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A series of intelligence reports about Sudan English 1892 1898 m

06-14-2016, 08:03 PM
عبدالرحيم صالح
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A series of intelligence reports about Sudan English 1892 1898 m

    07:03 PM June, 14 2016

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    سلسلة تقارير المخابرات الأنجليزية عن السودان 1892ـ 1898م
    GT. BRIT. WAR OFFICE, INTELLIGENCE DIVISION





    INTELIGENCE REPORT













    DT108.5, G786
    V.1
    CONFIDENTIAL

    INTELLEGNCE REPORT, EGYPT,
    No. 1
    April 1892
    COVERING MINUTE.
    General Officer Commanding,
    In forwarding this diary, which is compiled on the recent instructions issued from the Intelligence Department, London, I would point that the fact the Khalifa Abdulla, having consolidated his power by the imprisonment of the Khalifa sherif, which may be possibly followed by a similar sentence being .given against the only other Khalifa appointed by the late Mahdi, namely, Ali Wad Helu, shows that before long a sort of sovereign state will probably be established in the Sudan, on hereditary lines in the Khalifa Abdulla's family, and not as formerly a government based on purely religious principles. This state of things once established will possibly revive the old intertribal enmities and blood 'feuds which always existed in the Sudan, and rendered it impossible for any but aliens to rule the country. The dervish raid that recently took place at Old Sarras may be considered of slight importance, and I hop.ein future our Cavalry and Camel Corps patrols will succeed in stopping such robber propensities on the part of the dervishes.
    H. H. KITCHENER, Sirdar
    2nd May, 1892.

    SUMMARY
    The Sudan
    The event of most importance in the Sudan since the last diary was forwarded is the imprisonment of the Khalifa Sherif in Omdurman and the expulsion up the White Nile of a number of important Emirs who took part in the recent revolt. This news is corroborated on all sides, and marks an important epoch in Sudan affairs. It is an indication that the Khalifa Abdulla has not only reestablished his authority, which was at one time considered to be somewhat in danger, but he has also taken advantage of the suppression of the revolt to overturn, in the most distinct manner, the system of Khalifate succession laid down by the late Mahdi before his death. In throwing the Khalifa Sherif into prison he has removed the chief that, according to the tenets of Mahdism, should have been his successor, and this probably only prelude to his public declaration that he has substituted the Mahdi's ruling for an hereditary succession—a proceeding which he has frequently hinted at, but he hitherto always shirked publicly announcing, as he feared opposition of the two remaining Khalifas

    With Sherif in prison, it will now be a matter of interest, to watch the proceedings of the only remaining subordinate Khalifa at large, viz., Ali Wad HeIu. The situation in various other parts of the Sudan remains practically unchanged.
    The declaration of the notables and Omdehs of Berber (see Appendix A) is but one more proof of the inability of the inhabitants of the Sudan to overturn dervish supremacy unassisted This document is only one of many of a similar nature have from time to time reached the Egyptian Government from various parts of the country. It is not at present possible to render the writers any material assistance.
    It is possible that the meeting of Emirs reported to have taken place on 20th February may lead to some declaration of' future intentions.
    The trade returns show practically the same result as those of the last four months of l891, and the remarks on this subject made in the general report seem to hold good.
    Some letters have reached Cairo from Europeans in Omdurman, but they contain no fresh news, and arc mostly connected with money matters.
    The Frontier
    The recent raid on Old Sarras is only of slight importance, but the return of Osman Azark to the neighbourhood of' the Egyptian frontier may be an indication of an attempt to renew his former raiding propensities. The recent raid was harmless, except that a few irresponsible villagers lost some cattle, but it was intend to keep the frontier on the alert.
    The situation at Dongola is unaltered, and Suarda still continues to be the most, northerly dervish garrison, with occasional patrols as far as Ambigole Wells.
    Eastern Sudan
    There is no event of any considerable importance to chronicle in this part of the Sudan. The hostile post of Fadlabs is still maintained at Kokreb. The good offices of hle litalian Government have been requested with the view to reconciling the tribesmen in the immediate vicinity of the Italian sphere of influence boundary line.
    F. R. WINGATE, Miralai ,
    Director of Military Intelligence
    CAIRO,
    30th April, 1892.
    A.--Extracts from Cairo Diaries, from 1st to 30th April, 1892.
    Sheikh Ahmed Mohamed EI Egeil reached Assuan on the 30th March, from Berber, arrived in Cairo on the 18th April. He is one of the most notable of the Sudan merchants and a man of exceptional intelligence; he was therefore interrogated very fully regarding' the situation in the Sudan.
    He was in Cairo some 18 months ago and was the bearer of printed proclamations to the people of Berber and the tribes in general, signed by Riaz Pasha the late Prime minister.
    Sheikl El-Egeil left Berber on The 15 of March, with replies from the former notables of that town (see Appendix D).
    Berber:
    He states that El-Zaki, Emir of Berber, left that place for Omdurman on 21st February in compliance with the Khalifa's orders, together with--
    The present Emin, Beit EI-Mal, Hadj Khalid, A Jaali
    The Kadi, Abu Fatmeh, and the following Emirs, viz.:-
    Mohammed Al Ajemi, native of Berber.
    Ibrahim Mohamed
    Abdulla Wad Saad, Jaali.
    Mohamed Ahmed El Khawwad.
    The reason of the summons is to attend the Ragabih EI Miraj' (the anniversary of Mohamed's supposed 'ascent to Heaven), which was to' take place on the 26th February. During- Zaki's absence, his place was taken by the Emir Ali Ferfar; the result of this great meeting in Omdurman is not yet known.
    Before Zaki had left Berber, he bad a quarrel with Haj Khalid, who refused to obey his orders regarding the management of the Beit E1 Mal
    He gives the fol1owing account of the recent revolt in Omdurman:-
    The Khalifa Sherif, with the cooperation of Ahmed and Fuzi (the Khalifa, Abdulla's clerks), Ahmed wad Suleiman (late Emin, Beit El Mal), Saleh Wad Siwar Ed Dahab, Ahmed Wad En Nur (Jaali), Said Mohamed Farah (Dongolawi), Shaib, Hadj Ali Geili (Dongolawi») and Mohamed Kerkesawi, considered to kill the Khalifa Ahdulla.. It 'Was agreed that one of them should fire at him while on his way to the mosque, that he should be disguised and make good his escape in the crowd. Unfortunately they made known their plan to Zogal's son, who told it to Ahmed Wad EI Fahl (Jaa1i), who repeated it to El Bedawi El Ireik, the Emir of the Jaalin, and at the same time warned him that if he did not inform the Khalifa, he would do so himself. He complied, and the Kha1ifa at once ordered his house to be carefully guarded by soldiers. Sherif, learning that Abdulla know of his plans, openly declared his hostility. Abdulla, however, did all in his power to restore tranquility, and utilized the Khalifa Ali Wad Helu as a mediator, together with Es Sayed El Mekki, and EI Hardallu Ahu Sin. He also expressed his willingness to concede to Sherif terms, which were as follows:-
    1. To abolish the taxes on trading boats and camels.
    2. To restore boats, forcibly taken from their owners.
    3: To take off 'the ushr (tithe) on goods passing through Kokreb, Berber and Omdurman.
    4. To abolish the tax in grain which, although originally agreed upon as one tenth, was actually over one-half.
    5. To restore all lands taken from their owners.
    6. To divide the entire stock of arms into three equal shares, so that each Khalifa should have his due.
    7. To dismiss the Kadi Ahmed
    8. To divide all authority equally between the three Khalifas.
    9. To abolish the taxes on ferries.
    10. To cease marking goods with his own special sign.
    11. To handover the one-fifth of the booty which was the Mahdi's own, to his' (i.e. the Mahdi's) sons.
    12. To pardon all those who had joined the Khalifa Sherif in these demands, and to-promise that they should not in any way be molested.
    Khalifa Abdulla swore on the Mahdi's tomb that he would agree on these terms, and that he would consider all that had passed as if it had not taken place. Thus was the difficulty tided over and a reconciliation effected.
    A few days afterwards, however, the Khalifa Abdulla sent for Sherif and asked him to have all those who had joined him·the revolt put into prison for a month just to frighten them and prevent the possibility of a second rising. Sherif agreed, and a few days later Abdulla declared in the Mosque that he had had vision in which the prophet had told him to kill the instigators of the revolt, but that he had begged that this punishment might be changed to exile Bahr El Jebel; consequently; when prayers were over, he sent off following in chains up the White Nile, viz., Fauzi, ‎Ahmed Makbul, Idris, Gedi, Beshir, Badai, Ahmed Wad Wedidi, Ahmed Suleiman, Ahmed Wad En Nur, Mohamed Farah, Saleh Wad Siwar El Dahab and Ahmed Mohamed Kheir.
    ‎The following Emirs are still in prison in Omdurman, vz, Abd El Maula,
    ‎Hassan Khalifa, and Zogal.
    ‎Yusef Mansur is still commanding the Artillery, with Said Bey Guma as
    ‎his assistant.
    ‎Abd Er Rasul has been recalled from Fashoda and is now in Omdurman. Omar Kisha, who was Osman Digna's principal contraband merchant in Tokar, is in Omdurman.
    ‎The manufacture of powder still continues, but the difficulties in obtaining lead are as great as ever.
    ‎The late Mahdi's eldest son, Fadhl, is peacefully inclined, but the second son, Mohamed, who is now 22 years of age, is able and always intriguing, but the Khalifa recently married him to his· daughter and gave him a number of servants, who are merely spies.
    ‎Fashoda: The Shilluk war is still going on in a desultory way. Zeki Tummal with his Galabat force is still there. The Shilluk King, who was treacherously murdered by Zeki, has been succeeded by his sister, who now commands the Shilluks.
    ‎Equatoria: The Emir Hasib, who succeeded in returning to Omdurman from the Bahr El Jebel with some ivory, has gone back in search of the missing boat and has not been heard of since.
    ‎A Dongolawi Emir named Kunna Mujahid was sent in a special steamer some time ago to ascertain if the news about Emin's return to Equatoria was correct.. He has not come back yet
    ‎Darfur: El Fasher is now governed by a certain Abu Gudufat, but he is in no way under the authority of the Khalifa at Omdurman.
    Kordofan: Mahmud Ahmed is still Emir at El Obeid, assisted by Ali Wad El Hashmi, The Darnuba negroes still preserve their independence.
    ‎Dongola: The condition of affairs here is unaltered, but Osman Azrak recently, arrived at Suarda.
    ‎Abu Hamed: ldris Harun is Emir here, he was also called to the meeting of Emirs a Omdurman and his place taken by a Baggari called Obeidun.
    EasternSudan: The ushr is still taken at Kokreb, and Osman Digna has also been levying ushr on merchants; who by this means avoid paying at Kokreb and Berber.
    ‎Kassala: Mussaid is sti1l Emir here, with Sayid Hamed as his assistant.
    Gallabat and Gadarif: The same as in the annual report.
    ‎Trade: Ostrich feathers are becoming scarce; firearms are not allowed to be used for hunting purposes and, are reserved exclusively for warfare. Recently some merchants applied to the Khalifa for permission to use guns in ostrich hunting, but he refused to allow it.
    ‎Money "Makbul" dollars are still struck in Omdurman by a certain Abd El Mejid, a Mowallid of Kordofan; this dollar is almost exclusively current in Omdurman, while it is just the reverse in other parts of the Sudan where the" Makbul" is valued at a quarter less than in Omdurman consequently, articles are more expensive in the capital than in the districts.
    ‎Slave trade: Since the Equatorial, route has been practically closed, most of the slaves come from the western districts; Egeil estimates that about 150 slaves are sold every-month in the Berber Bazaar, and about six times that number in Omdurman.
    European prisoners‎: Slatin is still a Mulazim, and it is almost impossible for him to escape, as ‎he is scarcely ever permitted to leave the Khalifa's door.
    ‎ Khalifa IntensionsKarrar Beshir, who is the chief dervish postman, recently brought 200 camels from Berber to Omdurman. The Khalifa is also laying in a large supply of camel saddles, waterskins, ropes, and other requisites for- a long journey, his object in doing- so is not known.
    ‎Mahmud Mohamed, a merchant who left Berber on 25th March, and trave1ing via Korosko, arrived in Cairo on 19th April, states that a few days before he left Berber, a proclamation just received from the Khalifa was read out in the Mosque, to the effect that all the Kadis in Omdurman, including the Kadi El Islam, decided that the Khalifa Sherif should be crucified for having broken his oath of obedience to the Khalifa, but that Khalifa Abdulla had commuted the sentence to imprisonment in chains. This sentence was carried out, and· Khalifa Sherif is now in prison with eight shackles on his feet and two chains round his neck. Reporter also states that Abdulla has summoned Khalifa Ali Wad Helu to give up ,all his arms and horses, but that the latter refused.
    ‎Also that a summons has been sent to the inhabitants of the Gezireh, (country between the Blue and White Niles) to be present at the Bairam Festival and to settle thenceforth in Omdurman; this the Khalifa has done, as he fears that these people, many of whom arc adherents of Khalifas Sheri£ and Ali Wad Helu, may rise in revolt.
    ‎Omdurman
    Other recent arrivals in Cairo state that-- After Father Ohrwalder's escape, the remaining members of the Austrian mission were put in prison, but were released when it was proved that they had not been accessory to the flight. The effects of Father Ohrwalder and the two sisters were sold by auction, and the proceeds passed to the Beit El Mal.
    ‎The Emir of Dongola has been summoned to the Bairam Council of Emirs. El Fadl, the son, of Zobeir Pasha, is still in Omdurman, he was given 300 dollars by the Kha1ifa, and permitted to live with his relatives. Abu Girgeh arrived at Omdurman from Kassala on 10th December, 1891
    Equatoria:Emin Pasha is reported to have reached Raggaf.
    Bahr El Ghazal: This province has been long since evacuated by the dervishes, and it is Bahr El not intended to reoccupy it. Some of Rabeh Zobeir's followers have settled in Dar Fertit, but Rabeh himself is still in Dar Abu Risha at the head of a large army, and he is continually at war with the surrounding countries.
    ‎Dongola: A similar proclamation to that received in Berber was also read out in the Mosque at Dongola, announcing the suppression of the revolt in Omdurman and the imprisonment of the Khalifa Sherif. ‎The three Greeks who deserted from Halfa were seen at Dongola on their way to Omdurman Influenza of a mild type is prevalent, and also there is a deadly disease amongst the horses, which has killed a large number· of them. Adam Mohamed, the brother of Yunis, commands the Gehadieh and Et Tayeb Wad El Hasib is Emin, Beit-el-MaL
    ‎‎B.-Extracts from Frontier Diaries, from 18th February to 12th April, 1892

    ‎(N .B. Many of the statement included in the Cairo Diary occur also in the local dairies, and are therefore not repeated in the following extracts.)
    Ambigole: On 27th February 6 men and 7 camels coming from Dongola to Halfa with dates were attacked at Ambigole Wells; the Dervishes captured the camels and 4 men; the other 2 men escaped by jumping into the river. The dervishes went south at once with their capture, and also took a boy from Ambigole with them; all these were subsequently released. Hickman Bey (Intelligence Officer), writing from Halfa on 14th March, states that:
    ‎It is of interest that the Khalifa ordered the release of prisoners lately taken by dervish patrol,. on account of the Egyptian Government releasing prisoner taken from Nejumi's force in 1889. For purpose of taxation the Dongola province appears to be divided into 10 districts, each of which had to pay 100 lb of sanege and 10 sheep as tax early this year. The taxation does not appear to be regularly called for, but only on such occasions as the head Emir may think fit. On this occasion it was on account of the marriage of the Emir Yunis.
    Rumours of Raids: It was rumoured, on 12th March; that the dervishes contemplated making raid in the country northas far as Semneh.
    ‎Raid on Old Sarras
    On 4th April a party of dervish horse and camel men, under the leadership of Osman .AZrak, made a descent on Old Sarras and carried off 15 cows, 3 camels, and about 200. goats belonging to the villagers; a few shots were exchanged between the dervishes and the Egyptian Camel Corps patrol, and a troop of Cavalry sent; out from Halfa, under Bimbashi Cotton; followed up the raiders for some distance, but he had got too long a start and he was unable to come up with them.
    ‎The Officer Commanding the frontier (Wodehouse Pasha), commenting on this raid, says--
    ‎While regretting this renewal of raiding, and the raiders having got off with impunity, I fear we must expect these occurrence at intervals. 1 will do all I can to check them hut it is difficult.
    ‎The dervishes have the choice of the two sides of the river, and, unless all the mounted were kept at Sarras, can usually come down in superior mounted force to what we are able to oppose to them.
    ‎The raid, unimportant as it is, points to the continued hostile spirit of the dervish leaders and the necessity of continued watchfulness on the frontier. In the future I shall never leave Sarras without Cavalry. The villagers have no claim against the Government, they are, or rather were, entirely outside the limits. They are naturally untaxed and cultivate tobacco, and they have been frequently given to understand the risks that they incur. It is even possible that they do not, object to being robbed in the hope, and by exaggerating their hopes, they may get profitable compensation from the Government and at the same time stand well with the dervishes.
    ‎Rumoured Imprisonment of Girgeh
    Hickman Bey, writing from Assuan on 11th April, says that "Abu Girgeh is reported to have been put in prison by Khalifa ·Abdulla, because his name appeared in Cairo newspaper as been desirous of joining; the Government."

    The imprisonment of the Khalifa Sherif, and other events included in the Cairo Diary are fully confirmed by arrivals on the frontier.

    ‎C- Extracts from .Suakin Diaries, from 16th March to 12th April, 1892.
    ‎(N. B. Many of the statements included in the Cairo Diary occur also in the Local diaries, and therefore not repeated in the following- extracts.)
    ‎BerBer Saukin Road: Bimbashi Thruston (Intelligence Officer), writing from Suakin on 30th, March, says:- The Fadlab under - Mahmud Kerai continue to exact tithe of goods arriving ‎from Suakin.
    Toker: From Toker is reported the arrival of Beni Amer and Habab refugees from Italian Territories
    ‎The Habab were directed to return to their own country.
    Mussaid, the Emir, has written to the Sheikhs of various tribes, some of them in Egyptian territory assuring them of peace and security.
    ‎There is considerable trade from Massowah and Sanhi in exchange for gum and ivory.
    ‎Two Takruris, out of a·company of 63 who had escaped from Omdurman, stated at sauakin, on the 19th, that they had been 33 days on the road from Omdurman, where they had been imprisoned and bound, but on their swearing in front the Kadi that they had no intention of going to Mecca via Suakin, they were released had then escaped.
    ‎The following items of news arc reported from various sources:
    ‎Rahin Wakil, Sheikh of the Abdurrmanab, heard on the 28th that the Khalifa had sent for Mahmud Kerai, Mohamed Mussa Digna, Mahmud, Ahmed Digna, and Mohamed Talib, a Museyab Emir, but they all refused to come, being afraid, as they had heard that Abu Girgeh had been banished, and some other Emirs had beeen killed.
    ‎Mohamed Mussa Digna then left his home at Tadobanob, on the Atbara, and went to Ameit, near Sinkat, to the Hakolab (Hamdab) Arabs, and sent for his property. He- now intends to live there, under the protection of the Hamdab. Hassan Jabrin ex-Sheikh or the Arfuyab has started for Omdurman.
    ‎It is reported that four days ago the Berber bazaar, with its contents, was destroyed by fire; also that there is much sickness among Osman Digna's Followers at Adaramab.
    ‎An intelligence employee heard, on the 29th, from some Arabs who had come from Sinkat and the Atbai, that the Khalifa had executed seven Jaalin at Omdurman, and that he had sent a letter to Osman Digna telling him to send to Omdurman the Sheikhs of the Shaiab and Nurab, and Mohamed Shingerai, sheikh of the Samarar, and Mahmud Kerai and Mohamed Mussa Digna but that none of these had gone.
    ‎It had been revealed to the Khalifa in a dream, by the Prophet, that these men were not working in the cause of the Mahdi, but were only amassing wealth for their own interest, and that it was necessary now to bring them into the right way.

    ‎Mohamed Mussa Digna fled to Ameit, and demanded hospitality of Abd El Kader at Hareitri, who, according to some, granted it, but according to others, refused.
    ‎Another Intelligence employee reports that he had heard from a Sherif who had come from Kriab that the Khalifa had executed Greiger, ex-Emir of Abu Hamed, and En Nur Gereifawi, Emir of the Beit El Mal, at Omdurman; and the Emir of the Dabeina and an Emir of the Jaalin, Abu Girgeh, have been banished, but why and whither it is not known.
    ‎Osman Digna and nine Emirs have started for Omdurman, having been sent for by the Khalifa
    ‎Mahmud Kerai is at Kokreb, and has not been summoned to Omdurman.
    ‎He collects tithe all of which he distributes among his Arabs, by special order of the Khalifa, and against the wishes of Ez Zaki,who tries to encourage trade between Suakin and Berber.
    ‎Ez Zaki is very popular at Berbcr, except with his own Baggara country-men there, whose rapaciousness he keeps in check.
    Italians:
    ‎Bimbashi Thruston, writing on I5th March, says:-
    ‎The Italians are apparently making themselves very unpopular with the tribes by heavy taxations. A general wish prevails among the Arabs living on the frontier to cross it and settle under Egyptian rule. The Italian police try to prevent them, but a number of the Beni Amer and Hahab have crossed, and reached Adobana. The Habab Sheikhs who came to Suakin were informed that, as their country was without the limit of the Egyptian sphere of influence, the Egyptian Government could not interfere with them, and that they must return to their own country and they started back again on the 14th March.
    The following items of news are reported from various sources:-
    On the 27th March, Ahmed Mohammed Dow states, that ten days ago letters came from Osman Digna to the sheikh of the Hamdab and Gararib , telling them that he had been appointed by the Khalifa to direct them and look after their interests , and summoning them to Adaramab .
    On the 20th Ali Mohammed Abu Sin reports that there is a considerable amount of trade in gum and ivory between Omdurman and Massowah, via Kassala
    ‎On 8th, Adam Halga, Sheikh of the Beshariab, heard that Osman Digna had written to the Khalifa, asking for an army; he also is continually writing to various Sheikhs, summoning them to come to him, but they never pay any attention to his letters. There is much sickness and death among his followers at Adaramab from fever and ague. On the 13th Idris Hamid Bey, Sheikh of the Beni Amer, with eight Hahab Sheikhs, eight days from Adobana, via Tokar, arrived at Suakin. These Sheikhs stated that they were oppressed by the Italian Government and by their own head Sheikh, and that they wished to emigrate to Egyptian territory. Some of them were turned back on the frontier, but two companies, consisting of about 250 men and 500 sheep and cattle, reach Adobana. They have come to pray that they may be allowed to leave under the Egyptian Government, and that a military post shall be established either at Karura or at Rahib for their protection. On 14th, the Habab Sheikhs returned to Agig in a Government dhow en route for their own country.
    ‎Bimbashi Thruston, writing on 12th April, says, that Abu Girgeh and Greiger are probably in disgrace, but, as to whether they have been imprisoned, banished, or are still at liberty, reports differ.
    ‎Osman Digna and Mohamed Mussa Digna have been summoned to Omdurman, the former has probably left Adaramab to go there, but the latter is a fugitive. Ez Zaki is returning to Berber and Nafer Mahmud to Kokreb. Food is cheap and plentiful at Omdurman
    ‎Trade:
    The return of Nafer Mahmud points to the continuance of the Fadalab post at Kokreb, in spite of the wishes of Ez Zaki.
    ‎The following items of news are reported from various sources:-
    ‎On 31st, a servant of the Sayed Osman Morghani arrived as a messenger from the Sheikh of the Habab, to say that they were oppressed by the Italians, and that they wished to settle in Egyptian territory . .A tax of 10,000 dollars has been imposed on the Habab, and besides this, their own Sheikh collects money from them on his own account.
    ‎On the 7th March the Khalifa Abdullah imprisoned and put the Khalifa Sherif in irons, and has notified the fact to all the provincial Emirs. He has also confiscated the property of all the Danagla in Omdurman and sent them out of the town, but those in Berber have not been molested.
    D- Translation of a letter addressed to his Excellency Riaz Pasha, ex-Minister of Interior, by the Umdehs and Notables of the Berber Mudirieh.
    ‎In the name of God the Merciful and Almighty.
    ‎To his Excellency the Minister of Interior, Mustapha Pasha Riaz,
    ‎We beg to embrace your hands and present to your Excellency our due respect and as you condescend to enquire after us, we· are always the same, honest and loyal. Whilst waiting to hear from you, and to get some news of the Egyptian Government, we received your letter through the bearer of this, who was previously sent by us; and this letter has caused us much pleasure as it assured us we are still remembered by you. Although we have taken a false step, we expect from your Excellency mild treatment as we are forced to join the revolt, because at that time you did not assist us with the necessary reinforcements which were required to suppress the revolt, we are now in their hands, just as a bird is in the hands of a child who does not know harm from good. Though you are aware of all this, and of the wretched state· to which all the inhabitants have been reduced, still you did not come to our assistance and you delayed sending troops to rescue us and deliver us from the ill-treatment of the dervishes; when Mahadism began we never thought that you would delay so long coming to our assistance.
    ‎It is the duty of every Muslim and the desire of His Majesty the Sultan to assist Moslems when in need of help, but owing to the miserable state we are in at present, we have been compelled to ask the help of foreign powers; and at the same time we appeal to ,your Excellency through the bearer of this, Ahmad El Haj Mohamed Egeil, who is delegated by us especially for this mission, in order that everyone who is interested in the welfare of the Moslems may assist us by using every means to rescue the Moslems in general.
    ‎NOTE.-A letter of the same purport written by the same hand, bearing the same signature, was addressed to the Adjutant-General, Egyptian Army (Lewa Kitchencr Pasha), and was brought by the same messenger.
    E-Showing the reported Stength of the Mahdist Armies in the Sudan, Ist January, 1892, to 30th April, 1892
    Places
    Emirs
    Armed strength
    Guns
    Rifles
    Remarks
    Jehadiah
    Cavalry
    Swords andspermen


    Omdurman
    Yakub
    4,000
    1,500
    12,500
    105
    17,000
    There are also about 30000 sword and spearmen in the districts between the Blue and White Niles, but who are present engaged in cultivation.
    Fashoda
    Zaki Tymmal
    1,500
    50
    3800
    3
    1,500
    Gallabat
    Ahmed Ai
    500
    1,000
    1,000
    4
    1,000

    Equatoria
    Wad Kanuna
    100
    --
    900
    --
    100

    El Obeid
    Mahmud Ahmed
    1,000
    300
    5,500
    4
    1,000

    Dongola
    Yunis Ed Dekeim
    500
    50
    3500
    8
    800

    Abu Hamed
    Idris Harun
    200
    10
    300
    --
    800

    Berber
    Zaki
    500
    500
    300
    4
    800

    Kassala
    Mussaid Keidum
    500
    50
    300
    2
    800


    8,800
    3,460
    28100
    130
    23,200


    Remarks
    1,000
    Baraga Taaisha,
    Khalifa Abduallh

    6000
    Baraga Sub-tribes,
    3,500
    Degheim and Kananna,
    Ali Wad Helu
    1,500
    Blacks of the Taaisha Dvision

    500
    Blacks
    Ali Wad Helu's Division
    12,500


    Also 30,000 men are allowed to remain in the districts.
    Most of them are out of order.
    There is sufficient powder, but there is a great scarcity of lead.
    In Berber there are 3,000 camels, 4,000 cows, 200 horses belonging to natives.
    The Khalifa Abdullah has 10,000 camels, but only 1,000 of them are actually in Omdurman, the remainder are grazing in the districts and are in charge of Baggara horsemen specially detailed by the Khalifa.

    F- Dates and Events in the Sudan
    Date
    Events
    Reference Authority
    1892

    7th January
    The death of his Highness Khedive Tewfik and the succession of his eldest son, Abbas Helmi Pasha
    11th February؟
    The Egyptian forts of Moweileh and Dubbeh in the Hedjez ceded to Turkey

    19th February
    Sirdar and Staff proceeded to the frontiers on annual inspection duty and maneuvers

    26th February
    Meetings of the Emirs in Omdurman on the anniversary of the prophet Mohamed's supposed ascent to haven
    Statement
    27th February
    Small party of traders attacked and captured by dervishes of Ambigole Wells
    9th March
    Halfa maneuvers abandoned owing to prevalence of influenza amongst troops.

    12th March
    Sirdar and Staff returned from frontiers

    13th March
    Beni Amer and Habab, Sheikhs, arrive at Saukin from Italian territory, and claim Egyptian protection

    14th March
    It is refused and they returned back.

    15th or 7th, March؟
    Khalifa Abdullah throws Khalifa Sherif into prison, and exiles several Emirs up the white Nile.
    Intelligence
    Diary
    20th March
    Governor General, Saukin, visits Gemilab country
    24th March
    Great fire in Berber Bazaar.

    ؟
    Fadlab section of the Amarar tribe continue to exact tithes at Kokreb

    1st April
    The Commission on Sudan indemnities dissolved.
    Influenza reported to have broken out in Dongola

    4th April
    The Turkish delegate, Ahmed Ayub Pasha, arrived in Cairo with the Firman investiture for His Highness the Khedive
    Party of dervish horse and camel-men raided old Sarras and captured some cattle.

    12th April
    Major general Sir F. Grenfer resigns his appointment as Sirdar, Egyptian Army.

    13th April
    Colonel H. Kitchener appointed Sirdar, Egyptian Army

    14th April
    Reading the Firman of investiture of His Highness the Khedive in Cairo.

    15th April
    Lieut. Colonel H. Settle appointed as Inspector-General, Egyptian Police

    16th April
    The Turkish Delegate returns to Constantinople

    18th April
    Ahmed El Egeil arrives in Cairo with letters from Berber Sheikhs and Omdehs, Seeking Government assistance


    Sirdar:
    The word sirdar here means the commander of the Anglo-Egyptian army. It was a title of a rank assigned of the British Commander in Chief of the Anglo- Egyptian Army and the sole representative of both the British and Egyptian Governments in the Sudan (Traill, 1900: 245). There were four known sirdars in the history of the Angol-Egyptian Sudan: Sir Evelyn Wood, 1883-1885; Sir Francis Grenfell, 1885-1892; Lord Kitchener 1892-1899; Reginald Wingate, 1899-1916 (Raafat 2001)
    Traill, Henry Duff: England, Egypt, and the Sudan. Westminister Archibald Constable and Company, limited, 1900
    Raafat, Samir: The Sirdaria, Cairo Times, 15 February 2001
    The Institution of Royal EngineersThe Royal engineers journal‎, Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers, Institution of Royal Engineers (Great Britain), Royal Engineers' Institute (Great Britain) - Technology and Engineering - 1923

    الأيادي الخضراء(٤): محمد صالح "التلودي" أو محمد صالح "بِركِيّة" بقلم عبدالرحيم محمد صالح

                  

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