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News and Press ReleasesIssues No. 6 and 7 of the Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin covering the periods 01 to 1

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Issues No. 6 and 7 of the Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin covering the periods 01 to 1

02-10-2014, 06:33 PM
SudaneseOnline News
<aSudaneseOnline News
Registered: 01-13-2014
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مكتبة الفساد

من اقوالهم
(مكتبة مفتوحة للتحديث)





Issues No. 6 and 7 of the Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin covering the periods 01 to 1

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    Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin
    Issue No 6
    01 – 15 January 2014
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    The Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin (Sudan HRH Bulletin) is a fortnightly report on the human rights and humanitarian situation in Sudan issued by Darfur Relief and Documentation Centre (DRDC). Information in this Bulletin is compiled from different sources, including interviews with eye witnesses and victims of violations of human rights and international humanitarian law. Prime sources for some information in this Bulletin are Radio Dabanga http://www.radiodabanga.org and the weekly Humanitarian Bulletin on Sudan issued by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) http://unocha.org/sudan
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    27, Ch. des Creand#770;ts-de-Pregny, 1218 Grand-Saconnex, Geneva (Switzerland) Tel: +41 22 747 00 89 Fax: +41 22 747 00 38 E-mail: [email protected] Webpage http://www.darfurcentre.ch
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    General Observations
    There has been no improvement in the human rights and humanitarian situation in Sudan during the first two weeks of January 2014. Large-scale military operations between the army and the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) were reported in South and West Kordofan and the Blue Nile States as well as in Darfur. Intensive use of aerial bombardment against military and civilian targets was also reported in Darfur and South Kordofan State during the period under review. Massive and systematic violations of human rights and international humanitarian law were committed as a result of these military operations, especially against the internally displaced persons (IDPs) whose numbers are on steady increase. Both the government and the insurgent SRF claimed victory during the recent fighting and accused each other of killing civilians and inflicting damage on civilian installations. Meanwhile, killings and violent clashes between members of the security forces, including the army and police on the one hand and pro-government militia groups on the other, have been increasingly observed, especially in Darfur. This new development further indicates a state of growing anarchy and collapse of law and order in the region and harbinger of an all against all war in the region.
    The government of Sudan appears determined in pursuing a militaristic approach to resolving the armed conflicts in the country. On 8 January 2014, the Second Vice-President of Sudan, Hassabo M. Abdelrahman affirmed that "...the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) military operations against the rebel movements will go side-by-side with the government's openness to engage in dialogue.” Meanwhile, the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) spokesperson Col. Sawarmi K Saad, announced that the army had repulsed the SRF in South and Central Darfur States, killing many insurgents and seizing military equipment and ammunitions. He also claimed that the army repulsed an attack of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) on Dalami town in South Kordofan State and that the SPLM-N troops killed a number of civilians, including women and children and also plundered the area.
    Abuses of civil and political rights and fundamental freedoms have been reported in Sudan during the period under review. These include extra-judicial executions and killings, torture and ill-treatment, arbitrary arrest and detention as well as sexual violence against women and girls. The numbers of political dissidents that are arrested and detained without trial in different parts of Sudan, especially in the regions affected by armed conflicts is on the increase. Political detainees are often held in security facilities under the supervision of the National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS). Torture and degrading treatment as well as deprivation of medical care, family visits and legal counselling are among the violations of rights to which political detainees are frequently subjected. Violations of fundamental rights and liberties in Sudan are committed by the government apparatus against the background that Sudan is a state party to the core body of regional and international human rights and humanitarian law, and, as such, it is under legal obligation to respect the rights and liberties provided in these instruments.1
    1 Sudan is a State Party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the International Convention on the Rights of the Child. It is a state party to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Sudan is a contracting party to the Geneva Conventions on International Humanitarian Law. It is also a signatory to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), and, as such, it should refrain from any practice or act which defeats the object and purpose of the Rome Statute.
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    A. Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1. Violations of Civil and Political Rights
    Mr. Tajeldin Ahmed Arga Ali, a 26 year old Blogger from Darfur, has been held incommunicado by the NISS since 24 December 2013. He was arrested in Khartoum while attending a public meeting addressed by President Omar Al-Bashir and his Chadian counterpart Idris Deby. The arrest took place inside the Friendship Hall where Mr. Arga confronted the two Presidents and publicly blamed them of being responsible for the killing and destruction occurring in Darfur and accused them of distorting reality about the situation in the region. Since his arrest Mr. Arga has not been seen in public and there are serious fears about his safety and security of person.
    2. HarassmentandSexualViolenceagainstWomen
    Incidents of rape and sexual violence against women and girls were reported in Darfur during the first two weeks of January 2014. On 7 January 2014, government-backed herdsmen reportedly raped 3 women in Tawila Locality, North Darfur State. Earlier in the day the armed herdsmen had released their livestock on farmlands owned by the women victims and as a result of a clash that erupted between the two groups the herdsmen then raped the women at gunpoint.
    On 4 January 2014, government-backed militiamen attacked four women while they were collecting firewood near Erli IDP camp in Kass Locality, South Darfur State. The militiamen abducted two of the women and detained them for 24 hours. While held in captivity, the women were repeatedly raped and humiliated. In a related incident that took place on 4 January 2014, armed militiamen attacked ten residents of Erli IDPs camp while they were collecting straw and firewood in the southern part of the camp. The militiamen beat the IDPs and robbed them of their money and property, as well as the straw and firewood which they had collected.
    B. Security and Humanitarian Situation in Darfur
    The security and humanitarian situation in Darfur did not improve during the first two weeks of January 2014. The safety and security of people was seriously affected by frequent aerial bombardment of civilian targets and residential areas as well as by ground attacks and clashes between the security forces and pro-government militia groups against the local people and IDPs. Areas of Darfur that were affected the most by military operations during the period under review are the eastern and western parts of Jebel Marra massive and the area around Nyala in South Darfur State. Fighting between the army and the insurgents as well as criminal activities and atrocities committed by the security forces and pro-government militiamen against civilians, especially the IDPs, have reached an intolerable stage. The IDPs are being arbitrarily killed, beaten, sexually abused and robbed of their belongings through money extortion and appropriation of their material wealth and valuables to mention just a few examples. The on-going situation requires immediate intervention from the African Union and United Nations Mission in Darfur (UNAMID), to protect the IDPs as the most vulnerable groups in the area.
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    It appears that a well-orchestrated campaign of harassment and intimidation against relief workers and humanitarian organizations is continuing in Darfur and has intensified in the last two months. On 9 January 2014, armed pro-government militiamen carjacked a vehicle used by the UK-based charity Islamic Relief Organisation in Thur, Nierteti Locality, Central Darfur State. The vehicle’s owner Mr. Ghaffar Yousif Abdel Moula, reported that the gunmen ordered all the passengers, including five malnourished children on their way to Niertiti hospital for medical treatment, to leave the vehicle. They looted the passengers of their money, mobile phones and luggage and then fled with the vehicle to an unknown destination. On 3 January 2014, five pro-government militiamen armed with machine guns ransacked the health centre run by the Islamic Relief Organisation in Nierteti. They maltreated the guard on duty, broke into the centre’s store and offices and appropriated all the medicines and equipment, including computers, mobile phones and measles vaccines. The gunmen destroyed the solar energy devices used to generate electricity for medicine storage, the laboratory and lighting.
    1. MilitaryOperationsandViolencebySecurityForcesandMilitiamen
    On 14 January 2014, an army military jet bombarded a number of villages located to the south of Nyala. Several air raids targeted three villages (El-Fula, Halit Masaliit, and Halit Abu Asha.) At least one person, Mr. Ibrahim Mursal, was seriously injured during the aerial bombardment on El-Fula village.
    On 14 January 2014, the government soldiers stormed El-Salam IDP camp in South Darfur State following an attack by unidentified gunmen against the army base in the area during which a military vehicle was stolen. As a result of the clashes that followed the army invasion of the IDP camp, four Sudanese army troops and at least two camp residents were killed and a large number of people were wounded. The army troops beat the IDPs with rifle butts, slapped and kicked them and at least two IDPs sustained serious wounds.
    On 13 January 2014, government-backed militiamen killed two men in Kassab IDP camp in Kutum Locality, North Darfur State. The deceased are Mr. Abdallah Adam (a blind man) and his uncle Mr. Mohamed Ali Nazhan. They were killed inside their canteen located in block A of the camp when the militiamen opened fire and looted the shop. The army unit stationed in the area exchanged fire with the attackers but they managed to flee the scene of the crime.
    On 12 January 2014, five militiamen wearing army fatigues and using a military vehicle armed with a Dushka machine gun killed Mr. Ismail Adam Sula, a resident of Kabkabiya town. His dead body was later found with burn marks in Wadi Dady, about 1km north of the crime scene. He was reportedly attacked in close proximity of a UNAMID base but the AU and UN peacekeepers did not intervene to protect him.
    On 11 January 2014, militiamen arrested four IDPs residents of El-Salam IDP camp in Kabkabiya Locality, North Darfur State, (Mr. Babakar Suleiman, Mr. Abdallah Hassan Yasin, Mr. Yusif Adam Iyab, and Mr. Musa Abakar), while they were returning with carts loaded with firewood. The gunmen ordered the IDPs to pay fees for the collected firewood and detained them for 24 hours during which the IDPs were beaten and robbed of everything, including their clothes, shoes and caps.
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    On 10 January 2014, at least six people were killed in clashes between the army and government-backed militiamen in the marketplace in El-Salam IDP camp in Bielel Locality, South Darfur State. It was reported that militiamen opened fire on the army troops killing four soldiers and two IDP camp residents. A large number of people were wounded during these clashes. The heavy exchange of fire between the army and the assailants created a state of panic among the IDPs, especially children and women and as a result some camp residents fled to the nearby forests. It was also reported that El-Salam camp had been the scene of another incident on 5 January 2014 when a group of militiamen stormed the camp in search of a stolen vehicle. They maltreated and abused the IDPs and threatened to torch the camp.
    On 10, January 2014, Mr. Abu Shama was killed in an aerial bombardment by the Sudanese army against Dady area, 30km west of Tabit, east Jebel Marra, North Darfur State. A horse-driven cart loaded with charcoal and led by the deceased villager had been destroyed and the horse perished in this aerial attack. The bombardment also killed about 45 sheep.
    On 9 January 2014, the Sudan Liberation Movement led by Minni Minawi (SLM-MM) announced the killing of a militia commander (Abu El-Bashar) and 11 of his men in the area of Khor Abeche, Sheiria Locality in East Darfur State. The attack was reportedly carried out against the headquarters of a government-backed militia group known for carjacking civilian vehicles and attacks against UNAMID forces. The SLM-MM claimed that the deceased militiaman is responsible for several incidents of killings, rape, #####ng and kidnapping of IDPs on the road between El-Fasher and Nyala, and in the areas of Khor Abeche, Niteaga and Duma, in Mershing Locality, Shangil Tobay and Sheiria. In what appears to be a retaliation of the SLM-MM attack, a large contingent of militiamen stormed the north-western part of Khor Abeche using rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) and machine guns. A number of civilians were injured and more than 100 houses burned to ashes together with all their contents. Hundreds of families are now living in the open, without shelter, water and food in this area.
    On 9 January 2014, at least nine people were killed and six others wounded in renewed inter-tribal clashes between nomad Misseriya and Khazam tribesmen in Deleig area in Central Darfur State. The deceased are seven Khazam and two Misseriya tribesmen. Six other members of the two tribes were injured.
    On 7 January 2014, the Sudan Liberation Movement led by Abdelwahid Nur (SLM- AW), under the banner of SRF, announced that it had attacked a military convoy in Foka Dako area near Nierteti. They declared the killing of nine members of the Central Reserve Police (Abu Tira) and the injury of many others. They claimed that they had seized four vehicles mounted with machine guns as well as large quantities of weapons and ammunitions. A few hours following this attack, the army launched aerial bombardments against civilian targets in west Jebel Marra and Wadi Touro, which led to the burning of large tracts of farmland and the killing of large numbers of livestock.
    On 6 January 2014, an army military jet bombed Adam Kambal village, about 15km south of El-Salam camp in South Darfur State as well as the nearby Tabaldiyat and Ghireiga villages. At least two children were injured during the aerial bombardment of Adam Kambal village.
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    2. Humanitarian Needs in Darfur
    The humanitarian situation in IDP camps in many parts of Darfur continues to be a source of deep concern. In Zam Zam IDP camp near El-Fasher, North Darfur State, a serious food crisis has been reported since the second week of January 2014. This situation is due to the delay in the distribution of food rations of more than one week between 7 and 14 January 2014. The food situation in Zam Zam camp, which hosts about 117,500 IDPs, is complicated by the overall lack of food in North Darfur State and rampant insecurity which has led to an unsupportable hike in the price of food items. The most crucial factor that has aggravated the situation of food security in Zam Zam IDP camp and is expected to have further repercussions has been the decision of the World Food Programme (WFP) to contract local traders for the distribution of food rations among the IDPs. The WFP’s decision to delegate its responsibility in food distribution had been rejected by the IDPs but to no avail. See Sudan HRH Bulletin No. 3 dated 16 – 30 November 2013, page 9.
    It was also reported that residents of most of the IDP camps, especially the newly arriving IDPs, are lacking warm clothes, blankets and covers during the harsh winter weather. The lack of warm clothes and blankets coupled with the poor health service, lack of medicines and poor sanitation has led to the spread of preventable winter diseases such as coughs and diarrhoea, particularly among children and the elderly. The health and sanitary situation in El-Radoom area in South Darfur State is deteriorating rapidly. The area has been served by only one hospital with four medical assistants; without any doctors. The IDPs and other patients who require medical treatment are forced to seek such service in Buram or Nyala Localities. A single secondary school in the area hosts more than 500 students. Meanwhile, armed herdsmen are systematically destroying the farmlands and crops in El-Radoom Locality in the absence of any efforts for their protection by UNAMID.
    3. SecurityandHumanitarianSituationinSouthKordofan,WestKordofanandBlue Nile States
    The security and humanitarian situation in the conflict-affected areas in South and West Kordofan and the Blue Nile States is aggravating due to continued fighting between the government army and the SRF. Military operations and intensive aerial bombardment of civilian targets have been reported during the last two weeks in Kauda and its environs in South Kordofan State. A major battle was fought on 8 January 2014 in Dalami locality where a joint SPLM-N and SLM-AW combat force reportedly attacked and destroyed the army garrison and inflicted heavy casualties among the government troops and their allied militiamen. On the same day the SPLM- N reportedly shelled the army garrison in Umbrambitah with mortars. However, the largest ever military offensive since the start of the armed conflict in South Kordofan State in mid-2011 was reported on 4 and 5 January 2014. Fighting was reported on some 7 military fronts, including (Torogi, Al-Jaw, Angolo, Timbuira and AL Dabkya) along the routes that lead to the military headquarters of the SPLM-N in Kauda. It is believed that approximately 9,000 army soldiers and pro-government militiamen equipped with tanks and heavy artillery launchers were deployed in South Kordofan State during these operations. The number of casualties on both sides seems to be significant and senior officers and officials lost their lives.
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    The humanitarian situation across South and West Kordofan States is deteriorating in an alarming manner. Access to food and basic needs in urban areas of the two States such as Kadugli, Dilling etc. has significantly decreased for a growing number of people due to the exorbitant prices of basic food items and other consumer goods as well as the scarcity of basic needs, which severely affected food security and the overall humanitarian situation. The increase in the price of consumer goods and staple food in South and West Kordofan States is attributable to the high security risks and rising transportation costs due to the lifting of fuel subsidies, frequent inspections and administrative measures at security checkpoints in which different fees and taxes are regularly levied on traders and transport companies.
    Areas under the control of the SPLM-N, where more than one million civilians live, are the hardest hit by the lack of relief material in South and West Kordofan States. In addition, all the civilians that were recently displaced by fighting in the eastern and northern parts of South Kordofan State are not recognized as IDPs by the government and local groups, and as a result, these war victims were prevented from receiving any relief material. The IDPs in these areas are estimated at more than 30,000 and they originate from a number of villages such as Mashamshaka, Abu Karshola, AL-Farsha, Aradiba, Mafloh, Abu Rish Mountain, Abu Marih, Al-Morib, Tajilbo, Tari and Tarawa in Rashad and Al-Abassiya Tagali Localities.
    As a reminder, civilians displaced by military operations in areas under the control of the insurgent SRF have not received any relief assistance since the beginning of the fighting in the middle of 2011. All arrangements to allow humanitarian access to these areas have failed so far. In fact, the government of Sudan is still unwilling to allow humanitarian agencies access to a large number of civilians all over the war zones in South, West Kordofan and the Blue Nile States, including areas under its control as was agreed upon in the Tripartite Agreement between the African Union, United Nations and Arab League for the provision of humanitarian assistance to civilians in the Nuba Mountains and the Blue Nile State.
    In the Blue Nile State, the security and humanitarian situation continues to be of a serious concern. Low intensity, yet frequent, military operations, insecurity and fear of aerial bombardment are aggravating instability among the local population and forcing hundreds of civilians to flee their areas of origin and live as IDPs elsewhere in the State, while some others prefer to cross the international borders into Ethiopia and South Sudan for protection. Disorganized movement of civilians from and to Sudan in this area has also been observed. This phenomenon is growing due to the escalation of violence in the Republic of South Sudan and the direct threat to the refugees from Sudan in Unity and Upper Nile States. See Sudan HRH Bulletin No. 5, dated 16 to 31 December 2014, page 8. On the other hand, economic hardships and unaffordable hike in the price of consumer goods including staple food items are deeply affecting food security and the overall well-being of the populations both in urban and rural areas of the Blue Nile State.



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    Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin
    Issue No 7
    16 – 31 January 2014
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    The Sudan Human Rights and Humanitarian Bulletin (Sudan HRH Bulletin) is a fortnightly report on the human rights and humanitarian situation in Sudan issued by Darfur Relief and Documentation Centre (DRDC). Information in this Bulletin is compiled from different sources, including interviews with eye witnesses and victims of violations of human rights and international humanitarian law. Prime sources for some information in this Bulletin are Radio Dabanga http://www.radiodabanga.org and the weekly Humanitarian Bulletin on Sudan issued by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) http://unocha.org/sudan
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    27, Ch. des Creand#770;ts-de-Pregny, 1218 Grand-Saconnex, Geneva (Switzerland) Tel: +41 22 747 00 89 Fax: +41 22 747 00 38 E-mail: [email protected] Webpage http://www.darfurcentre.ch
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    General Observations
    The human rights and humanitarian situation in Sudan continued to deteriorate during the last two weeks of January 2014. Intensive aerial bombardment and other military operations were reported in Darfur, South and West Kordofan and the Blue Nile States. Both the government of Sudan and the allied insurgent groups of the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) seem to be banking on a military victory to the ongoing armed conflicts. On different occasions, senior government officials affirmed the government’s decision to pursue military operations until the insurgency is defeated. Forced displacement of civilians due to military operations is on steady increase yet there are no precise figures on internally displaced persons (IDPs) forced to leave their areas of origin as the security situation prevents agencies from accessing the affected areas. There are reports of crimes being committed by government-controlled militia groups (Janjaweed) in Al-Obeid, capital of North Kordofan State, which is outside the traditional armed conflict-affected zones. There also are reports about lack of access to food and other basic needs as well as an increase in the numbers of civilians in need of urgent relief material in different parts of Sudan, particularly in the armed conflict-affected regions.
    On 27 January 2014, the President of Sudan addressed the nation in a widely publicized speech. The statement, which is considered by the ruling National Congress Party (NCP) as a policy reform initiative, outlined the general policy guidelines that will shape government performance in the future. The sweeping statement promised policy reform which would have direct bearing on the enjoyment of fundamental rights and freedoms. It called for national reconciliation and dialogue between the NCP and all other political forces in the country and declared the government’s intention to embark on policy reform vis-aand#768;-vis issues of public concern such as: peace; political pluralism and freedoms; combating poverty and economic hardships; and promoting national identity. The statement, however, ambiguous, fell short of declaring a ceasefire in the conflict zones or ending the humanitarian crisis in the country and allowing UN agencies and relief organizations unhindered access to the needy populations. It also fell short of undertaking any commitment to end curtailment of civil and political liberties. The statement has failed to establish the necessary mechanisms to address issues of peace, political pluralism and national identity or to outline a clear timetable for a transitional period.
    Abuses of human rights and fundamental freedoms have been reported during the period under review. Apart from the violations of human rights and international humanitarian law committed in areas affected by armed conflict in the country, key features of the ongoing violations are frequent assaults on freedom of the press and the illegal arrest and detention of political opponents. Unknown numbers of political dissidents are detained without trial in different parts of Sudan often under the supervision of the National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS). Violations of fundamental rights and liberties in Sudan are committed by the government apparatus against the background that Sudan is a state party to the core body of regional and international human rights and humanitarian law, and as such, it is under legal obligation to respect the rights and liberties provided in these instruments.1
    1 Sudan is a State Party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the International Convention on the Rights of the Child. It is a state party to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Sudan is a contracting party to the Geneva Conventions on International Humanitarian Law. It is also a signatory to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), and, as such, it should refrain from any practice or act which defeats the object and purpose of the Rome Statute.
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    A. Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1. Violations of Civil and Political Rights
    Mr. Tajeldin Ahmed Arga Ali, a 26 year old Blogger from Darfur, has been held incommunicado by the NISS since 24 December 2013. He was arrested in Khartoum while attending a meeting addressed by President Omar Al-Bashir and his Chadian counterpart Idris Deby. The arrest took place inside the Friendship Hall where Mr. Arga confronted the two Presidents and publicly blamed them of being responsible for the killing and destruction occurring in Darfur. He also accused them of distorting the reality about the situation in the region. Since his arrest, Mr. Arga has not been seen in public. There are serious fears about Mr. Arga’s safety and security of person.
    On 24 January 2014, the security forces in El-Geneina arrested Mr. Tijani Yusif, President of West Darfur Chamber of Commerce and three other members of the Chamber (Mr. Ali Abdel Karim Shinuba, Mr. Abdel Aziz Yahya Bishara, and Mr. El Jeili Banga Fadlallah. The traders were arrested for opposing a decision of the authorities in West Darfur to increase taxes on the transportation of merchandise by commercial vehicles from the equivalent of US$525 to US$1,755, which represents an increase of more than 300%.
    On 16 January 2014, the security forces arrested eight IDP leaders in Forika IDP camps No. 1 and No. 2 in Gireida Locality, South Darfur State. These community leaders were arrested because they opposed orders issued by the local authorities requiring each household in Gireida Locality, including residents of the IDP camps, to pay taxes to finance the security forces in the area. The IDP leaders stated that the IDP camp residents are too destitute to afford the additional taxes required by the authorities. The leaders (Sheikhs) that were arrested are: 1. Mr. Ibrahim Eisa Abakar, 2. Mr. Hussein Mohamed Abdel Rasool, 3. Mr. Abu Bakr Haroun Mohamed, 4. Mr. Saleh Musa Hasab Allah, 5. Mr. Abdelkarim Hassan Abakar, 6. Mr. Ahmed Ishag Mohamed, 7. Mr. Ahmed Adam Mohamed, and 8. Mr. Abubakr Mohamed Fadul.
    Dr. Siddiq Nurein, a lecturer at the University of West Kordofan in En-Nahud and the supervisor of Darfur Students Association at the University, was arrested by security agents on 16 January 2014. He had been arrested for his efforts to mediate between the University administration and students from Darfur concerning the demands of the students’ for exemption from tuition fees and their complaints about the lack of security in the University campus.
    Students originating from Darfur and currently studying at universities and higher education institutions in Sudan are frequently subjected to different forms of violations of their human rights. These include killings and violence, torture, ill-treatment as well as intimidation and harassment on a regular basis. They are selectively targeted by the security forces and pro-government students in a way that severely affects their ability to continue their studies. On 21 January 2014, a group of students at the University of Zalingei in Central Darfur State went out on the streets distributing leaflets in protest against taxes imposed by the local authorities on traders and shop owners in West and Central Darfur States to finance the security operations. It was reported that the security forces used excessive force to break up the protest. On 19 January 2014,
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    about 450 students originating from Darfur who were enrolled at the University of West Kordofan in En-Nahud, boycotted their final exams because of the insecurity they face in the University campus. A series of such difficulties were reported recently and a few examples to illustrate this situation are that: on 26 December 2013, scores of students from Darfur at the University of West Kordofan and a professor were injured as result of security forces invasion of the campus using tear gas and live ammunition. On 30 September 2013, the University of Peace, Babanusa, West Kordofan State, reportedly suspended 30 students originating from Darfur and issued warnings to 14 others that they will be dismissed from the University. The students were studying at the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences and they were suspended for a period ranging from one to two years. The students were suspended because of their protest in September 2013 against the University’s decision not to exempt them from tuition fees. As a reminder, exemption of students from Darfur from tuition fees has been agreed upon with the central government and other authorities and specifically provided for in successive peace accords on Darfur.
    2. Freedom of Expression and the Press
    The crackdown on newspapers by confiscating daily issues before distribution as well as dismissal, harassment and intimidation of journalists, writers and publishers as a means to curtail freedom of expression continues in Sudan. On 26 January 2014, the NISS indefinitely suspended El-Jareeda newspaper for publishing court proceedings and documents implicating involvement of the current Finance Minister in a corruption case. Other newspapers are that have been shut-down indefinitely by orders of the NISS in the last few years include El-Taghyeer, El-Majahar Al-Siasi, Ray El-Shaab, Altiyar, Ajras Al-Hurriya, Khartoum Monitor. The weekly newspaper issued by the Sudanese Communist Party, El-Midan, has been suspended indefinitely since May 2012. The collective dismissal of journalists was reported in Khartoum last week when Al-Watan daily dismissed 25 journalists and writers with immediate effect. Pressure from the NISS on the publisher of this newspaper is believed to be behind this drastic measure, which comes into effect without regard to the economic and social situation of the dismissed journalists and writers. On 19 January 2014, the NISS summoned Mr. Kamal A-Ghazoli, Secretary General of the Sudanese Writers Union and interrogated him about a commemoration ceremony hosted at the Union’s premises a day earlier.
    3. HarassmentandSexualViolenceagainstWomen
    Incidents of rape and sexual violence against women and girls were reported in Darfur during the last two weeks of January 2014. The exact number of women and girls victims of this abhorrent crime is not known. This is due to the fact that many victims do not report such crimes while others do not see the need to report them to the authorities as the security forces and pro-government militiamen are the main culprits. It had been reported that on 27 January 2014, armed pro-government militiamen gang- raped a 12 year-old girl in Gharra Furujiya village, about 10km west of Kabkabiya, North Darfur State. It seems that the militiamen randomly stormed the home of the victim during night time. They tied up all family members and abducted the girl. The physically and psychologically traumatised girl has not received any medical attention other than first aid from the poorly equipped health centre of her village.
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    B. Security and Humanitarian Situation in Darfur
    and#65532;The security and humanitarian situation in Darfur is so acute and urgent that it requires immediate intervention. Military operations, especially aerial bombardment of civilian targets in Jebel Marra massive and in some areas in South Darfur State are intensifying. Criminal activities and atrocities committed by armed militiamen against civilians, particularly the IDPs, are rampant and have far reaching consequences on the safety and well-being of the affected populations. Frequent violent clashes between members of the different regular military and security formations and the government-controlled para-military and militia groups are adding a new dimension to the ongoing situation of chaos in Darfur. In what appears to be an effort to dismantle the IDP camps in Darfur, the authorities in North Darfur State informed leaders of Abu Shouk and El-Salam IDP camps to confirm, within a period of 60 days, acceptance of the camp residents of a new housing plan. This “resettlement project” means that the two camps, located near El-Fasher will be reorganized to become residential districts of the city. Local sources indicated that the IDPs strongly rejected the project and considered it an attempt to eliminate the internal displacement issue in the State.
    The number of civilians in need for urgent humanitarian assistance across Darfur is growing in a disturbing manner. Without immediate intervention on different fronts, the situation in Darfur could degenerate into a major humanitarian crisis of large proportions. The situation among the IDPs and the local communities is aggravating due to the failed harvest season, systematic and large-scale destruction of farmlands and agricultural produce by armed nomads and the unaffordable hike in the price of staple food items. It is also attributable to the decreasing number of relief organizations in Darfur and the significant reduction of food rations distributed by UN agencies to IDPs. In addition, there has been an increase in criminal activities, attacks against humanitarian organizations and aid workers as well as the general insecurity that impedes the movement of relief convoys and workers.
    The government of Sudan continues to pursue its aggressive policy towards independent international humanitarian organizations. In late January 2014, the government informed the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to suspend all its activities in Sudan as of 1 February 2014. In a precedent in the history of Sudan, the ICRC received an official letter from the Sudanese Humanitarian Affairs Commission (HAC) to this effect. This decision apparently due to differences between the government and the ICRC on the latter’s activities in support of the victims of armed conflicts and violence in the country. The ICRC, which is a humanitarian and neutral organization by excellence, is a major relief group working in Sudan with over 700 staff members in the country, including an important number of local staff. In 2013, the ICRC alone provided life-saving relief material and other humanitarian support, including the provision of agricultural production tools, seeds and other income generating equipment to over 1.5 million people in Sudan, mainly in areas affected by armed conflicts and violence. Furthermore, the ICRC pursued its traditional functions in assisting and repatriating civilians and prisoners of war, including members of Sudan’s army held by the armed insurgents, especially in Darfur.
    1. MilitaryOperationsandViolencebySecurityForcesandMilitiamen
    On 30 January 2014, a Sudanese Air Force fighter jet attacked Tabaldiya Dolma and Geinak in east Jebel Marra. No casualties were reported among the civilian population
    and#65532;and#65532;5
    as a result of this aerial bombardment. It was reported that one of the three bombs dropped on Geinak did not explode.
    On 30 January 2014, members of the Borders Guard or Janjaweed killed two policemen and injured seven others during violent clashes that took place in El-Fasher, capital of North Darfur State. The two policemen Mr. Ayman Moussa and Mr. Ahmed Ibrahim were killed while they were investigating a criminal case in which members of the Borders Guard were identified as the culprits.
    On 29 January 2014, Mr. Adam Abakar, a resident of Nag’a village, west of Um Dukhun, Central Darfur State was killed inside his home. He died as a result of a stray bullet when members of the Central Reserve Police (Abu Tira) that are stationed in the area started shooting their machine guns into the air for no apparent reason. The random shooting which continued for many hours terrified the population particularly women and children.
    Two children (Hawa Adam Nur, 12 years old and Babakar Ibrahim Eisa, 15 years old) were killed on 28 January 2014 in a bomb explosion on the Konjara-Kushena road in east Jebel Marra. Four sheep also perished in this explosion. The Sudanese Air Force bombarded this area about two days before the explosion. The local source also reported that eight days before the explosion, a military convoy, on its way from Khazan Tunjur to El-Fasher, had set up its temporary military base on the plot of land where the explosion took place.
    On 26 January 2014, heavy aerial bombardment was reported in Dirbat, Jawa and Souny, west of Jebel Marra, and in Fanga area, east of Jebel Marra. Water wells in Souny were destroyed and a number of livestock killed. The intensive bombardments killed a number of cattle in the area of Fanga and set fire to vast tracts of farmland and pasture areas.
    On 25 January 2014, three unarmed villagers (Mr. Sadig Adam Mohamadein, Imam of the village mosque, Mr. Mohamed Abdel Rahman Disa, and Mr. Yagoub Mohamed Abdel Rahman) were seriously injured in Um Kurfa, south of Gireida, South Darfur State, when armed militiamen raided the village. Local sources reported that gunmen wearing military uniforms attacked the villagers and beat them with rifle butts and batons, injuring many of them. All the property of the villagers including money, clothes, food, and livestock were stolen. The injured people were transferred to Gireida hospital for treatment.
    On 25 January 2014, two minor boys (Esam Abu Bakr and Mohamed Ismail Mohamed both 14 years old) were killed when pro-government militiamen attacked a group of four children while they were collecting straw in Rijil Shanga in Gireida Locality. Two other minors went missing after the attack and there were fears that the children were abducted by the militiamen for forced labour. The group of youngsters live in Um Zukhrat IDP camp.
    On 24 January 2014, six Rizeigat tribesmen were killed and at least two Ma’alia tribesmen were wounded in Khamsat area, Adila Locality, East Darfur State. This violent clash was provoked by the theft of livestock in the area. Similar violent clashes
    6
    and revenge in the area cannot be ruled out due to the large concentrations of armed men from the two tribes in the nearby Abu Jabra and El-Jalabi in Adila and Bakhit in Abu Karinka Locality.
    The Sudan Liberation Movement-Minni Minawi (SLM-MM), under the banner of SRF, announced that its forces entered Gireida Locality on 21 January 2014. They attacked and destroyed the police station and offices of the security forces as well as the makeshift bases run by militiamen and the Central Reserve Police (Abu Tira). The SLM-MM declared that complaints from villagers and IDPs living around Gireida about the on-going assaults against them by government forces and militiamen were the reasons for their attack.
    On 20 January 2014, two militiamen wearing military uniforms killed Mr. El-Tayeb Abdallah Mohamed, a 28 year-old IDP from Kass town in South Darfur State during an armed robbery. The militiamen ordered the deceased IDP to hand over his mobile phone and when he refused they shot him dead. A rescue team composed of IDPs and the local authorities arrested the alleged killers at Kur Gara village, east of Singita area, to the south of Kass.
    On 20 January 2014, aerial bombardment by the Sudanese army killed Mr. Abdel Majid Haroun Adam, a 17-year-old herdsman and a large number of cattle in Hafir Kutur (Water Well) near Tabit area, North Darfur State. Six other villagers barely escaped death during this attack. On that day, local sources in the area reported that an Antonov fighter jet dropped about 15 barrel bombs on Dubo El Omda area, Mashrou Abu Zeid, and Hafir Kutur. Some 75 sheep and goats, 30 camels, and 15 cows also perished in the aerial bombardment of Hafir Kutur. Later in the night, the government troops stationed in Tabit launched mortars shelling at about 2km north of Tabit, killing and wounding about 26 sheep.
    In two separate incidents on 18 January 2014, armed militiamen reportedly attacked a group of 50 women that had been on their way back to Tabra village from the market in Tawila. The militiamen confiscated the equivalent of US$3,472 from the women in addition to goods such as sugar, oil, soap, meat, and sorghum flour. The men also took several donkeys and about 40 sheep. During the second attack, militiamen stormed Tina village, 5km west of Tawila town and confiscated the equivalent of US$87 from Mr. Mohamedein Mohamed Mustafa. They also abused, beat and robbed Mr. El-Tayeb Abdel Rahman El-Mahmoud of all his cash and belongings. Mr. El-Mahmoud’s hand was broken during this aggression.
    On 16 January 2014, army troops stationed in Jebel Kishlingo beat and looted Mr. Mohamedein Hamid Hassan, a shop owner in El-Salam IDP camp near Nyala. The government troops destroyed the cigarette store owned by Mr. Hassan and confiscated the equivalent of US$82, his mobile phone and two packets of cigarettes.
    2. Humanitarian Needs in Darfur
    The humanitarian situation in many parts of Darfur is worsening and early signals of famine are being reported. On 29 January 2014, the Minister of Agriculture and Forestry in North Darfur State revealed before the State’s Legislative Assembly that in
    7
    2014, North Darfur State will be facing a food gap of 142,672 metric tons or more than half of the State’s annual food needs.
    The IDPs and other war-affected vulnerable groups in Darfur are facing the dilemma of their diminishing ability to secure life-saving basics such as staple food, medicine, clean water and shelter and the decreasing number of humanitarian groups that provide relief material. On 18 January 2014, all the humanitarian organisations working in El-Salam IDP camp, south of Nyala suspended their activities because of rampant insecurity. Because of this suspension, there is acute shortage of food, drinking water, health care and medicines as all the health centres in the camp have been closed down. The food rations for January 2014, which were dispatched by the World Food Programme (WFP) and reached the camp on 3 January 2014, have not been distributed to the camp residents on time due to the security situation.
    In Muhajeriya town and Abu Dangal village in Sheiria Locality, East Darfur State, about 16,500 civilians displaced since March/April 2013, are in need of urgent assistance. This IDP group includes 7,000 people in Muhajeriya and 9,500 in Abu Dangal village. They share the meagre provisions with the local people such as food as well as health, sanitation and education services. The hospital in Muhajeriya is unable to meet the needs of the local communities because of a shortage of health personnel, essential drugs and appropriate medical facilities. Where education is concerned, some 830 children in Muhajeria cannot attend school due to inadequate facilities.
    The health and sanitary situation in the IDP camps across Darfur is worsening due to a lack of adequate hospitals and health centres coupled with a decrease in the number of humanitarian organizations working in these fields. Residents of 27 villages in Abata area, Zalingei Locality in Central Darfur State complain of a lack of health and educational services. The number of people in this area is estimated at about 30,000. They are served by only one health centre, staffed by a nurse and two midwives. The ICRC used to provide medicines to this area every three months but this assistance is now suspended. Local sources indicated that in recent months many pregnant women, infants, children and elderly have died because of a lack of medical care. There is one school with ten teachers that serve the school-age children in the area.
    The doctors in Nyala Teaching Hospital went on a strike on 26 January 2014, calling for protection inside the hospital from paramilitary and militiamen abuses and an improved working environment, indicating that they cannot continue working in this entirely overcrowded hospital.
    In Kalma IDP camp, there are reports about shortage of potable water. The newly arriving IDPs that were settled in blocks 1, 5, and 8 of the camp are suffering the most and have been left without choice but to use unsafe water for more than a month. The local organizations in charge of water distribution in Kalma camp claimed that the newly arriving IDPs arrived late in the year and as such, there is no budget allocated for them. There is a need for three wells and four water pumps to meet the need of the newly arriving IDPs in Kalma camp. In addition, about 6,000 IDPs in Kalma camp have not received food rations since September 2013. Although these people were registered by the International Organization for Migration, they were not covered under the World Food Programme (WFD) food distribution programme.
    8
    3. SecurityandHumanitarianSituationinSouthKordofan,WestKordofanandBlue Nile States
    The security and humanitarian situation in the conflict-affected areas in South and West Kordofan and the Blue Nile States is aggravating due to continued fighting between the government army and the SRF. Military operations, including aerial bombardment of civilian targets, have been reported during the last two weeks of January 2014. Local sources indicated that government military aeroplanes fly at both high and low altitude over Kadugli, capital of South Kordofan State, Dilling and other urban areas on a daily basis which terrifies civilians, especially women and children and disturbs their lives. Aerial bombardment of Kauda, which is the Headquarters of the SPLM-N and its surrounding villages, has also been reported almost on a daily basis during the last two weeks of January 2014. Some sources estimate that: “... the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) conducted at least 1450 indiscriminate air strikes during November, December 2013 and January 2014.”
    Military operations and aerial bombardment in the western and northern parts of South Kordofan State in late December 2013 and early January 2014 has forced more than 30,000 civilians to flee their villages, particularly in Al-Abassia Tagali, Abukarshoula and Rashad Localities. The civilian victims of attacks in these areas lost lives and all their belongings, including food, shelter and livestock. Water sources, farmlands and fruit plantations were totally or partially destroyed in large tracts of land. These war victims have lost all sources of subsistence and currently live as unrecognized IDPs without any kind of assistance. The authorities continued to deny international relief agencies and organizations access to these areas, meanwhile, it prevents the local self-help groups from extending any kind of relief material and support to them. It was also reported that the SPLM-N continued its military attacks, mainly by mortar shelling, against military and security targets in the environs of Kadugli and Dilling during the period under review.
    In the Blue Nile State military operations, insecurity and fear of aerial bombardment are destabilizing the local population and forcing hundreds of civilians to seek protection elsewhere in the region or to cross international borders into Ethiopia and South Sudan. On 27 January 2014, a girl (Turki John Adam, 11 years old) was killed and her mother (Ms. Momta Yama Bolo) wounded when an Antonov military jet bombarded Gendolo village in Khor Yabus area. Eyewitnesses reported that a total of four bombs were dropped in the area which created a state of panic among the locals and many civilians were forced to flee their homes to the nearby forests for protection. On 17 January 2014, the SPLM-N claimed that it had killed 74 Sudanese army troops and militiamen in Malkan area in Kurmuk Locality. The SPLM-N also claimed that it has destroyed one tank, a large number of military vehicles and seized two tanks and 17 vehicles, among them nine Land Cruisers mounted with Dushka machine guns, a tanker loaded with water, along with various military devices, and three rocket launchers. However, the situation in Malkan is still tense and both the army and the SPLM-N continue to claim that they are in control of the area or fighting to regain control of it.
                  

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