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South Sudanese Civil war rise up under Salva Kiir Mayardit, and result

12-31-2013, 07:17 PM
Ruach Wal Yat



مكتبة الفساد

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South Sudanese Civil war rise up under Salva Kiir Mayardit, and result

    South Sudanese Civil war rise up under Salva Kiir Mayardit, and result Massacre to innocent Nuer Civilians in Capital Juba, South Sudan.
    Written by author’s Ruach Wal Yat




    Capital Upper Nile the Great
    Salva Kiir Dictatorship rule
    Story south Sudan Conflicts.
    South Sudan becomes new nation.
    Analysis Conclusion.


    Capital Upper Nile the Great Cities of Malakal, Bentiu, and Bor have been fall down under control of Dr. Riek Machar

    Since the war was broke out between rival factions of Machar and Salva Kiir on December 23, 2013, the SPLA force under Salva Kiir were defeated and also surrender to evacuate town in Malakal, and they run toward port near close to river-bank. General Gony Biliew and Governor Kun Puoch are now on run toward unknown place which is nobody knows where they are. Upper Nile capital of Malakal which is also second rich oilfield to Unity State has been already confirmed to fall down under Dr. Machar on December 24, 2013. General Gathoth Gatkuoth seizes the power now and he declares himself to be Governor of Malakal from today and onward to take care for citizens of Upper Nile.
    Initially, the war was broke because Governor has plotted to capture some generals to be incarcerated. Most counties which are now located on different location of Upper Nile were already seized by Machar, according report from new Governor Gathoth Gatkuoth, but only Renk county is unconfirmed.

    The governor has also mentioned, Renk will be under control to them soon because the Capital city is under us. He also confirmed, Ulang, Nassir, Maiwut, and Lungcuk are fall down under Dr. Machar. At the end of the war on December 24, 2013, the citizens of Malakal are joy and dancing because they confirmed the huge three states in south Sudan are now under control to Dr. Machar faction. They glad and singing Salva Kiir must leave the power and also stop bloodshed to innocent people, especially Nuer civilians. They also running on street saying Dr. Machar fought for democracy in order to free all tribes from dictatorship. Different tribes in Malakal are now under control to Gathoth Gatkuoth from now and onward to seize sovereignty of State. Civilians were not shooting in cross-fire in the Warfield. The Upper Nile State has been combined different civilians tribe which is included Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, and Burun and they are all safe and nobody hurt on that clash. And nobody does not displacing and casualties and they are all live in their shelters. The royalties’ forces of Dr. Machar are control three State and were already confirmed. Two states have oilfields rich an especially Malakal and Bentiu but Machar forces has been control them. Last two day, Machar declare to deal with North Sudan to open new account. He claimed does not worry about some States because he has already been taken huge three benefit states which oilfields remain there.

    On December 19, 2013, the clashed between two rivals faction in Capital Unity Bentiu. Two domination power clashed tribes fight, and General Koang Chuol Ranleay control the power, and he declare himself to take governor and care citizens of Bentiu. Following the clash on Wednesday in Jonglei capital Bor, Peter Gatdet Yaka seizes the power too, and he also declared himself to take care for citizens of Jonglei.

    On December 22, 2013, south Sudan President order SPLA troop and Uganda troop to Jonglei directed to Bor town. Both troops were clashed with Peter Gatdet Yaka forces. But Gatdet forces won the attack and they captured 40 Ugandans military. Both troop of SPLA forces and Ugandans were failed completely to recapture Bor town. Now, SPLA forces and Ugandans are on run back to Juba, but will be difficult for them to reach there for their safety to Juba, according to report from General Peter Gatdet Yaka. Gatdet Yaka has huge power in Jonglei to seize the sovereignty. Nuer tribe and other tribes believe in him as father to free anyone from dictatorship.

    One week ago, the government south Sudan claimed defamation political propaganda, they retaken Bor town and Malakal Capital City in Upper Nile. This claim is nothing, and it is political propaganda that might confuse citizens in order to threatening their livelihood to fear. Everyone has already got tired for current regime of dictatorship Salva Kiir Mayardit. Citizens of Malakal, Bentiu, and Jonglei are all defected from this current regime and they want to request dictatorship in order to leave the power without bloodshed. The Majority people in Malakal, Jonglei, and Bentiu are Nuer. Now they are become aggressive bitterly for massacre that has been committed by Salva Kiir Mayardit in Juba on December 16-20, 2013.

    We call all Nuer in Jonglei, Bentiu, and Malakal and also other south Sudanese minorities’ tribes everywhere to topple the regime of dictatorship to end his power like Gaddafi in Libya. We need liberty, justice, and freedom speech to support our livelihoods in the future to support our peace developmental growth in the country. South Sudan is young nation and we need leader that must come into power to support democracy to free everyone for peace to promote the developmental country. We don’t need dictatorship leader that must threatening citizens for fear. We need everyone must be participant to volunteer him/herself to agree to topple the regime of dictatorship Salva Kiir Mayardit to leave the power immediately.

    Salva Kiir dictatorship, the President of south Sudan committed massacre to innocent Nuer tribe and end their life like nothing in Juba capital City on December 16-20, 2013.

    When fighting has been broken out in south Sudan between rival factions of the country’s armed forces, which is south Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA). President of South Sudan Kiir, accused his rival Dr. Machar attempted coup to overthrow his regime. He claimed Machar imitate splits coup 1991, and he also taken tension all Nuer tribe plotted to overthrow the government from his regime. On Sunday 15 when war crisis was broken out between two rivals, Salva Kiir control power and defeated Dr. Machar force out in City. He has taken tension to targeted Nuer civilians to committed genocide to them, and also crashed all their shelters with tanks. The Presidential Guards went to houses into houses and asked people by Arabic are you Nuer or Dinka? If you fail to answer that question then they might recognize your identity and they must kill you because you don’t speak Dinka dialect. And also they watched men face if they have Nuer traditional marks. Of course, Nuer deserves horizontal traditional marks on their face while Dinka also deserves vertically traditional marks identification as to shown their ethnicities. And this is the main way to shown their differences.

    When war erupted between two rivals faction, Salva Kiir imitate the Rwanda genocide to assaulted Nuer civilians in Juba, and his statement would saying “Nuer power will be eliminating before 2015 upcoming election.” Obviously, Dinka believe last dominations during last centuries which is including Abel Aleer, Dr. Jonh Garang, and Salva Kiir rules dominations which have been begun since 1955 up to 2013. Dinka expected will rule south Sudanese for more than 100 years, and this is reason why current President Salva Kiir Mayardit just follows the same situation for the past. President believe in nepotism, corruption to seized power in order to erupt tribal war, aristocracy and tyranny rule of single family, proudly to become ruler country because he came from majority ethnicity. His tension becomes more hatred and ignorance of minorities’ group, and finally he becomes more hatred to Nuer intellectual staffs in the central government. He targeted Nuer politicians in the government agencies in order to eliminate their power. Kiir became and supported aggressive nationalism and socialist to condemned democracy because he believed his rival Dr. Riek Machar has brought dividend the political party into two factions. While Dr Machar also opposed communism rule and he believe south Sudan must practice democracy political party to free everyone from dictatorship. Salva Kiir increased his power by appointing Dinka top officers, censoring the press, organizing secret Guards, and banning any criticism of the government.

    He blamed his rivals’ elite SPLA Senior Members because they took action and serious criticism to him, and he took action because Dr. Machar declares himself to contest upcoming election on 2015 to run seat Presidential position. This is the main issue that causes President to become aggressive to order his private Guards to kill Nuer innocent people. This scenario has become similar like what had happened last time in Rwanda which brought massacred and end life of innocent people. In 2005, Salva Kiir came to power in south Sudan after late Jonh Garang has crashed in helicopter. After he took the power, he has proposed anyone who opposed my regime would be imprisoned or would be executed. When SPLA senior political party absorbed this situation, then they criticize the activities of President because south Sudanese doesn’t support somebody who might rule nations aggressively like that to incite conflict hatred of tribal line.
    Dinka domination written some sanction documentation plots against Nuer or other minorities group before 2005. Their statements were saying Nuer will never come into power in south Sudan up to the end of the world. If this situation will happen, then we must use genocide to them because we are control the sovereignty resources of the country. Dinka has fears if Nuer will take this power might be they will take prosecution revenge against them. In 2005 during CPA agreement, Dinka leaders proposed corruption to build their Dinkaism power in the future to dominate other tribes.

    President his tension claimed to neighborhoods countries and he told them Nuer tribe will claim this Presidential seat upcoming election 2015, but I need you to be my full counterpart allies before that incident will happen. Salva Kiir consumes and taken out massive budgets in order to bribe his counterpart allies to own political party to take next ticket. Salva Kiir stressed and he hopes to take another term ticket for upcoming election. He bribed neighborhoods countries especially Uganda, Kenya, North Sudan, Tanzania, and Ethiopia because to support him for the rebels whom will accuse his regime against in south Sudan. He also had appointed all staffs from his ethnic group including ministers, Ambassadors, central government public services, and other to help his regime to negotiate with other countries. Salva Kiir bribes many Generals from Nuer tribe, and each person must get 31 million cash. He believes money will help his support to maintain the power for several years. For example, Peter Gatdet Yaka was addressing massive combatant in Jonglei saying Salva Kiir has been paid us full to everyone we Generals, but I will take this money opportunity because it is belonging to my country. General was clarifying this scenario political propaganda message when he defected to declare war against his President. Gatdet Yaka, announced his reason to defected from SPLA when allegation spread out, and he reasoned that, “Nuer were killing by Presidential Guards in Juba and I will be interfere in this clash to defense my tribe for safety reason”. Gatdet stressed and rebels against government. But he said, he was not rebel against government, he fight for freedom to bail out the Nuer civilians for safety because President of south Sudan committed genocide to them, and also targeted intellectual official officers in the government.
    On December 16-19, Salva Kiir order private Guards from their ethnics to incite violent and genocide Nuer civilians in different location in Capital Juba, south Sudan. The private Presidential Guards incite killing and slaughters Nuer civilians including women, children, and men. The ethnics Presidential Guards committed abusive against humanity because they raped women and men and after that they kill them. Also, they led to intimidate everyone from Nuer tribe to eat dead body flesh meat for abusive. But Presidential Guards their tensions were killing most intellectual staffs Nuer who works particularly in central government to weak Nuer power in the future. Their tension might protect current regime because Salva Kiir will deserve presidential seat in order to seize the power for next coming term, according to Kiir during he was speech in the conference meeting on SSTV news last month. “He claimed last month to support political SPLA party to seize and deserve this sovereignty for the country to take 100 years.” I believe in my analysis, he mean DinKa will take lead and domination power for more than 100 years and he just stated like that.

    On December 16-20, Presidential Guards casualties massive Nuer innocent civilians to reduce the power of Dr. Riek Machar. He believes to massacre Nuer civilians would win political rival struggling to take another term upcoming election on 2015. The explanation of cause massacre, President Kiir from large tribe of Dinka portray his rival Dr. Machar (who) from second tribe majority Nuer as man who cannot be trusted in this political party to run for upcoming election on 2015 because he is someone who extremely act suspiciously with his own interest and he followed to imitate attempted coup 1991. Kiir on his speech to insult his rival Dr. Machar “as man who believed Prophet Doom (Ngundeng) proverb in his Statement Machar continues to persistently pursue his action of the past”. I believe Mr. President took fear against his rival Dr. Machar for the message that had been mention during past century by Prophet (Ngundeng) and stated, “Kiir (Weenyal) will be fire and dead after coming years when he will force the power to be dictatorship and intimidate other as threat.” I hope, Salva Kiir received rumors from elders Nuer about incident which had mentioned long time by Prophet that will come to harm him. He took fear for the rumors that goes and come around to him.
    Salva Kiir Mayardit, the south Sudan President set up a communist dictatorship that firmly controlled the country and the government to target Nuer politicians in south Sudan. Salva Kiir came in power 2005 to rule south Sudan, but he set up a communist rule to sanction minorities group in order not come into the power in the future. President his tension incites domination violent ethnicity to rule other minorities group to threats their livelihoods to fear.
    President Salva Kiir Mayardit incite ethnic line conflict to committed genocide to massive casualties 10,000 Nuer civilians in Capital Juba and displaced 20,000 in order to fled in UNIMISS compound for live. After some day, Nuer generals are confirmed President Kiir isolated Nuer tribe in order to eliminate their number by killing innocent from week to week each per day. After some day, some Nuer generals defected in the government and began fight to royal force of Salva Kiir because their tribes were already targeted by President and he led bloodshed to them like water. Now President Kiir handed the bloodshed innocent Nuer people like tea-cup. Generals Nuer forces were declared war against President because they miss a lot of their kin’s families in the war Capital city Juba, south Sudan. Nuer came into their tension this is imitation or beginning of civil war in 1991 when Nassir and Torits factions fought each other under the rule from late Dr Jonh Garang de Mabior. The beginning of this crises reminding many southerners for last civil war in 1991 when Dr Machar defected from Dr. Jonh Garang to form his own faction in Nassir. All southerners come to their tension this is already initial of tribal line war which imitate coup 1991.
    The story south Sudanese conflict between ethnicities last centuries and Present.
    The larger and more dispensed the group, however, the more internally varied it had become. The Dinka and Nuer, for example, did not develop a centralized government encompassing all or any large part of their groups. The Dinka are considered to have as many as twenty-five tribal groups. The Nuer has nine to nine to ten separate named groups. Armed conflict between and within ethnic groups continued well into the twentieth century. Sections of the Dinka fought sections of the Nuer and each other. Other southern groups also expanded and contracted in the search for cattle and pasturage. The Nuer absorbed some of the Dinka, and some present-day sections of the Nuer have significant Dinka components. The relationships among various southern groups were affected in the nineteenth century by the intrusion of Ottomans, Arabs and eventually the British. Some ethnic groups made their accommodation with the intrudents and other and others did not, in effect pitting one southern ethnic group against another in the context of foreign rule. For example, some sections of the Dinka were more accommodating to British rule than were the Nuer.
    These Dinka treated the resisting Nuer as hostile, and hostility developed between the two groups as result of their differing relationships to the British. The granting of Sudanese independence in 1956, and the adoption of certain aspects of Islamic law, or the sharia, by the central government in 1983 greatly influenced the nature of relations among these groups in modern times. The next largest group of Nilotes, the Shiluk (self-named Cholla), were not dispersed like the Dinka and the Nuer, but settled mainly in limited, uninterrupted area along the west bank of the Bahr al Jabal river, just north of the point where it become s the White Nile proper. A few lived on the eastern bank. With easy access to fairly good land along the Nile, they defense much more heavily on cultivation and fishing than the Dinka and the Nuer did, and had fewer cattle. The Shilluk had truly permanent settlements and did not move regularly between cultivating and cattle camps. Unlike the larger groups, the Shilluk in the Upper Nile were traditionally ruled by a single politico-religious head (reth). In the late 1980s, the activities against the SPLA by the armed militias supported by the government seriously alienated the Shilluk in Malakal.
    In the early 1990s, one of the main sources of ethnic conflict in the south was the extent to which the Dinka dominated southern politics and controlled the allocation of rewards, whether of government posts or of other opportunities. In the 1955-56 censuses, the Dinka constituted a little more than 40 percent of the total population of the three provinces that in 1990 constituted southern Sudan: Bahr al Ghazal, Upper Nile, and Equatoria. Because no other group approached their number, if their proportion of the regional total had not changed appreciably, the Dinka would be expected to play a large part in the new politics of southern Sudan. Some of the leading figured in the south, such as Abel Alier, head of southern Sudan’s government until 1981, and SPLA leader John Garang, were Dinka (although the SPLA made an effort to shed its Dinka image by cultivating supporters in other groups). It is not known whether the twenty-five Dinak tribal groups were equally represented in the alleged Dinka predominance. Some groups, such as the Nuer, a comparable Nilotic people, and traditional rivals of the Dinka had been deprived of leadership opportunities in colonial times because they were considered intractable were then not numerous, and lived in inaccessible areas (various small groups in Bahr al Ghazal and northern Upper Nile provinces).

    During Abel Alier’s reign from 1973-1982, he put himself by placing his own tribesmen (Dinka) in all the strategic and powerful positions. Dinka tribes in government were controlled finance, public services, Judiciary, education, administration, prison service, wildlife service, police service, legal affairs, and regional assembly and so on. But non-Dinkas found themselves deprived from the regional government and eventually advocated for division of Southern Region in Juba to be divided up to into three Sub-regions of Equatoria, Bahr El Ghazel and Upper Nile. In 1983, conflict was rising up again from political party (SPLM/A) under leadership of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. The same political domination dinka was also applied again to sanctions other tribes for conditions. Four political High Commands were from Dinka tribe, and their names are following, John Garang de Mabior as Chairman, Kerubino Kuanyin as Deputy, Salva Kiir was Deputy Chief of Staff for Security, Arok Thon Arok was Deputy Chief Staff for Logistics and Administration. Again, in 2005 when CPA was held, the same situation imitated under the rule Salva Kiir Mayardit. He placed all tribesmen to dominate all governments’ services to condition other tribesmen.

    In August 28 1991, internal dissention among the rebels led opponents of Colonel Garang’s leadership of the SPLA to form the so-called Nassir faction of the rebel army. In September 1992, William Nyuon Bany formed a second rebel faction, and in February 1993, Kerubino Kwanyin Bol formed a third rebel faction. On April 5, 1993, the three dissident rebel factions announced a coalition of their groups called SPLA United at a press conference in Nairobi, Kenya. After 1991, the factions clashed occasionally ad thus the rebels lost much of their credibility with the west. The policy of the ruling regime toward the south was to pursue the war against the rebels while trying to manipulate them by highlighting ethnic divisions. Ultimately, this policy resulted in many rebels uniting under the SPLM/A from leadership of Colonel John Garang. During that period, the SPLM/A also had enjoyed support from Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Uganda. The Bashir government’s “Pan-Islamic” foreign policy, which provided support for neighboring radical Islamist groups that partly responsible for this support for the rebels.

    South Sudan become new nation on July 9, 2011
    In July 2011, South Sudan declared itself to be independent from the Republic of Sudan, an occasion accompanied by headlines proclaiming the “birth of the nation, according to Leopold. South Sudan received international recognition as nation, and also claims to be statehood by virtue of joining the United Nations. In January 2011, an overwhelming majority of the population voted in favour of South Sudanese secession from Sudan, which took effect as of 9 July 2011. South Sudan became new youngest nation to face many challenges, as well as a world of opportunities for cooperation and development. This separation came more than six years after the SPLM and the government of Sudan Government had been signing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) to bring an end to over two decades of civil war between north and south.
    The CPA was based on a stated commitment by both parties to democratic system of governmence which on one hand, recognized the right of the people of Southern Sudan to self-determination and concentrate to made unity attractive during the Interim Period, which at the same time is founded on the values of justice, democracy, good government, respect for fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, mutual understanding and tolerance of diversity within the realities of the Sudan. CPA stands as a framework for addressing southern grievances within a unified Sudan, but it is a part by devolving some authority to a semi-autonomous southern government. If the unification may fail to do so, then south Sudan will vote overwhelmingly in a January 09, 2011 referendum to secede from the north. Six months later, the Republic of South Sudan was recognized as the world’s 195th century, first by the government of Sudan, and then by the United States, the African Union (AU), the United Nations, and others organizations. On January 09, 2011 referendum and South Sudan’s July 09 Independence Day passed without conflict between north and south.

    Analysis Conclusions.
    South Sudanese need more unity, and if this unity will fail completely to do so, then south Sudan would be failure state like Somalia. We need reorganize to come together in all community especially diasporas. Salva Kiir has brought disorganize in the country because he attempted genocide to Nuer civilians while the crisis between him and his rival is about political issue. We need to think over for something that will bring our unity again. In my analysis first of all, we need to step down Salva Kiir Mayardit to leave the power, and that is the main only basis objective that will bring our unity again. We all known the crisis that was erupted between rival factions is about political struggle for upcoming election 2015. Everyone has right to run for ticket of political bureau in SPLA party upcoming election. There will be no one who could left behind and block him/her out to run for those opportunities because we have same equality as citizens of south Sudan. We need justice, liberty, and freedom speech in order to practice democracy political party to bring our unity together for peace. We need peace and we need change for next generations to build south Sudan to be developing country like African neighborhoods. If we fail to do so for reorganizing our unity, then south Sudan will be gone for while and after that we will face consequences slavery from neighborhoods countries. We must to tell Salva Kiir to leave the power immediately because he brought mess in the country to dividend the nation into two factions in order to incite tribal conflict violent. Salva kiir needs to leave his power that is only way to gain our unity again. If he fails to do so, then conflict ethics will be increasing more and more to disaster the civilians of south Sudan. We need to call him now and don’t delay your call please just do it now and put all your effort to do so. We need to call American, Canada, Australia, UN, AU, International community for help to step down Salva Kiir Mayardit to leave power immediately. South Sudanese traumatize last civil war from conflict against government of Sudan, but now we don’t need war against each other. Now we just need peace to build our country for livelihood peacefully. If we don’t stop Salva Kiir to step down, then this conflict will follow the generations to generations without ending to spoil next future for livelihood. We need to call southerners all over the world to fix these messes before it become worse upcoming year.
    I have big question directly to U.S, IGAD, AU, neighborhoods countries and so on. Why Yoweri Museveni, involve into our conflict we southern Sudanese in order to send troops and helicopters to clashed and bombed Nuer ethnic areas to kill innocent people in Jonlei? This war is not about rebels and against government, but it is about tension between two ethnics Dinka and Nuer. There is no way another country should be involved and advocated kiir against this conflict. This is our war and this is our civil war we south Sudanese. This conflict is belonging to two tribes out of other tribes, which is between Dinka and Nuer only. This is very big shaming to Yoweri Museveni to involve on this conflict because he receive huge bribe from Salva Kiir Mayardit. We Nuer will tolerate this conflict without any allies from neighborhoods countries, and we don’t blame anyone because it is our civil war and our war. We will accept negotiation if Salva Kiir will step- down to leave power immediately.

    If Salva Kiir will remain on that power, then war will be continuously to escalate from one – state to other. Our big concern we Nuer, let Salva Kiir must leave the power then negotiation peace agreement will be hold immediately. Of course, we will call all our ethnics to stop ceasefire on immediate if Salva Kiir will step – down. We are now alert all other tribes in south not to involve on this conflict because they know that situation already. Nuer fought for freedom to free other minorities from Dinka domination dictators. All tribes in south Sudan are become frustrated from rule of dictatorship Dinkaism. Peace negotiation will be held soon if Dinka domination power will be surrender to summit compromise to Nuer ethnic. Dinka can’t fight with Nuer, but they use their mouth to bribe other people for advocacy. Our voices today we Nuer intellectual, we request Salva Kiir Mayardit to summit apology directly to Nuer community for genocide that he committed last three weeks to end the life of innocent Nuer in Juba.

    Dinka domination rule took ideology Arab domination against Nuer. But today on this incident, Arabs of North Sudan dominations are better than Dinka domination. Arab can give food to other tribes without restriction condition but Dinka can’t give food to other tribes because they use their bitterly hatred to other tribes without forgiveness. Nuer has reconciles to other tribes but Dinka can’t reconcile to other tribes. Dinka like to rule the country for hatred domination with condition, but they can’t defend it when there is war invasion coming from another country.

    Nuers are heroes like Zulu tribe in South Africa. Nuer was fought during British colony within 30 years and they tolerate it. Nuer won that colony and the defeated British in their regions. Nuer opposed British colony during 19th century but Dinka accepted British colony because they can’t fight like Nuer to defense their regions. Nuers have mercy to accept other tribes to be their counterpart allies without violent. Dinka rule like condition to sanction other tribes to prosecute them, but Nuer don’t like prosecution to other. The time is come now to end Dinka domination to condition other tribes for prosecution. This war will not take too long to continue but will be stop soon if our brotherhood (Dinka) will summit compromise to us we Nuer society. War will be stop when Salva Kiir will summit surrender on immediate to leave the power. And this is the last solution that will resolve our conflict to bring our unity again.

    Lastly, what was the root causes of the south Sudanese genocide? it is hard to point to only one or two reasons as to why the conflict and then the genocide occurred in Juba. There were too many contributing factors. I will try now to expand upon some already introduced one by one, but will also introduce new factors that happened in 1991 and the genocide had took place from some areas, especially Juba, Jonglei, Upper Nile and people lost their live. And this is why the conflict rising up again to imitate rival factions in 1991 both sides.

    Of course, the root of cause of conflict between Dinka and Nuer, I believe it is mono-lingual; the ethnic divisions were both created and given throughout the 19th and first half of the 20th century. One I may imagine that a mono-lingual culture or area with few distinct ethnic groups would stand a better chance of living together, cooperating and tolerating each other. Another issue, Domination of Dinka in central government agencies, would be the main factor that cause crisis to expand the conflict between two tribes. Competition power between two tribes for first class to dominate and own self-interest wealthy was also another cause of war.
    If you have concern on this article for question, just feel free to contact me on my email and my phone. [email protected] and phone number is 308-746-6683
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