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Abstract for the study of the effects of Marwa Dam socio-political political and environmental

08-06-2018, 04:29 PM
النور محمد عبد الله
<aالنور محمد عبد الله
Registered: 08-01-2018
Total Posts: 10






Abstract for the study of the effects of Marwa Dam socio-political political and environmental

    04:29 PM August, 06 2018

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    Contemporary global economic development has been undergoing a transition into different pathways. In developing countries, a shift from traditional development to modern economic development has begun since the 1980s (Amin and Thrift 1995, Behera 2006). Many developing countries used mega-dams as a source to generate electricity and water for irrigation, urban and industrial uses and are still preferred as the primary strategy to pursue economic development which was reinforced by increasing level of urbanisation, industrialisation, agribusiness and diversification of income in rural economy (Varma 2003, Rigg 2007). Sudan has embarked on economic development for decades and the need for electricity and water for irrigation is becoming more important over time as Sudan is experiencing political polarisation and rapid transition towards modernisation, industrialisation and urbanisation (Wallach 1988, Verhoeven 2011). Many academics have focused on evaluating the contribution of mega-projects primarily to economic development in the developing economies. But, less emphasis was placed on the agency of society, economic structure, development stage and needs of the economy, its geo-politics, level of institutional development and socio-cultural factors (Dogra 1992, Ersumer 1999, Varma 1999, Varma 2003, Flyvbjerg, Garbuio et al. 2009). Furthermore, in recent years, the processes by which development are governed have changed remarkably. Scholars are debating the conceptual and theoretical approaches concerning actual and potential impacts of mega-projects as a powerful force in shaping development and their position in development theories, especially dams, do not have a consensus (Behera 2006, Dunning 2006). Therefore, in order to address the gap in the literature, this thesis adopts an approach that combines socio-economic, human development and social conflict theories to study the influence of mega-projects on development and communities by using Merowe Dam as a case study located in northern Sudan. A multi-methods approach is used to collect data, including questionnaires, in-depth interviews, participant observations and secondary data.

    The results suggest that the electricity produced by Merowe Dam and the complementary projects implemented by the Dam Implementation Unit, e.g., educational, health facilities and infrastructures in addition to new settlements which were accompanied by agriculture schemes, have increased social mobility in the region and driven positive economic, social and human development in the Merowe region. However, in the context of social and environmental aspects, the outcome of Merowe Dam was overshadowed by social conflicts and mistrust between project authorities and local communities. This suggests difficult interactions and negotiations between various stakeholders and political institutions. Furthermore, the environmental effect was no better than the social effects, if not worse. However, it should be noted that the arid nature of the region have played an important role in reducing the negative influence of the Merowe Dam on the environment.
    On the basis of the discussion of convergences and divergences arising from the Merowe Dam, the thesis render support for similar projects in other developing economies to pursue socio-economic development. The two key policy implications are: long term monitoring of the resettlement areas and strengthening of agricultural extension services. Furthermore, in addition to enhancing negotiation and consultation power of the local communities by establishing independent mechanisms and administrative bodies to oversee the process of future projects in Sudan and in developing economies facing similar development challenges.
    References
    Amin, A. and N. Thrift (1995). Globalization, institutions, and regional development in Europe, Oxford University Press.

    Behera, M. C. (2006). Globalising rural development: competing paradigms and emerging realities, Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd.

    Dogra, B. (1992). "Consequences of Mega Projects." Economic and Political Weekly: 1354-1354.

    Dunning, J. H. (2006). "Towards a new paradigm of development: implications for the determinants of international business." Transnational corporations 15(1): 173-227.

    Ersumer, C. (1999). Opening Statements. Benefits and Concerns about Dams. Antalya Workshop 1999. 67th Annual Meeting of International Commission on Large Dams.

    Flyvbjerg, B., et al. (2009). "Delusion and deception in large infrastructure projects: two models for explaining and preventing executive disaster." California management review 51(2): 170-193.

    Rigg, J. (2007). An everyday geography of the global south, Routledge.

    Varma, C. V. J. (1999). " The Rationale of Dam Projects: Benefits and Concerns about Dams. Antalya
    Workshop 1999." 67th Annual Meeting of International Commission on Large Dams. Sept 24,
    1999.

    Varma, C. V. J. (2003). " Meeting Environmental Impact Requirements of Dams." Retrieved 20/05, 2018, from http://www.icoldcigb.net/Envussd.htmlhttp://www.icoldcigb.net/Envussd.html.

    Verhoeven, H. (2011). "Climate Change, Conflict and Development in Sudan: Global Neo‐Malthusian Narratives and Local Power Struggles." Development and Change 42(3): 679-707.

    Wallach, B. (1988). "Irrigation in Sudan since Independence." Geographical Review 78(4): 417-434.


                  

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