holds ARP cache
    Holds fast-switching cache
    Performs packet buffering as shared RAM
    Maintains packet-hold queues
    Provides temporary memory for the configuration file of a router while the router is powered on
    Loses content when a router is powered down or restarted
    NVRAM has the following characteristics and functions:

    Provides storage for the startup configuration file
    Retains content when a router is powered down or restarted

    Flash memory has the following characteristics and functions:

    Holds the IOS image
    Allows software to be updated without removing and replacing chips on the processor
    Retains content when a router is powered down or restarted
    Can store multiple versions of IOS software
    Is a type of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM)

    ROM has the following characteristics and functions:

    Maintains instructions for power-on self test (POST) diagnostics
    Stores bootstrap program and basic operating system software
    Requires replacing pluggable chips on the motherboard for software upgrades

    Interfaces have the following characteristics and functions:

    Connect routers to a network for packet entry and exit
    Can be on the motherboard or on a separate module
    The next page will describe the role of routers in WANs and LANs.


    Routers can be used to segment LANs, but they are mainly used as WAN devices. This page will explain how routers are used in a network.




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Arabic Forum

03-26-2005, 07:24 AM
hamid hajer
<ahamid hajer
Registered: 08-12-2003
Total Posts: 1508






Re: what's the router? (Re: hamid hajer)

    Routers have both LAN and WAN interfaces.





    WAN technologies are frequently used to connect routers. Routers use WAN connections to communicate with each other. Routers are the backbone devices of large intranets and of the Internet. They operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model, making decisions based on network addresses. The two main functions of a router are to select the best path for packets and to route packets to the proper interface. To accomplish this, routers build routing tables and exchange network information with other routers.

    An administrator can configure static routes to maintain routing tables. However, most routing tables are maintained dynamically through the use of a routing protocol that exchanges network topology information with other routers.


    network topology







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Arabic Forum

05-24-2005, 03:25 AM
hamid hajer
<ahamid hajer
Registered: 08-12-2003
Total Posts: 1508






Re: what's the router? (Re: hamid hajer)

    this routers from Lebanon - BCU - Cisco Laboratory .

    (Edited by hamid hajer on 05-24-2005, 03:32 AM)

                  

Arabic Forum

05-24-2005, 03:36 AM
hamid hajer
<ahamid hajer
Registered: 08-12-2003
Total Posts: 1508






Re: what's the router? (Re: hamid hajer)




    cisco lab at (BCU):

                  

Arabic Forum

05-24-2005, 03:47 AM
hamid hajer
<ahamid hajer
Registered: 08-12-2003
Total Posts: 1508






Re: what's the router? (Re: hamid hajer)

    Why Would I Need a Router?
    For most home users, they may want to set-up a LAN (local Area Network) or WLAN (wireless LAN) and connect all computers to the Internet without having to pay a full broadband subscription service to their ISP for each computer on the network. In many instances, an ISP will allow you to use a router and connect multiple computers to a single Internet connection and pay a nominal fee for each additional computer sharing the connection. This is when home users will want to look at smaller routers, often called broadband routers that enable two or more computers to share an Internet connection. Within a business or organization, you may need to connect multiple computers to the Internet, but also want to connect multiple private networks — and these are the types of functions a router is designed for.




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Arabic Forum

05-28-2005, 06:46 AM
peace builder
<apeace builder
Registered: 10-17-2002
Total Posts: 791






Re: what's the router? (Re: hamid hajer)

    Thanks Hamid for the useful information.
    Concerning the last paragraph why we use router: For ordinary user who wants to share internet connection with many computers without paying extra money, another useful and cheap device could be appropriate. It is the HUB. From 8-15 computers can be connected to the internet.
    Routers mainly used for connecting WANs & LANs.

    Thank you,

    Gamal Karrar
    ICT Specialist
    UNDP
    Sudan
                  

Arabic Forum

06-07-2005, 04:21 PM
Abureesh
<aAbureesh
Registered: 09-22-2003
Total Posts: 17557






Re: what's the router? (Re: peace builder)

    Thaks Hamid and peace builder

    Just a note that HUBs do not work by themselves and they must be used with routers.
    In a typical LAN network, the output of the modem must go to the router, and then
    one of the routers outputs can be connected to the HUB.
    if you have less than 9 computers in your network then it is not a good idea to use a HUB
    because you are going to buy an 8-port router anyway.
                  

Arabic Forum

07-01-2005, 01:05 AM
hamid hajer
<ahamid hajer
Registered: 08-12-2003
Total Posts: 1508






Re: what's the router? (Re: hamid hajer)

    in cisco technology use switchs & bridges instate of hubs ..
    The bridge adds the source address of the frame to its bridge table..
    this mean .. smart than hub .

                  

Arabic Forum

07-02-2005, 07:39 AM
Yassir7anna
<aYassir7anna
Registered: 09-08-2002
Total Posts: 2619






Re: what's the router? (Re: hamid hajer)

    Thank you very much Hamid

    It is realy a very good and a very interesting topic

    May ALLAH bless you

    (Edited by Yassir7anna on 07-02-2005, 07:39 AM)

                  

Arabic Forum

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