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Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his thought in development

02-08-2016, 09:58 AM
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Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his thought in development

    09:58 AM Feb, 08 2016

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    Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his thought in development analysis in the Current time؟
    By: Elhadi Habbani
    Doha October 2014

    Contents
    Subject Page
    Introduction 3
    Section one: Umran Theory of Ibn Khaldun 4
    - Defining Umran theory 4
    - Measurement of Umran 4
     Why Population: 5
     Why Buildings 5
     Why Expenditure in Markets 6
    - Geographical Theory of Growth: 7
    - Stages of economic growth and political association with the stages of growth And social state 7
    - The Forces of Economic Growth 8
    Section two: How con Muslim Countries benefit from Umran Theory 9
    - The Current Political and Socio-Economic Climate of Muslim countries 9
    - How to apply Ibn Khaldun Model in Muslim countries 11
     Maintain Healthy Political Set-up and Socio-economic Climate through 12
     Population Growth through 13
     Division of Labor through 13
     Growth and Diversification of Needs 13
     Creativity and Industrial Skills through 13
    Conclusion 14
    References 15
                  

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02-08-2016, 09:59 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    Introduction:
    Although Eastern Europe Countries in their reform development and restructuring are following the same rules that have been revealed centuries ago in Ibn Khaldun theory of Umran by privatization guidelines and setting up to some different extents more property rights trying to abolish price controls on goods and services, reducing bureaucracy, and the overall economic and market intervene of government, Muslim countries are still suffering from different complicated political and economic troubles where lack of democracy, injustice in distribution of income, inflation, wealth accumulation in very few hands, poverty, pollution and environment neglecting, lack of education, health, welfare, and many other social services.
    Can Muslim Countries have their own standards to lead them to achieve high levels of development based on their Islamic norms and rules, as well as the huge inheritance socio-economic thoughts in Islamic history؟
    This paper focuses on the nature of Ibn Khaldun theory of Umran and economic growth or the "development model of Ibn Khaldun" as part of Umran theory, explaining its fundamental building blocks, and how Muslim Countries can benefit from Ibn Khaldun views in solving their critical economics troubles and formulate a development strategy that can achieve justice, economic stabilization, division of labor, growth, and full employment. It is quite obvious that Ibn Khaldun recommendations for adopting highly civilized society are as pertinent today as they were during the time where he propounded his doctrine. The author of this paper believes that, the countries that can apply Umran prescriptions of Ibn Khaldun will step forwards towards economic growth, thrift, and prosperity.
    In this paper which consists, in addition to the introduction, two sections and conclusion and recommendations. In Section One I will discuss in general the main features of Umran theory defining its main building blocks. Section 2 will be reserved for discussing the contemporary economical situation of Muslim countries and how they can benefit from Ibn Khaldun theory of Umran in their political behaviour and setting up healthy socio-economic climate, development planning, income distribution, fiscal, and monetary policies…etc.
                  

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02-08-2016, 10:53 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)

    Section 1
    Umran Theory of Ibn Khaldun

    The growth and decay of economies and societies has been of great consideration to scholars all the way through history seeking to interpret the reasons of the observable fact of the historical rises and falls of civilizations in order to prevent decay, achieve, and maintain continuous rise to their societies. No one in the history of economic notion has instituted a rational wide-ranging economic philosophy that gives logical interpretation and prediction to the grow and decay of civilizations, nations, societies, cultures, and the empires in the same way Ibn Khaldun has put together in his theory of Umran that has been revealed carefully in his Muqadimmah. Applying historical, theoretical, and empirical methods gives Ibn Khaldun theory the capacity not only to clarify the outcomes of the state policies on production and trade, investment and specialization, innovation, and development in general, but also the broad perceptiveness to foresee the continued existence of the state. According to (Yousri, 2006) Ibn Khaldun one of the first scholars who wrote in the logic of history, in his research and analysis, he carefully followed a sound scientific approach in every area that he studied until deservedly got the honor to be called "father of history" and "Father of sociology".
                  

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02-08-2016, 10:54 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)

    Defining Umran theory:
    Umran, in language is derived from the Arabic word Umar like to say the home Umar by its family which means that it has been inhabited by any of its family who established, designed and structured it, or to say the country Umar by its population whom they live, set their homes, and carried out their economical and social activities in it (Yousri, 2006).
    Umran theory of Ibn Khaldun asserts that the rise or fall of civilization does not happen due to only one single standalone factor, but rather evolve as a product of a deep and complicated interaction of moral, social, economic, political, and historical aspects over somewhat long period of time. Each one of these aspects acts as a set off or an activate device influences the other, and the product of the reaction of the other actions will define the status of nation whether grow or decay. It is an attempt to explain the different events in history through a cause and effect relationship and to derive scientifically the principles that lie behind the rise and fall of a ruling dynasty or state (dawlah) or civilization (Umran) (Chapra, 2006, p. 838)
    So the term ‘Umran’ means civilization or culture or a state of living together where people cooperate with each other through necessity and or blood ties with its values, rules, boundaries, rituals, etc. population and state or what Ibn Khaldun called (Dynasty) occupies essential position in Umran theory, (Theory of Umran describes how Economic Growth takes place concurrently with population growth within a favorable political climate) (Yousri, 2014).
                  

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02-08-2016, 10:55 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)

    Measurement of Umran:
    Ibn Khaldun used the term Umran or urbanization of societies to demonstrates the macro concept of Umran as an indication to what extent the country is populated and has buildings and constructions and consequently has varieties of essential social and economical activities for life, (Yousri, 2006).
    It must be clear that the word Umran in itself does not indicate anything for the cause of progress or failure in any community, but it is the degree or the level of Umran that, in fact, indicates the development or underdevelopment of any country, which means that, the country that has more population, buildings, constructions, and expenditure in its market, the more developed country will be. So in that context, it is quite obvious that, in Ibn Khaldun theory of Umran population, buildings, and consumer expenditures in the local markets are essential macroeconomic measures of the degree of development or underdevelopment, (Yousri, 2006).
                  

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02-08-2016, 10:55 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)

    Why Population:
    Unlike the pessimistic Malthusian population growth law and the other contemporary scholars who believe that population growth in any country will lead to underdevelopment, Growth theory of Ibn Khaldun is based on population, and labor force. The more the population is, the more will be the labor force, so greater division of labor, and thus the more will be the earnings and expenditures, the industry booms, and the country grows. So population based on Ibn Khaldun doctrine is one of the main macroeconomic measures of development. Population as a measure of Umran in Ibn Khaldun thoughts is also quite related to some other moral and socio-economic requirements such as education, training, and skillfulness. The centre of Ibn Khaldun’s analysis is the human being because the rise and fall of civilizations is closely dependent on the well-being or misery of the people. This is, in turn, dependent not just on economic variables but also on the closely interrelated role of moral, institutional, psychological, political, social and demographic factors through a process of circular causation extending over a long period of history. (Chapra, 2006, p. 840).
    All theoretical arguments that explain poverty and underdevelopment by fast population growth cannot be accepted as such. Theoretical studies particularly in the second half of the 20th century proved that there were many important factors economic and non-economic behind the low Growth National Product (GNP) rates of growth in developing world. These factors are apparently much more important than the so-called population problem in explaining poverty. It cannot be denied that low rates of savings in low income countries whose population are growing fast are bound to lower their investment and growth rates. But it is also true undeniable that these countries have been unable to adopt sound economic and monetary policies as well as unable to use their available natural and financial resources properly. Corruption, expenditure on security, and defense on the account of health, education, infrastructure, and development are major realistic reasons of underdevelopment and poverty. The real population crises are illiterate, exploited, by rules and monopolists, incapable of knowing or defending their own rights or unable to get fair opportunities towards improving the quality of their life.
                  

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02-08-2016, 10:56 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    Why Buildings:
    Buildings as a measure of development thoughts does not means only houses but rather refer to, construction, bridges, roads, streets, cities planning, dams, channels, communications and the whole civil infrastructure that shape the very urban society which refer to in Muqadimmah as town, cities, vast construction, and large buildings (Furthermore, towns and cities with their monuments, vast constructions, and large buildings, are set up for the masses and not for the few. Therefore, united effort and much co-operation are needed for them. They are not among the things that are necessary matters of general concern to human beings, in the sense that all human beings desire them or feel compelled to have them. As a matter of fact, (human beings) must be forced and driven to (build cities). The stick of royal authority is what compels them, or they may be stimulated by promise of reward and compensation. (Such reward) amounts to so large a sum that only royal authority and a dynasty can pay for it. Thus, dynasties and royal authority are absolutely necessary for the building of cities and the planning of towns), (Ibn Khaldun, 1969, p. 433).
    Ibn Khaldun also refers to the quality of buildings as a determinant of continuity of civilization in the means that the higher quality and long lasting the buildings and constructions the longer lasting the civilization (Then, when the town has been built and is all finished, as the builder saw fit and as the climatic and geographical conditions required, the life of the dynasty is the life of the town. If the dynasty is of short duration, life in the town will stop at the end of the dynasty. Its civilization will recede, and the town will fall into ruins. On the other hand, if the dynasty is of long duration and lasts a long time, new constructions will always go up in the town, the number of large mansions will increase, and the walls of the town will extend farther and farther. Eventually, the layout of the town will cover a wide area, and the town will extend so far and so wide as to be (almost) beyond measurement. This happened in Baghdad and similar (cities), (Ibn Khaldun, 1969, p. 433).
                  

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02-08-2016, 10:57 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    Why Expenditure in Markets:
    Finally comes the idea of Ibn Khaldun in taking the increased consumers expenditure in markets as an indication and evidence of development or Umran, or vice versa, in the sense that the lack of spending in markets is a lack of urbanization, (completely consistent with what we know in the modern analysis "the criteria of economic activity"), (Abdelrahman Yousri, 2006). Ibn Khaldun explains this through cooperation concept in Muqadimmah (The reason for this is that, as is known and well established, the individual human being cannot by himself obtain all the necessities of life. All human beings must co-operate to that end in their civilization. But what is obtained through the co-operation of a group of human beings satisfies the need of a number many times greater (than themselves). For instance, no one, by himself, can obtain the share of the wheat he needs for food. But when six or ten persons, including a smith and a carpenter to make the tools, and others who are in charge of the oxen, the plowing of the soil, the harvesting of the ripe grain, and all the other agricultural activities, undertake to obtain their food and work toward that purpose either separately or collectively and thus obtain through their labor a certain amount of food, (that amount) will be food for a number of people many times their own. The combined labor produces more than the needs and necessities of the workers) (Ibn Khaldun Muqadimmah, Franz Rosenthal translation, p. 455). He continued in the same meaning (If the labor of the inhabitants of a town or city is distributed in accordance with the necessities and needs of those inhabitants, a minimum of that labor will suffice. The labor (available) is more than is needed. Consequently, it is spent to provide the conditions and customs of luxury and to satisfy the needs of the inhabitants of other cities. They import (the things they need) from (people who have a surplus) through exchange or purchase. Thus, the (people who have a surplus) get a good deal of wealth) (Ibn Khaldun, 1969, p. 455)
                  

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02-08-2016, 10:57 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    Geographical Theory of Growth:
    Geographical environment in Ibn Khaldun theory of Umran constitutes fundamental issue because, based on him, the imposition of unexplained Geographical environment is the primary determinant of the state of Umran, the larger the geographical environment suitable for human life, the greater urbanization and vice versa. (IT SHOULD BE KNOWN that not all the temperate zones have an abundance of food, nor do all their inhabitants lead a comfortable life. In some parts, the inhabitants enjoy an abundance of grain, seasonings, wheat, and fruits, because the soil is well balanced and good for plants and there is an abundant civilization. And then, in other parts, the land is strewn with rocks, and no seeds or herbs grow at all. There, the inhabitants have a very hard time (Ibn Khaldun, 1969, p. 129).
                  

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02-08-2016, 10:58 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    Stages of economic growth and political association with the stages of growth
    and social state:
    Ibn Khaldun believes that the State have a lifetimes that often no more than three stages. The first stage is the establishment period where generation of this stage are enthusiastic, zealous, and eagerly intent through what he called Asabiyyah which is occupies central position in Umran theory and has influenced the rise and fall of dynasties or states over history. Asabiyyah refers to the action of one in helping his people or his group against any aggressive action, be angry for the sake of them, and protect them, invites others to help them, combine or league with them in facing those who carry hostility towards them, and closely bound to his group or nation based on the same interest and opinion.
    The second stage is when the nation shift from establishment period to the ultimate growth and luxury where people tend to be indolent and sluggish and start to lose Asabiyyah gradually and state members struggling for the sake of ruling ignoring production and instead, imposing high taxes, spending on luxuries which create gap between the large expenditures and the weak income and production which lead at the end to third stage that is the total collapse of the state.
    The three stages are quite linked to the economic stages of growth where in the first stages when the state is stable population grow steadily and thus more spending, more division of labor, more outputs, and the whole country boom. Economic start to decline in the second stage when production decline and expenditure on luxuries increased which in turn leads to total collapse of the state and civilization. This in terms of economic growth, its sustainability, and decline can be summarized as: at the beginning, less is spend on army, and tax revenues are saved, and the surplus is spent on state expenditure, State officials and others. These lead to consumption which in turn attracts skilled and professionals. Trade, industry and construction activities increase. As a result, trade craft and industrial produce are promoted, sold and purchased by government officials and other wealthy people. A consumer economy is established which is accelerated by high urbanization, and over-consumption. Then, scarcities develop. This leads to unsustainable city, as prices go up causing slump in demand and thus in less production. The prices of necessities tend to rise faster than those of luxuries, and prices in urban areas rise faster than those in rural areas. The cost of labour also rises and so do taxes. These lead to a further rise in prices, which creates hardship for people and leads to a reversal in the flow of population. Development declines and along with it does prosperity and civilization Ibn Khaldun (quoted by Mohammad, 2010).
                  

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02-08-2016, 10:59 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    The Forces of Economic Growth:
    The rise and fall of civilizations according to Ibn Khaldun depends on strong State to implement law through institutions and rule of law, people, wealth, development and justice Ibn Khaldun (quoted by Mohammad Tahir Sabit Haji Mohammad, 2010). This concept has been highlighted by (Yousri, 2014) as; economic growth depends upon five main forces: Political set-up and socio-economic climate, population growth, division of labor, growth and diversification of needs, and creativity and industrial skill. These five forces which are combining or integrating moral, political, social, and culture with the economic growth, are quite linked, based on (Chapra, 2006, p. 839) who said (One of the variables acts as the trigger mechanism. If the other sectors react in the same direction as the trigger mechanism, the decay will gain momentum through an interrelated chain reaction such that it becomes difficult over time to identify the cause from the effect). This means that, healthy political set-up and socio-economic climate will lead to population growth which means more expenditure, thus more division of labor, thus diversification of needs, then more innovative outputs to satisfy the growing needs …etc.
                  

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02-08-2016, 11:23 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)

    Section 2
    How con Muslim Countries benefit from Umran Theory

    The Current Political and Socio-Economic Climate of Muslim countries:

    Although the time of Ibn Khaldun was different from the contemporary times, but most of the Muslim world nowadays, and not just the area he was concerned with at that time, has been unable until now to get rid of what he considered to be the primary cause of the decline of Islamic civilization. Beside the well known current critical political situation in Muslim countries in terms of dictatorship ruling in most of Muslim countries, lack of democracy and human rights, injustice, extensive and widespread conflicts and civil wars between Muslims in one countries as well as between Muslims in different Muslim countries, lack of unity and national sentiment and affiliation or lack of Asabiyyah in the same concept Ibn Khaldun revealed in his doctrine as one of the main cause of dynasty declining, Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) economic overview 2013 shows quite dreadful figures related to OIC countries socio-economic situation which can reviewed as follows:
    - Although the 57 OIC countries population in 2012 represents 22.6% of the world total population, they produced only 11.3% of the world total GDP which can be shown in the following chart:

    01.jpg Hosting at Sudaneseonline.com

    - Despite the high population the low GDP can be justified by the higher unemployment rate that reached 9.9% in 2011 which is the highest in the world as shown in the following right chart, and the lower productivity which is US$12,000 which is again the lowest in the world as shown in the following left chart.

    02.jpg Hosting at Sudaneseonline.com
    340.jpg Hosting at Sudaneseonline.com

    - The distribution of GDP among OIC countries also shows injustice in income distribution as revealed in OIC 2013 report The gap between the rich and the poor OIC countries is substantial. The average per capita GDP based on purchasing power parity (PPP) in the richest member country (Qatar, $102.9K) was 17.1 times higher than the average of the OIC countries ($5.9K) in 2012. Moreover, 18 OIC member countries are currently classified by the World Bank as low-income countries and 32 are middle-income countries (16 lower middle-income and 16 upper middle-income). In contrast, only 7 OIC member countries are classified as high-income countries. The total output (GDP) and trade of the group of the OIC countries are still heavily concentrated in a few of them; in 2012, only 10 member countries accounted for 72.9 per cent of the total GDP, based on purchasing power parity (PPP), of the OIC countries and 76.6 per cent of their total merchandise exports, both measured in current US Dollars, (SESRIC, 2013, p. 35.).

    - Inflation rate in OIC countries is also occupies the highest rank in the world which is 7.4% in 2014 as shown in the following chart;

    04.jpg Hosting at Sudaneseonline.com

    - The Enabling Environment Index (EEI) of OIC countries also is the lowest in the world which obviously states that socio-cultural and socio-economic environment in Muslim countries is not reliable and suffering from injustice, lack of peace, inequality of income distribution, inflation, high taxation rates, lack of governance, and lack of welfare. The following chart shows the OIC EEI comparing to other world countries;
    05.jpg Hosting at Sudaneseonline.com

    - If we take the education index as an example to the low EEI and also because education, training, and skillfulness are considered in Ibn Khaldun model of growth as crucial and central prerequisite to economic growth, will find that OIC countries are also the lowest in the world as displayed in the following chart;

    06.jpg Hosting at Sudaneseonline.com
    - Some of OIC countries (particularly in OIC countries that are having huge and diverse of valuable human and natural resources like Sudan, Iraq, Somalia…etc) are suffering from corruption which increases the prices of outputs through payment of bribes, which is, from economic view, reduces the grow of outputs and consequently job creation at the macro level, (On control of corruption index prepared by the World Bank in 2010, which reflects “perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as capture" of the state by elites and private interests”, some of the IDB member countries, especially in Gulf region, are doing well, with Qatar on top at 91 (out of 100), followed by UAE, Brunei, Oman, and Kuwait at 67, 78, 80 and 66, respectively. On the least successful in corruption control, Somalia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Sudan and Iraq stood at 0, 0.9, 1.9, 4.3, and 4.7 respectively. Greater transparency and accountability, simplification of administrative procedures and merit‐ based human resource management in public administration make it possible to curb corruption, (IDB, 2012).
    So, from the previous analysis to the current situation of Muslim countries it is quite obvious that the extreme assumptions of Ibn Khaldun that lead to decline of dynasty is clearly applied in Muslim countries nowadays; lack of unity or Asabiyyah, States leaders in Muslim countries struggling for the sake of power and government, high expenditure in war, luxury, high taxation rates, high population with low income and very poor education, very limited division of labor, poverty and less diversification of needs which limited the pattern of consumption in most Muslims countries on the basic needs of life due to poverty and poorness, high rate of unemployment, less labor productivity, very less outputs that already reflected in the lowest GDP in the world.
    How OICs rectify this situation by applying Ibn Khaldun Umran model؟ This will be explained in the next part of this section.






                  

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02-08-2016, 11:24 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    How to apply Ibn Khaldun Model in Muslim countries:
    Given the situation of Muslims countries that reviewed in the preceding part of this section, which is similar to the time where Ibn Khaldun propounded his doctrine, Muslims country can apply his model which is implicitly, for some large extent, included in his advice to the rulers (Al-Mulk) that; (The strength of the sovereign (al-mulk) does not materialize except through the implementation of the Shariah, The Shariah cannot be implemented except by the sovereign (al-mulk), The sovereign cannot gain strength except through the people (al-rijal), The people cannot be sustained except by wealth (al-mal), Wealth cannot be acquired except through development (Al-Imarah), Development cannot be attained except through justice (Al-Adl), Justice is the criterion (Al-Mizan) by which God will evaluate mankind, The sovereign is charged with the responsibility of actualizing justice), Ibn Khaldun Muqadimmah (quoted by Chapra, 2006, p. 839). This model or advice, which can be extended and explain through the five main forces of Umran theory that have been highlighted by (Yousri, 2014), constitutes relevant growth model that can lead Muslims countries towards growth and prosperity as follows:
                  

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02-08-2016, 11:25 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    Maintain Healthy Political Set-up and Socio-economic Climate through:
     Maintain unity and adherence to nation and national affiliation or what Ibn Khaldun called Asabiyyah based on group feeling and Islamic Shariah objectives, and normative moral, ethical, and cultural values by promoting Islamic norms and humanitarian objectives, rather than focusing only, on texts in economical activities and practices, such as Istekhlaf, Righteous deed, Halal, Roshd, Tawasut …etc. Asabiyyah also should be taken in the favorable meaning and context not in the wrong meaning of inflexibility and narrow-mindedness.
     Allowing freedom and democracy and protect human rights and respect diversifications of cultures and religions.
     Preventing corruption and bribery and favoritism particularly among rulers and state officials.
     Maintain justice through collection and distribution of Zakat and moderate taxation systems. When building moderate taxation system government should follow Ibn Khaldun taxation model within which, he supports lowering taxation burden on producers or supply side in general, in line to persuade them by greater profits to them as well as greater revenue to the government, because when government imposes Shari'ah compliant low taxes on producers, they will make profit. Consequently increase in number and size. As a result government surplus will increase which, in turn, lead to more expenditure in development and welfare. He said (At the beginning of a dynasty, taxation yields a large revenue from small assessment. At the end of a dynasty, taxation yields a small revenue from large assessment. The reason for this is that when the dynasty follows the way (Sunan) of the religion, it imposes only such taxes as are stipulated by the religious law, such as charity taxes, the land tax, and the poll tax. They mean small assessments, because, as everyone knows the charity tax on property is low. The same applies on charity tax on grain and cattle, and also to the poll tax, the land tax and all other taxes required by the religious law. They have fixed limits that cannot be overstepped), Ibn Khaldun (Quoted by Abdul Azim Islahi, 2006).
    Taxation system should also be instructed and considered as one of the main part of public finance. Its significance appears from the importance of government expenditures which should be allocated in development and welfare. Government should keep away from wastefulness and excessive luxuries and avoid unfavorable results of inequity and bias in tax burden.
     Government should not intervene market and let the forces of supply and demand to determine prices of products and services, but in the same time has to supervise market and protect it from Gharar, Riba …etc.
     Maintaining peace and security through well prepared and qualified independent authorities.
     Strengthen defense force but keep it away from politics.
                  

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02-08-2016, 11:25 AM
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Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    1- Population Growth through:

     Muslims countries should formulate long-term demographic strategy to achieve continuous population growth as a major element to apply Ibn Khaldun growth model within which population growth is one of the main prerequisites.
     In order to implement this long-term strategy political and healthy socio-economic climate has to be maintained. Because, based on Ibn Khaldun population growth is one of its results which will be reflected in sound labour laws, fair employment conditions including, fair wages, rewards, and incentives system, medical insurance, social security, education and training …etc.
     Immigration as a function of favorable sociological and political climate should be encouraged and well planned.

    2- Division of Labor through:

     Give particular care to population economical activities in all different fields through low taxes, incentives, subsidies, provide production requirements of all sectors with reasonable prices and best quality.
     Encourage small and medium enterprises, craft men, and family's economic activities.
     Encourage investments and partnerships and cooperation.
     Encourage and support scientific research and innovation to create more division of labor and more outputs.
     Put moderate, and favorable regulations on producers based on Shariah principles and Islamic moral and ethical norms and values in order to grant righteous deed, halal...etc. in economical activities and inhibit riba and gharar…etc.
     Encourage consumer spending on market because it will lead to more division of labor and thus more output, and thus, more needs will emerge which, in turn lead to more economic activities diversification.
     Maintain Political Stability and Favorable socio-economic climate leads to: greater population thus, greater division of labor thus, greater output thus, greater incomes thus, greater expenditure (Yousri, 2014) in order to achieve what he called (Cumulative Power of Growth).

    3- Growth and Diversification of Needs, through:

     Muslims countries should put short and long-term strategy to provide the basic needs of population such as, food, dress, accommodation, education, medical services, necessary public utilities … etc in order to encourage population to seek for more luxury needs. Because based on Ibn Khaldun consumption grow refers not only in size, but also in quality and better pattern of consumption (Higher quality commodities and new commodities are demanded and will be produced (according to market mechanism), a matter that expresses betterment of human life and Social affluence), (Yousri, 2014).

    4- Creativity and Industrial Skill Through:

     Encourage education, training, and skillfulness among labor force because the continuous grow of needs requires continuous innovation skills and capabilities particularly industrial creativity which can be gained through continuous well organized and planned education and training framework.
     Maintain modern technology in all sector, industrial, agriculture, trading, telecommunication and transportation, scientific research, medical and health and every aspect of human life.
                  

Arabic Forum

02-08-2016, 11:26 AM
الهادي هباني
<aالهادي هباني
Registered: 06-17-2008
Total Posts: 2829






Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    Conclusion:

    It is quite obvious that the prescription of Ibn Khaldun for achieving civilized nation are as applicable today as they were during his time where Islamic Empire were declining. Because the current political and socio-economic environment in Muslims economies nowadays are, to some large extent similar to the situation where Ibn Khaldun has propounded his great thoughts, analysis, and advice. The countries that follow his recommendations will prosper and the ones that reject them will be in despair.
    The modification progress in Western developed countries are tracking the advice of Ibn Khaldun through, achieving high levels of political and socio-economic standards comparing to other countries, in terms of democracy, freedom, human rights, rule of law, peace, education, health, environment protection, social security, labor rights, research and innovation, technology, privatization policies and setting-up solid and fair private property rights...etc. and they have succeeded, to very large extent to translate Ibn Khaldun prescription into practice. Despite of the severe situation of Muslim countries, this gives green light that Muslim countries can apply the same great prescription of Ibn Khaldun to reach growth and prosperity;
    - Stability, equality and solidarity based on the objectives of Shari'ah rather than texts and forms where freedom of religions and beliefs are quite maintained;
    - Freedom, democracy, human rights, security, peace, rule of law and justice;
    - Security of peace and the security of trade routes;
    - Targeting continuous well planned population growth and division of labor;
    - Very clear and certain property rights and freedom of endeavor within the Shari'ah and human rights boundaries;
    - Low taxation burden on supply side or producers of outputs;
    - Get rid of bureaucracy and unnecessary procedures and restrictions at all levels;
    - Nongovernment intervene in markets and prices have to be determined by supply and demand forces provided that monopoly, monopolistic practices, gharar…etc. are prevented and eliminated by government;
    - Government should act as surveillance in markets to protect it from all kinds of monopolistic practices;
    - Public property and national resources have to be managed by government based on Prophet Mohammed that people are partners in three; fire, water, and pasture;
    - Advanced education and training system within which creativity and independent thinking are encouraged;
    - Put solid regulations, rules, statute to protect natural environment;
    To apply Ibn Khaldun prescription serious efforts has to be jointly exerted through politicians, economists, scholars, Islamic Unions and institutions such like OIC Fiqh Academy, IDB...etc. beside that any sound legal framework is dependent on the active function of its legal unity. Ibn Khaldun thoughts has to be educated in higher secondary schools and university, his Muqadimmah has to be simplified and splitted into small size books to be widely distributed among people concentrating on youth. Continuous excessive conferences and workshops have to be held to highlight Ibn Khaldun thoughts and how Muslim countries can translate it into practice.
                  

Arabic Forum

02-08-2016, 11:27 AM
الهادي هباني
<aالهادي هباني
Registered: 06-17-2008
Total Posts: 2829






Re: Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Umran: How can Muslim Countries benefit from his tho (Re: الهادي هباني)


    References:

    1- Yousri, Abdelrahman, (2014), Most Important Economic Contributions of two Great Muslim Scholars in the 15th Century: Ibn Khaldun and Al-Makrizi, lecture notes, QFIS, Islamic Economics Class, September 2014 Fall;
    2- Mohammad, Mohammad Tahir Sabit Haji Mohammad, (2010), PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN IBN KHALDUN’S ECONOMIC THOUGHT, Mohammad Tahir Sabit Haji Mohammad, Centre for Real Estate Studies, Faculty of Geoinformation Science and Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Sudai, Johor, Malalysia, Malaysian Journal of Real Estate, Volume 5, Number 1, 2010;
    3- Chapra, M. Umer, (2006), Ibn Khaldun’s theory of development: Does it help explain the low performance of the present-day Muslim world؟, IRTI/IDB, P.O. Box 9201, Jeddah 21413, Saudi Arabia, The Journal of Socio-Economics 37 (2008) 836–863 Accepted 1 December 2006;
    4- Ibn Khaldun, Abdul Rahman Ibn Mohammed, (1969), THE MUQADDIMAH, Translated and introduced by Franz Rosenthal Abridged and edited by N. J. Dawood, with an introduction by Bruce B. Lawrence;
    5- Karatas, Selim Cafer, (2014), The Economic Theory of Ibn Khaldun and The Rise and Fall of Nations, Muslim Heritage, http://muslimheritage.com/article/economic-theory-ibn-khaldu...ise-and-fall-nations accessed October 17-2014;
    6- OWEISS, IBRAHIM M., (2014), Ibn Khaldun Father of Economics, from Arab Civilization, (joint editorship with George N. Atiyeh), State University of New York Press, 1988. Pp. xii, 365, http://faculty.georgetown.edu/imo3/ibn.htm, accessed October, 17, 2014;
    7- Jaafar, Abu Bakar, Ismail, Abdul Ghafar, (2012), Research Center for Islamic Economics and Finance School of Economics Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, Tax Rate and, its Determinants: An Opinion from Ibn Khaldun, Working Paper in Islamic Economics and Finance No. 1231, December 2012;
    8- Islahi, Abdul Azim, (2006), Ibn Khaldun’s Theory of Taxation and Its Relevance Today, Paper for presentation to the Conference on Ibn Khaldun Organizing institutions: The Islamic Research and Training Institute, a member of the Islamic Development Bank Group, in collaboration with Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distance (UNED) of Spain, and Islamic Cultural Centre of Madrid, Venue: Madrid, SPAIN, 3-5 November 2006;
    9- SESRIC, The Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries, 2013 – OIC ECONOMIC OUTLOOK – 2013.
    10- IDB, (2012), Report on Investment Environment in OIC Member Countries, September 2012.
    11- يسري، عبد الرحمن (2006), مؤتمر الإسهامات الاقتصادية لابن 12- خلدون، إسهام عبد الرحمن بن خلدون في الفكر الإقتصادي، دراسات إقتصادية إسلامية، المجلد الثالث عشر، العدد الثاني، 2006.
                  

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